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1.
ACS Sens ; 5(4): 1239-1245, 2020 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237719

RESUMO

We report herein a Blu-ray disc technology enabled immunoassay (namely, assay-on-a-Blu-ray) protocol for the quantitation of food toxins. In particular, commercial Blu-ray discs (BDs) are activated as substrates to create indirect competitive immunoassays with the aid of microfluidic channel plates for the quantitation of aflatoxins; an unmodified Blu-ray drive is employed to read the digitized signal (error counts generated from gold/silver-particle-enhanced binding sites); and a free disc-quality control software is adapted to process the raw data. The performance of this BD-based digital detection platform has been tested for the quantitation of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in spiked corn samples and validated with standard high-performance liquid chromatography measurements. The detection limit attained is as low as 0.27 ppb with a dynamic response range up to 200 ppb, which meets the standards established by government agencies worldwide for food products. We truly believe that the application potential of such a BD-technology-based, portable device for multiplex on-site quantitative analysis of food products as well as environmental and biomedical samples in real time is unlimited.

2.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219356

RESUMO

Importance: Increasing numbers of confirmed cases and mortality rates of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are occurring in several countries and continents. Information regarding the impact of cardiovascular complication on fatal outcome is scarce. Objective: To evaluate the association of underlying cardiovascular disease (CVD) and myocardial injury with fatal outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective single-center case series analyzed patients with COVID-19 at the Seventh Hospital of Wuhan City, China, from January 23, 2020, to February 23, 2020. Analysis began February 25, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Demographic data, laboratory findings, comorbidities, and treatments were collected and analyzed in patients with and without elevation of troponin T (TnT) levels. Result: Among 187 patients with confirmed COVID-19, 144 patients (77%) were discharged and 43 patients (23%) died. The mean (SD) age was 58.50 (14.66) years. Overall, 66 (35.3%) had underlying CVD including hypertension, coronary heart disease, and cardiomyopathy, and 52 (27.8%) exhibited myocardial injury as indicated by elevated TnT levels. The mortality during hospitalization was 7.62% (8 of 105) for patients without underlying CVD and normal TnT levels, 13.33% (4 of 30) for those with underlying CVD and normal TnT levels, 37.50% (6 of 16) for those without underlying CVD but elevated TnT levels, and 69.44% (25 of 36) for those with underlying CVD and elevated TnTs. Patients with underlying CVD were more likely to exhibit elevation of TnT levels compared with the patients without CVD (36 [54.5%] vs 16 [13.2%]). Plasma TnT levels demonstrated a high and significantly positive linear correlation with plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels (ß = 0.530, P < .001) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels (ß = 0.613, P < .001). Plasma TnT and NT-proBNP levels during hospitalization (median [interquartile range (IQR)], 0.307 [0.094-0.600]; 1902.00 [728.35-8100.00]) and impending death (median [IQR], 0.141 [0.058-0.860]; 5375 [1179.50-25695.25]) increased significantly compared with admission values (median [IQR], 0.0355 [0.015-0.102]; 796.90 [401.93-1742.25]) in patients who died (P = .001; P < .001), while no significant dynamic changes of TnT (median [IQR], 0.010 [0.007-0.019]; 0.013 [0.007-0.022]; 0.011 [0.007-0.016]) and NT-proBNP (median [IQR], 352.20 [174.70-636.70]; 433.80 [155.80-1272.60]; 145.40 [63.4-526.50]) was observed in survivors (P = .96; P = .16). During hospitalization, patients with elevated TnT levels had more frequent malignant arrhythmias, and the use of glucocorticoid therapy (37 [71.2%] vs 69 [51.1%]) and mechanical ventilation (41 [59.6%] vs 14 [10.4%]) were higher compared with patients with normal TnT levels. The mortality rates of patients with and without use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers was 36.8% (7 of 19) and 25.6% (43 of 168). Conclusions and Relevance: Myocardial injury is significantly associated with fatal outcome of COVID-19, while the prognosis of patients with underlying CVD but without myocardial injury is relatively favorable. Myocardial injury is associated with cardiac dysfunction and arrhythmias. Inflammation may be a potential mechanism for myocardial injury. Aggressive treatment may be considered for patients at high risk of myocardial injury.

