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1.
Behav Brain Res ; : 113146, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545198

RESUMO

Ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1) is one of the most active components found in ginseng and provides important benefits to the central nervous system, especially for the improvement of learning and memory. Previous studies demonstrated that Rb1 protected against scopolamine-induced amnesia and exhibited memory-enhancing effects in the SAMP8 mouse model. However, the effects of Rb1 against chronic restraint stress (CRS)-induced cognitive impairments, especially the role of Rg1 on the performance of reward directed instrumental conditioning have not been investigated. In this study, rats were subjected to CRS (6 h/day) for 28 days. Thereafter, behavioural tests including reward-directed instrumental conditioning task (RICT) and the Morris water maze (MWM) task were conducted. Administered of Rb1 (6.75 and 13.5 mg/kg, i.p.) remarkably ameliorated the memory impairments caused by CRS as evident from the results of RICT and MWM task, and this effect was accompanied by noticeable alterations in the levels of oxidative markers (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and lipid peroxidation) in the hippocampus. Additionally, Rb1 reduced the ratio of Bax:Bcl-2 and the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9, increased the levels of synaptophysin (SYP) and postsynaptic density 95 (PSD95) and activated the BDNF/TrkB pathway in the hippocampus. In summary, the present study demonstrated that Rb1 rescues cognitive deficits induced by CRS is partially mediated by antagonizing oxidative stress and apoptosis, improving synaptic plasticity and restoring the BDNF/TrkB signalling pathway. This newly discovered effect of Rb1 sheds light on its applications in the development of therapeutic interventions to alleviate the deleterious effects of chronic stress.

2.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 216, 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33499822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MS) can promote the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective of this study was to examine the association of MS and its components with CVD, to further prevent and control CVD in Kazakhs. METHODS: In the cohort study, a total of 2644 participants completed the baseline survey between April 2010 and December 2012.The follow-up survey was conducted from April 2016 to December 2016 and was completed by 2286 participants (86.46% follow-up rate). Cox regression was used to evaluate the association of each component and the number of combinations of MS components on the development of CVD. RESULTS: A total of 278 CVD patients were enrolled from rural residents of Xinjiang. The average age of the MS and non-MS groups was 46.33 and 38.71 years, respectively. Independent associations with CVD were found for elevated blood pressure (BP) (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) [aHR] = 1.50,95%confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-2.08), elevated waist circumference (WC) (aHR = 1.60, 95%CI: 1.19-2.15), and elevated triglycerides (TG) (aHR = 1.44, 95%CI: 1.04-2.01). Participants with one to 5 MS components had an increased HR for developing CVD, from 1.82to 8.59 (P for trend < 0.001), compared with those with no MS components. The risk of developing CVD increased when TG and WC coexisted (aHR = 2.16, 95%CI: 1.54-3.04)), when TG and BP coexisted ((aHR = 1.92, 95%CI: 1.32-2.79), and when WC and BP coexisted (aHR = 1.93, 95%CI: 1.33-2.82)). However, no significant interactions were found between BP, WC, and TG. CONCLUSIONS: Elevations of BP, WC, and TG were independent risk factors for CVD in Kazakhs. Control of these factors is important to prevent CVD in this population.

3.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 250: 119378, 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401180

RESUMO

Supramolecular hydrogels are attracting soft materials with potential applications. In this study, we synthesized a facile gelator (named 2-QF) based on phenylalanine derivative with a Quinoline group. 2-QF can assemble to form hydrogels at room temperature in different colors under low pH values. Moreover, 2-QF was triggered to form a yellow metallohydrogel (2-QF-Zn) at high pH by the coordination between 2-QF and Zn2+. 2-QF-Zn metallohydrogel showed excellent multi-stimuli responsiveness, especially the reversible "on-off" luminescence switching, as induced by base/acid. In addition, at a low concentration, 2-QF can selectively and visibly identify Zn2+ through fluorescence enhancement, and can detect Zn2+ at physiological pH as a chemosensor. Remarkably, 2-QF and 2-QF-Zn exhibited an excellent biocompatibility without cell cytotoxicity, and 2-QF is able to penetrate live HeLa cells and image intracellular Zn2+ by a turn-on fluorescent response, which makes it a potential candidate for biomedical applications.