3.
Environ Int ; 137: 105479, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070803

RESUMO

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) present a global public health problem. Microorganisms are the main cause of hospital-acquired infections, and the biological contamination of hospital environments can cause the outbreak of a series of infectious diseases. Therefore, it is very important to understand the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in hospital environments. This study examines the concentrations of aerobic bacteria and E. coli in ward environments and the airborne transmission of bacterial drug resistance. The results show that the three wards examined have an average aerobic bacterial concentration of 132 CFU∙m-3 and an average inhalable aerobic bacterial concentration of 73 CFU∙m-3, with no significant difference (P > 0.05) among the three wards. All isolated E. coli showed multi-drug resistance to not only third-generation cephalosporin antibiotics, but also quinolones, aminoglycosides, and sulfonamides. Furthermore, 51 airborne E. coli strains isolated from the air in the three wards and the corridor were screened for ESBLs, and 12 (23.53%) were ESBL-positive. The drug-resistance gene of the 12 ESBL-positive strains was mainly TEM gene, and the detection rate was 66.67% (8/12). According to a homology analysis with PFGE, 100% homologous E. coli from the ward at 5 m and 10 m outside the ward in the corridor shared the same drug-resistance spectrum, which further proves that airborne E. coli carrying a drug-resistance gene spreads out of the ward through gas exchange. This leads to biological pollution inside, outside, and around the ward, which poses a direct threat to the health of patients, healthcare workers, and surrounding residents. It is also the main reason for the antibiotic resistance in the hospital environment. More attention should be paid to comprehensive hygiene management in the surrounding environment of hospitals.

4.
Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 74(3): 183-190, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747095

RESUMO

AIM: Acupuncture has benefits in the rehabilitation of neuropsychiatric sequelae of stroke. This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of dense cranial electroacupuncture stimulation plus body acupuncture (DCEAS+BA) in treating poststroke depression (PSD), functional disability, and cognitive deterioration. METHODS: In this assessor- and participant-blinded, randomized controlled trial, 91 stroke patients who initially had PSD were randomly assigned to either DCEAS+BA (n = 45) or minimum acupuncture stimulation as controls (n = 46) for three sessions per week over 8 consecutive weeks. The primary outcome was baseline-to-end-point change in score of the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Secondary outcomes included the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale for depressive symptoms, the Barthel Index for functional disability, and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment for cognitive function. RESULTS: DCEAS+BA-treated patients showed strikingly greater end-point reduction than MAS-treated patients in scores of the three symptom domains. The clinical response rate, defined as an at least 50% baseline-to-end-point reduction in 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score, was markedly higher in the DCEAS+BA-treated group than that of controls (40.0% vs 17.4%, P = 0.031). Incidence of adverse events was not different in the two groups. Subgroup analysis revealed that DCEAS+BA with electrical stimulation on forehead acupoints was more apparent in reducing Barthel-Index-measured disability than that without electrical stimulation. CONCLUSION: DCEAS+BA, particularly with electrical stimulation on forehead acupoints, reduces PSD, functional disability, and cognitive deterioration of stroke patients. It can serve as an effective rehabilitation therapy for neuropsychiatric sequelae of stroke.

5.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(11): 4314-4319, 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876353

RESUMO

Non-Newtonian fluids are ubiquitous in daily life and industrial applications. Herein, we report an intelligent fluidic system integrating two distinct non-Newtonian rheological properties mediated by an autocatalytic enzyme reaction. Associative polyelectrolytes bearing a small amount of ionic and alkyl groups are engineered: by carefully balancing the charge density and the hydrophobic effect, the polymer solutions demonstrate a unique shear thickening property at low pH while shear thinning at high pH. The urea-urease clock reaction is utilized to program a feedback-induced pH change, leading to a strong upturn of the nonlinear viscoelastic properties. As long as the chemical fuel is supplied, two distinct non-Newtonian states can be achieved with a tunable lifetime span. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate how the physical energy-driven nonequilibrium properties can be manipulated by a chemical-fueled process.

6.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 26(1): 590-600, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443001

RESUMO

Traditional radio monitoring and management largely depend on radio spectrum data analysis, which requires considerable domain experience and heavy cognition effort and frequently results in incorrect signal judgment and incomprehensive situation awareness. Faced with increasingly complicated electromagnetic environments, radio supervisors urgently need additional data sources and advanced analytical technologies to enhance their situation awareness ability. This paper introduces a visual analytics approach for electromagnetic situation awareness. Guided by a detailed scenario and requirement analysis, we first propose a signal clustering method to process radio signal data and a situation assessment model to obtain qualitative and quantitative descriptions of the electromagnetic situations. We then design a two-module interface with a set of visualization views and interactions to help radio supervisors perceive and understand the electromagnetic situations by a joint analysis of radio signal data and radio spectrum data. Evaluations on real-world data sets and an interview with actual users demonstrate the effectiveness of our prototype system. Finally, we discuss the limitations of the proposed approach and provide future work directions.

7.
Sci Prog ; : 36850419875662, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829861

RESUMO

To improve the dynamic response performance of a high-flow electro-hydraulic servo system, scholars have conducted considerable research on the synchronous and time-sharing controls of multiple valves. However, most scholars have used offline optimization to improve control performance. Thus, control performance cannot be dynamically adjusted or optimized. To repeatedly optimize the performance of multiple valves online, this study proposes a method for connecting a high-flow proportional valve in parallel with a low-flow servo valve. Moreover, this study proposes an algorithm in which a proportional-integral-derivative system and multivariable predictive control system are used as an inner loop and outer loop, respectively. The simulation and experimental results revealed that dual-valve parallel control could effectively improve the control accuracy and dynamic response performance of an electro-hydraulic servo system and that the proportional-integral-derivative-multivariable predictive control controller could further dynamically improve the control accuracy.

8.
Opt Express ; 27(20): 28364-28382, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684589

RESUMO

With single-point diamond turning (SPDT), a series of samples are processed under different cutting parameters. The brittle-ductile transition depth of ZnSe crystal is obtained, and the damages of the samples are measured from surface and subsurface damage depths as well as damage density. The effects of cutting parameters on the damages are investigated quantitatively. The results show the cutting depth has a minor while the feed has a major effects on the damages. Also, the interaction effect between feed and cutting depth is very small for surface damage depth or damage density, while it is large for subsurface damage depth. Based on the indentation mechanics and the kinetic characteristics of SPDT, a model is proposed to evaluate the surface and subsurface damage depths of ZnSe crystal by cutting parameters. The model has an average relative error less than 15.0%, which could be further used to obtain the depth and the removal characteristics of cracks in shoulder region.

9.
Am J Transl Res ; 11(9): 5487-5500, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31632524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pomegranate ellagic polyphenols (PEP) has been used as a good medicine in many cultures throughout history. However, the mechanism of PEP regulated insulin resistance on gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) rats is unclear. The main purpose of the present study was to explore the efficacy and mechanisms of PEP regulated in GDM rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Then, ELISA assay indicated that the levels of serum RBP4, Hcy, GA and FFA were lower in PEP groups than GDM groups in a dose-dependent manner. TUNEL staining showed that PEP improved the pathological changes and inhibited the cell apoptosis in the pancreatic and placenta tissues, respectively. RESULTS: We found that PEP improved the weight of pregnant rats and fetal rats and the level of blood glucose, blood biochemical index, insulin resistance in GDM rats. Results from H&E and immunohistochemical analysis found that PEP decreased the expressions of APN and Chemerin. Further, PEP decreased the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP), and increased the levels of 11ß-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11ß-HSD2) and PPARα-TRB3-AKT2-p-FOXO1-GLUT2 signal related to insulin sensitivity in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we have demonstrated that PEP may be a candidate drug for the treatment of GDM and guide the clinical therapy.