4.
J Hazard Mater ; 412: 125233, 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513555

RESUMO

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widespread contaminants in the environment. Microbial reductive debromination is one of the important attenuation processes for PBDEs in the anaerobic sediments. This study first investigated the interaction between BDE-47 and BDE-153 during the microbial degradation in wetland sediments by the multiple-line approaches including biodegradation kinetics, microbial community structures and stable isotope composition. BDE-47 and BDE-153 biodegradation fitted pseudo-zero-order kinetics, with the higher degradation rates in single than combined exposure, indicating the mutual inhibition in co-exposure condition. BDE-47 and BDE-153 shared the common dehalogenators (genus Dehalococcoides and Acinetobacter) with enrichment in combined exposure, indicating the potential competition in dehalogenating bacteria during biodegradation. Microbial degradation could lead to the isotopic fractionation of BDE-47 and BDE-153, with the smaller changes in δ13C in combined than single exposure. The apparent kinetic isotope effect of carbon (AKIEC) was different between BDE-47 and BDE-153 in single exposure, whilst identical in combined exposure, indicating the similar degradation mechanism for BDE-47 and BDE-153 in co-exposure condition. These results revealed that the competition on microbial degradation occurred among PBDEs in co-exposure condition, which was important for the comprehensive risk assessment of simultaneous exposure to multiple PBDE congeners in the environment.

5.
Parasitol Res ; 120(3): 1025-1035, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33501586

RESUMO

Chicken coccidiosis, caused by an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite of the genus Eimeria, is a major parasitic disease in the intensively reared poultry industry. Due to the widespread use of anticoccidial drugs, resistance has become an inevitable problem. In our previous study, Eimeria tenella citrate synthase (EtCS) was found to be up-expressed in two drug-resistant strains (diclazuril-resistant and maduramycin-resistant strains) compared to drug-sensitive strain by RNA sequence. In this study, we cloned and expressed EtCS and obtain its polyclonal antibodies. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain (qPCR) reactions and Western blots were used to analyze the transcription and translation levels of EtCS in sensitive and three drug-resistant strains. Compared with the sensitive strain, the transcription of EtCS was both significantly upregulated in diclazuril-resistant and maduramycin-resistant strains, but was not significantly different in salinomycin-resistant strain. No significant difference was seen in translation level in the three drug-resistant strains. Indirect immunofluorescence indicated that EtCS was mainly located in the cytoplasm of sporozoites except for posterior refractile bodies and in the cytoplasm and surface of merozoites. Anti-rEtCS antibody has inhibitory effects on E. tenella sporozoite invasion of DF-1 cells and the inhibition rate is more than 83%. Binding of the protein to chicken macrophage (HD11) cells was confirmed by immunofluorescence assays. When macrophages were treated with rEtCS, secretion of nitric oxide and cell proliferation of the macrophages were substantially reduced. These results showed that EtCS may be related to host cell invasion of E. tenella and involve in the development of E.tenella resistance to some drugs.

6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111668, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396178

RESUMO

Cadmium is an environmental metal pollutant that has been a focus of research in recent years, which is reported to cause bone disease; however, its skeletal toxicity and the mechanism involved are not yet fully known. Therefore, this study used MC3T3-E1 subclone 14 cells to determine the mechanism of cadmium toxicity on bone. Cadmium chloride (Cd) significantly reduced cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner. Exposure to Cd inhibited osteoblast-related proteins (Runx2, Col-1, STC2) and decreased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Cd caused Exportin-1 accumulation and induced DNA damage. Cd significantly down-regulated caspase 9 and induced cleaved-PARP, cleaved-caspase 3 protein level. Treatment with JNK inhibitor, SP600125, suppressed cadmium-induced elevation in the ratio of phosphorylation of JNK to JNK. Inhibition of caspase with pan-caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK, prevented MC3T3-E1 subclone 14 cells from cadmium-induced reduction of Runx2, STC2, caspase 9, and accumulation of cleaved PARP and cleaved caspase 3. Cd-induced cell survival enhanced by SP600125 but rescued by Z-VAD-FMK or KPT-335. These results suggest that cadmium cytotoxicity on bone involved exportin 1 accumulation, phosphorylation of JNK, induction of DNA damage and pro-apoptosis, which was induced by activation of caspase-dependent pathways.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/toxicidade , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Carioferinas/metabolismo , MAP Quinase Quinase 4/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/metabolismo , Animais , Caspases/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/patologia , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 210: 111852, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418155

RESUMO

Symbiosis of marine algae is inevitable in the marine environment, and species may occur interaction on the growth. In this study, the macroalgae Ulva pertusa and marine microalgae Heterosigma akashiwo were selected as target species to study the interaction mechanism between them. After the 8 days of co-cultivation, the inhibition on growth was observed for both of U. pertusa and H. akashiwo. Eight fatty acids in U. pertusa was detected, with the significant decrease in contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) especially for C18:2, C18:3n-3 and C18:3n-6. Twelve fatty acids in H. akashiwo was detected, with the significant change for PUFAs. PUFA concentrations in the co-culture group were less than those in the mono-culture. Meanwhile the principal component analysis was conducted to insight into the interaction between U. pertusa and H. akashiwo by fatty acids content and carbon stable isotope ratio of fatty acids (δ13CFAs). Fatty acid content could not distinguish mono and co-culture. However, δ13CFAs could distinguish not only the culture time of algae, but also the living environment of algae. In addition, this study combined fatty acids content and δ13CFAs to explore the release of fatty acids by algae into the seawater. The C18:3n-3 was identified as the allelochemical released by U. pertusa to inhibit the growth of H. akashiwo. The ratio of δ13CFAs in seawater decreased. This study provides a theoretical basis for the symbiosis of marine algae, and a new method of compound-specific stable carbon isotopes was used to better explore the metabolism of fatty acids in algae.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Microalgas/metabolismo , Estramenópilas/metabolismo , Ulva/metabolismo , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Isótopos de Carbono/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Água do Mar/química , Estramenópilas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Simbiose , Ulva/crescimento & desenvolvimento
8.
Phytother Res ; 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33474783

RESUMO

The Shen Yuan prescription (SY) comprises Panax ginseng (GT) and Polygala tenuifolia (YT), elicited superior antidepressant activity compared with that of GT or YT alone. The aim of this paper is to elucidate the effects of SY treatment on chronic social defeat stress (CSDS)-induced depression-like symptoms and the related mechanism. Our results indicated that SY treatment reverses the depressive-like behaviors induced by CSDS as measured by the social interaction test, sucrose preference test, forced swim test, and tail suspension test. SY decreased the serum levels of CORT and increased hippocampal neurotransmitters (5-HT, DA, and NE) in CSDS mice. Meanwhile, SY upregulated the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling pathway and reversed the decreased hippocampal neurogenesis caused by CSDS. In addition, we found that the TrkB antagonist K252a fully blocked the SY effects on behavioral improvement and eliminated the promoting effects of SY on hippocampal neurogenesis and BDNF-TrkB signaling (including the downstream ERK and Akt pathways) activation, thus further demonstrating that BDNF-TrkB signaling was necessary for the SY effects. In conclusion, our study showed that SY acted as an antidepressant in mice exhibiting CSDS-induced depression-like symptoms, and its effect was facilitated by promoting hippocampal neurogenesis and BDNF signaling pathway activation.

9.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462796

RESUMO

Iodine plays an important role in thyroid function. However, in daily practices, people lack the related details including the knowledge concerned iodine usage, attitudes towards it, and practice among pregnant women. The aim of the present study is to assess the iodine status of pregnant women in Shanghai, and their knowledge regarding iodine, with the goal of investigating the relationship between iodine and thyroid function during pregnancy. This is a cross-sectional study. We recruited 3 groups of participants including 145 pregnant women (12-16 weeks gestation), 101 pregnant women (24-28 weeks gestation), and 108 pregnant women (34-38 weeks gestation). Iodine status and dietary intake were calculated from 24-h urinary iodine concentration (UIC). Knowledge regarding iodine was collected through a questionnaire. We additionally examined TSH, FT3, FT4, and TPOAb of the participants. The median of UIC of the 354 pregnant women was 119.2 µg/L, and 68.9% had urinary iodine levels below 150 µg/L. The proportion of daily iodized salt consumption in pregnant women was only 78.0%. The median UIC of the pregnant women who had consumed iodized salt was significantly higher than that of the pregnant women without iodized salt intake (Z = - 5.087, P < 0.001). Pregnant women in weeks 34-38 with a high level of knowledge had significantly lower TSH levels than those with low knowledge level (P = 0.046). Among the 349 pregnant women, few were aware of the harm to the fetus (8.3%). Significant differences were found in the scores for the knowledge level of women with different educational levels (Z = - 5.413, P < 0.001). Pregnant women in Shanghai have mild iodine deficiency. Approaches to improve iodine status among pregnant women in Shanghai include raising their awareness of iodine intake and changing their dietary habits. Otherwise, the risk of iodine deficiency in pregnant women may continue to increase.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389575