10.
Anaerobe ; : 102102, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536821

RESUMO

Clostridium perfringens is an important zoonotic microorganism, which can cause diseases in animal and human under certain conditions. Contamination of C. perfringens in chicken and pork meat has been reported worldwide, but it is rarely reported in duck products. The current study was undertaken to investigate C. perfringens contamination in duck products from a large retail market in Tai'an region, China and the serotype distribution, antimicrobial resistance and genetic relatedness of the isolates. In total, 173 samples of duck products, 10 samples of environmental origins and 7 samples of fresh faeces from healthy shopkeepers were collected between March and November 2018, of which, 58 (31.69%), 10 (100%) and 7 (100%) samples were determined to be positive for C. perfringens, respectively. Ninety-nine isolates of C. perfringens were recovered, all of which were identified as type A. Beta2 (cpb2) toxin gene was found in 54.30% and 33.30% of the isolates from duck products and healthy shopkeepers, respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that 90.10% of the isolates from duck products and environment showed multiple antibiotic resistance, among which, 49.40% were resistant to at least 6 classes of commonly used antibiotics. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) showed that 58 representative isolates were divided into 41 sequences types (STs), among which, ST11 (8.60%) was the most common; 37.90% of all isolates were classified into four clonal complexes (CC1-CC4). The most prolific clonal complex (CC1), accounting for 24.13% of all isolates, contained isolates mainly from carcass, animal intestinal contents and environment of four retail stores. A portion of human isolates and duck isolates was distributed in the same CC or ST. In conclusion, C. perfringens contamination in some duck products in Tai'an retail market was relatively high, and most of the isolates exhibited broad-spectrum antimicrobial resistance. Although all the isolates belong to type A, considerable genetic diversity was observed, and a portion of the strains from human and duck was found to be phylogenetically close. The results indicated that antimicrobial-resistance strains of duck origin pose a potential threat to humans by spreading through the food chain.

11.
Molecules ; 24(19)2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554336

RESUMO

Although farrerol, a characteristically bioactive constituent of Rhododendron dauricum L., exhibits extensive biological and pharmacological activities (e.g., anti-oxidant, anti-immunogenic, and anti-angiogenic) as well as a high drug development potential, its metabolism remains underexplored. Herein, we employed ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry coupled with multiple data post-processing techniques to rapidly identify farrerol metabolites produced in vivo (in rat blood, bile, urine and feces) and in vitro (in rat liver microsomes). As a result, 42 in vivo metabolites and 15 in vitro metabolites were detected, and farrerol shown to mainly undergo oxidation, reduction, (de)methylation, glucose conjugation, glucuronide conjugation, sulfate conjugation, N-acetylation and N-acetylcysteine conjugation. Thus, this work elaborates the metabolic pathways of farrerol and reveals the potential pharmacodynamics forms of farrerol.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromonas/química , Cromonas/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Desentoxicação Metabólica Fase I , Desintoxicação Metabólica Fase II , Estrutura Molecular , Oxirredução
12.
Am J Transl Res ; 11(7): 4358-4366, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396341