RESUMO

In this study, Mg-modified sludge biochar (MB) and Mg-Fe double oxides/sludge biochar composites (MFB) were synthesized for enhanced removal of phosphate from aqueous solution. The phosphate adsorption followed the Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm model, and the maximum capacity was 142.31 mg P/g and 35.41 mg P/g for MB and MFB, respectively. MB exhibited the higher adsorption capacity at pH 8-9 and performed well under the influences of coexisting anions and temperature (4-45 °C). Adsorption kinetics was well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, indicating the chemical bonding between phosphate and adsorption sites. The adsorption capacity of phosphate decreased by < 15% after three successive recycles. Based on FTIR, XRD, and XPS analysis, the main mechanisms for phosphate removal by MB included electrostatic attraction, surface complexation, and precipitation. Hydroxides/oxides particles of Mg on the surface of MB with positive charge could adsorb HPO42- and PO43- to form surface complex and convert to MgHPO4 and Mg3(PO4)2. The released amounts of Fe, Cd, Cr, Pb, Cu, Zn, Sb, and As from MB and MFB were low and acceptable. However, the released amount of Mg was as high as 4.9 wt% for MB and 8.7 wt% for MFB at the pH corresponding maximum adsorption capacity, posing a risk of salt increase. The grass (Lolium perenne L.) germination and early growth with the addition of P-laden biochars as fertilizer are seriously inhibited due to the high alkalinity, particularly for MB. The environmental risk of P-laden biochars (with high alkalinity and salt content) as fertilizer should be emphasized in practical application.

11.
J Mater Chem B ; 9(4): 921-938, 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33367450

RESUMO

The early diagnosis of cancer can significantly improve patient survival rates. Colorimetric methods for real-time naked-eye detection have aroused growing interest owing to their low cost, simplicity, and practicability. With the rapid development of nanotechnology, compared with conventional diagnostic methods, nanomaterials with unique physical and chemical properties were applied to improve selectivity and sensitivity in colorimetric detection of cancer biomarkers, such as MUC1 aptamer conjugated PtAuNPs to specifically recognize MUC1 proteins on the cancer cell surfaces, etching of silver nanoprisms to detect prostate-specific antigen, and aggregation or dispersion of AuNPs to sense prostate cancer antigen gene 3 or glutathione, by which the limit of detection (LOD) could approach values down to a few cancer cells per mL, several fg per mL proteins, several ng of nucleic acids, or even tens of nM of organic molecules. Herein, we review the recent progress achieved in developing colorimetric nanosensors for cancer diagnosis, particularly providing an overview of the sensing principles, target biomarkers, advanced nanomaterials employed in the fabrication of sensing platforms, and strategies for improving signal sensitivity and specificity. Finally, we sum up the nanomaterial-based colorimetric cancer detection as well as existing challenges that should be resolved to extend their clinical application.