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common degenerative disease of the cartilage and is characterized by inflammation of the synovial membrane and subchondral osteosclerosis. ß1,4-galactosyltransferase-I (ß1,4-GalT-I) is a crucial regulator of inflammation based on its role in the stimulation and sustenance of inflammation in OA. In the present study, we aimed at elucidating the expression pattern and potential biological activity of ß1,4-GalT-I in chondrocytes isolated from OA patients. Chondrocytes were isolated from the cartilage and cultured. Western blotting and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were used to analyze ß1,4-GalT-I expression. Isolated chondrocytes were stimulated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Our results indicate significantly enhanced expression of ß1,4-GalT-I in cultivated chondrocytes upon stimulation with TNF. ß1,4-GalT-I inhibited the inflammation and cell death triggered by TNF. In addition, ß1,4-GalT-Iinhibited the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and phosphorylation of p65 and IKK. In conclusion, our findings suggest the protective effect of ß1,4-GalT-I in chondrocytes against OA induced by TNF based on its ability to block the TLR4 signaling pathway. Our results also indicate significant contribution of ß1,4-GalT-I towards the anti-inflammation in the cartilage of patients suffering from OA.

13.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol ; 114: 105564, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276786

RESUMO

Exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to participate in myocardial repair after myocardial infarction (MI), but the mechanism remains unclear. Here, we isolated exosomes from adipose-derived MSCs (ADSCs) and examined their effect on MI-induced cardiac damage. To examine the underlying mechanism, H9c2 cells, cardiac fibroblasts, and HAPI cells were used to study the effect of ADSC-exosomes on hypoxia-induced H9c2 apoptosis, TGF-ß1-induced fibrosis of cardiac fibroblasts, and hypoxia-induced macrophage M1 polarization using qRT-PCR, western blot, ELISA, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. ADSC-exosome treatment mitigated MI-induced cardiac damage by suppressing cardiac dysfunction, cardiac apoptosis, cardiac fibrosis, and inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo. In addition, ADSC-exosome treatment promoted macrophage M2 polarization. Further experiments found that S1P/SK1/S1PR1 signaling was involved in the ADSC-exosome-mediated myocardial repair. Silencing of S1PR1 reversed the inhibitory effect of ADSC-exosomes on MI-induced cardiac apoptosis and fibrosis in vitro. ADSC-exosome-induced macrophage M2 polarization was also reversed after downregulation of S1PR1 under hypoxia conditions, which promoted NFκB and TGF-ß1 expression, and suppressed the MI-induced cardiac fibrosis and inflammatory response. In sum, these results indicate that ADSC-derived exosomes ameliorate cardiac damage after MI by activating S1P/SK1/S1PR1 signaling and promoting macrophage M2 polarization.

14.
BMC Med Genet ; 20(1): 130, 2019 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a group of rare genetically heterogeneous disorders. The present study aimed to identify the genetic cause of a Chinese Han family with non-syndromic oculocutaneous albinism (OCA). CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we report an 11-month-old male proband from a Chinese Han non-consanguineous family, who presented with milky skin, yellow white hair, nystagmus, astigmatism, and hypermetropia. We performed the targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) on the proband and identified two novel compound heterozygous variants (c.1865 T > C (p.Leu622Pro) and exons 17-21 deletion) in OCA2 gene associated with OCA type 2 (OCA2, OMIM 203200). Meanwhile, a previously reported heterozygous mutation (c.4805G > A) in MYO7 gene related with Usher syndrome type 1B was found. The online tools SIFT, PolyPhen-2, and Mutation Taster predicted variant c.1865 T > C was probably damaging. The residue p.Leu622 was in a highly conserved region among species by CLUSTALW. Three-dimensional homology model with I-TASSER indicated that p.Leu622Pro variant disturbed the formation of the α-helix, resulting in a random coil structure. The gross deletion (exons 17-21) in OCA2 gene has was not been reported previously. These two novel variants in OCA2 gene were inherited from each parent respectively, after verification by Sanger sequencing and quantitative PCR (qPCR) in the family. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates the two novel compound heterozygous mutations in OCA2 gene may be responsible for clinical manifestations of OCA2. It expands the mutation spectrum of OCA2 gene and is helpful to screen for large deletions with targeted NGS protocol in monogenic disease. It also assists the genetic counselling, carrier screening and personalized healthcare of the disease.


Assuntos
Albinismo Oculocutâneo/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Mutação , Albinismo Oculocutâneo/fisiopatologia , Éxons , Aconselhamento Genético , Heterozigoto , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Miosinas/genética , Conformação Proteica , Análise de Sequência de Proteína , Deleção de Sequência
15.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 90(6): 065001, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255029

RESUMO

A potentiometric sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas sensor based on the Li3PO4-Li2SiO3 solid electrolyte thin film was developed. The sensor was based on a galvanic cell O2, SO2, Au, Li2SO4-V2O5|Li3PO4-Li2SiO3|Au, SO2, O2. The Li3PO4-Li2SiO3 thin film was deposited on the Al2O3 substrate by RF magnetron sputtering, and the Au patterns were fabricated as the electrodes. The sensing electrode materials of Li2SO4-V2O5 with different dopants TiO2 and MgO were prepared, and as the ratio of Li2SO4:TiO2 is 1:1 (mol) with 5 wt. % V2O5 and 5 wt. % MgO, the sensor showed relatively good response characteristics to SO2 at 450 °C. Then, the sensor was further tested at the working temperature from 400 °C to 500 °C. The results show that the sensor has good response to SO2 at 400-450 °C, and the sensitivity is 90.15-57.19 mV/dec. The response and recovery times are 20-40 s and 2.5-4 min, respectively, when the gas concentration of SO2 increases from 10 ppm to 100 ppm and then decreases to 10 ppm. At 425 °C, the sensitivity is close to the theoretical values, and the final recovery potential of the sensor is almost consistent with the initial potential.

16.
Sci Total Environ ; 687: 287-296, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207518

RESUMO

Malodorous surface water is an important worldwide environmental concern. Current remediation methods, such as aeration or the addition of chemicals, are not eco-friendly due to their high energy consumption or secondary pollution. This study proposed a modified columnar air-cathode microbial fuel cell as a sustainable and effective remediation module to improve water quality. The excellent and economic sheet air-cathode (activated carbon and carbon black as the catalyst layer) and a carbon brush anode were applied in the columnar air-cathode microbial fuel cell (MFC). The results after 48 h showed that by providing the anode as an electron acceptor and enriching electrochemically-active bacteria, MFCs with different external resistances (5 k Ω, 30 Ω, and 2 Ω) exhibited the much better capacity to improve water quality than the Blank group. The maximum COD and sulfide removal rates in the MFCs were approximately 86.3% and 100%, respectively, which were higher than those of the Blank group by 30% and 35%, respectively. The MFCs also showed maximum sulfate increments from 28 mg L-1 to 98 mg L-1 compared with the sulfate reduction to 10 mg L-1 in the Blank group. The oxidation reduction potential (ORP) of the MFCs dramatically increased from -281.2 mV to -135.7 mV after 24 h, whereas the ORP of the Blank group decreased to -287.7 mV. The enrichment of the aerobic bacteria Acinetobacter on the anodes and chemolithoautotrophic sulfide oxidation bacteria Sulfuricurvum, Thiovirga and Thiobacillus in the MFCs could also contribute to COD and sulfide removal. Cathode reduction, which could produce small amounts of hydroxyl radicals, might assist with the ORP elevation and the complete oxidation of dissolved sulfide to sulfate.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Bactérias , Carbono , Catálise , Carvão Vegetal , Eletricidade , Eletrodos , Oxirredução , Oxigênio , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Água
17.
Clin Biochem ; 70: 34-38, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The release of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is strongly triggered by myocardial ischemia. We aimed to investigate whether the addition of NT-proBNP to high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTnI) at presentation could provide better performance in risk stratification and thus early rule-out of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients of the "observe zone". METHODS: Emergency department (ED) patients presenting with symptoms suspicious for AMI were consecutively enrolled. Blood samples were obtained at presentation and tested for hs-cTnI and NT-proBNP. All available medical records pertaining to the patient from ED presentation to 30-day follow-up were used for adjudication of the primary outcome. The incremental diagnostic value added by NT-proBNP to hs-cTnI was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, continuous net reclassification improvement (cNRI), and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were used to assess the diagnostic accuracy of different approaches for early rule out. RESULTS: Of the 165 patients we analyzed, 55 (33.3%) had index AMI. For hs-cTnI alone, area under the curve for index AMI was not significantly increased after adding NT-proBNP (0.773 vs 0.809; p = .076). Adjustment of hs-cTnI by NT-proBNP improved the predictive value of hs-cTnI, showed by cNRI (0.418, 95%CI 0.102-0.735, p = .009) and IDI (0.055, 95%CI 0.017-0.092, p = .004). Compared to hs-cTnI, the combined test identified 14% more patients as low-risk and safe for early discharge. CONCLUSIONS: Combination of presentation hs-cTnI and NT-proBNP provided better predictive performance for AMI in patients of the observe zone presenting with symptoms of chest pain as compared to hs-cTnI alone. The combined test outperformed hs-cTnI by correctly identifying nearly 14% more patients as low-risk and safe for early discharge. Future multi-center studies are needed to verify the results and to determine the best clinical use of the combination of NT-proBNP and hs-cTnI in the early diagnosis of AMI.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Troponina I/sangue , Idoso , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(19): 5530-5543, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31025561

RESUMO

Acacetin, a dietary component, is abundant in acacia honey and has superior anticancer activities. To date, no research on the metabolism of acacetin has been reported. In the current research, an online detection strategy of ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography connected to a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) was utilized for metabolite identification in vivo (rat plasma, bile, urine, and feces) and in vitro (rat liver microsomes). A total of 31 metabolites were structurally characterized in rats, and 25 metabolites were detected in rat liver microsomes, among which, 4 metabolites were compared with standards. Oxidation, the loss of CH2, reduction, hydrolysis, glucuronide conjugation, sulfate conjugation, methylation, and N-acetylation were the main metabolic pathways of acacetin. This study is the first to characterize acacetin metabolites in vivo and in vitro, and the results of this study offer novel and valuable evidence for a comprehensive understanding of the safety and efficacy of acacetin.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Flavonas/química , Flavonas/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Animais , Bile/química , Bile/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Masculino , Microssomos Hepáticos/química , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Plasma/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
20.
Adv Mater ; 31(24): e1900927, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012164

RESUMO

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has shown the potential of triggering systemic antitumor immune responses. However, while the oxygen-deficient hypoxic tumor microenvironment is a factor that limits the PDT efficacy, the immune responses after conventional PDT usually are not strong enough to eliminate metastatic tumors. Herein, a light-triggered in situ gelation system containing photosensitizer-modified catalase together with poly(ethylene glycol) double acrylate (PEGDA) as the polymeric matrix is designed. Immune adjuvant nanoparticles are further introduced into this system to trigger robust antitumor immune responses after PDT. Following local injection of the mixed precursor solution into tumors and the subsequent light exposure, polymerization of PEGDA can be initiated to induce in situ gelation. Such hybrid hydrogel with long-term tumor retention of various agents and the ability to enable persistent tumor hypoxia relief can enable multiple rounds of PDT, which results in significantly enhanced immune responses by multiround stimulation. Further combination of such gel-based multiround PDT with anticytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 checkpoint blockade offers not only the abscopal effect to inhibit growth of distant tumors but also effective long-term immune memory protection from rechallenged tumors. Therefore, such a light-triggered in situ gelation system by a single-dose injection can enable greatly enhanced photoimmunotherapy by means of repeated stimulations.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia/métodos , Luz , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Géis , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Polietilenoglicóis/uso terapêutico
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