12.
Chemosphere ; 267: 129218, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326901

RESUMO

In this work, we report an "on-off-super on" photoelectrochemical sensor for probing hydrogen sulfide due to its toxicity in water environment by using porous carbon nitride as photoelectric transducers. Synthesized by an alkaline-assisted hydrothermal method, the porous carbon nitride photoanode exhibited a remarkable photocurrent on the initial "on" state. Cu2+ immobilized on the surfaces of porous carbon nitride could significantly decrease the charge transfer efficiency and quench the photoelectrochemical signal in the "off" state. In addition, the introduction of S2- ions could eliminate the influence of Cu-induced surface exciton trapping and amplify the photoelectrochemical signal due to the formation of carbon nitride/copper sulfide heterojunction, thus leading to the achievement of the ''super on'' state and subsequently detection of hydrogen sulfide. More importantly, this photoelectrochemical sensor shows the excellent performance for probing hydrogen sulfide in terms of stability, selectivity, sensitivity and fabrication cost. Enabled by a unique "on-off-super on" strategy, it could serve as a reference for developing the new class of photoelectrochemical sensor.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Cobre , Nitrilos , Porosidade , Sulfetos
13.
Talanta ; 223(Pt 1): 121729, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303172

RESUMO

Mycotoxins are a great potential threat to human health, and the progress in the development of mycotoxin detection methods is of an escalating importance with the increasing emphasis on food safety. Aptamer, performing the same function as antibody in specific binding with targets, exhibits profound potential in biosensing since its debut in 1990. Recent years have witnessed the rapid development of aptasensors for mycotoxin detection with the achievement of ultralow limit of detection and high sensitivity in the lab. However, there is still no officially approved aptasensing methods in mycotoxin detection application. In order to provide researchers with inspirations in the design and development of aptasensors for mycotoxin detection, we divide these aptasensors into two types, namely "on the surface" and "in the colloid", according to the location where the key sensing reaction occurs. We also systematically review aptasensors reported in the past 5 years under the abovementioned criterion of classification, and compare the advantages and disadvantages of each kind of aptasensors. Finally, we discuss prospective directions in the development of aptasensors for mycotoxin detection. This paper will offer insight and motivation to practitioners working on the research and practical application of aptasensors in the detection of mycotoxins and other substances.

14.
J Hazard Mater ; : 124667, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279322

RESUMO

Dibutyl phthalate (DBP), widely used as plasticizer, is a typical soil contaminant. A new isolate, Arthrobacter nicotianae ZM05, is efficient at degrading DBP but lacks stress resistance to adverse environments. In this study, to isolate effective cooperators of strain ZM05 under pH stress and explore the effects of DBP on the bacterial community structure and interaction between bacteria, a microcosm experiment was conducted by supplying the exogenous DBP-degrading bacteria ZM05. 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis showed that DBP contamination decreased microbial community diversity and weakened potential interactions between microorganisms, evidenced by fewer links, lower average degree, and lower average clustering coefficients in the cooccurrence network. Furthermore, the subnetworks showed that DBP shifted the interactions between strain ZM05 and other microbes. Based on the prediction of the network, the nondegrading bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa ZM03 was isolated and proven through coculture experiments to have a positive interaction with strain ZM05 during DBP degradation under pH stress. Strain ZM03 could utilize downstream acidic metabolites to alleviate acid inhibition and accelerate degradation. This study provides solid evidence that bacterial communities adjust their interactions to adapt to DBP stress and provides new insight into the prediction of microbes that are cooperative with degrading bacteria.

15.
J Eukaryot Microbiol ; 2020 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33289220

RESUMO

Eimeria tenella is an obligate intracellular parasite in the phylum Apicomplexa. As described for other members of Apicomplexa, apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) has been shown to be critical for sporozoite invasion of host cells by E. tenella. Recently, an E. tenella paralogue of AMA1 (EtAMA1), dubbed sporoAMA1 (EtAMA3), was identified in proteomic and transcriptomic analyses of E. tenella, but not further characterized. Here, we show that EtAMA3 is a type I integral membrane protein that has 24% -38% identity with other EtAMAs. EtAMA3 has the same pattern of Cys residues in domains I and II of AMA1 orthologs from apicomplexan parasites, but high variance in domain III, with all six invariant Cys residues absent. EtAMA3 expression was developmentally regulated at the mRNA and protein levels. EtAMA3 protein was detected in sporulated oocysts and sporozoites, but not in the unsporulated oocysts or second generation merozoites. EtAMA3 is secreted by micronemes and is primarily localized to the apical end of sporozoites during host-cell invasion. Additionally, pretreatment of sporozoites with rEtAMA3-specific antibodies substantially impeded their invasion into host cells. These results suggest EtAMA3 is a sporozoite-specific protein that is involved in host-cell sporozoite invasion.

16.
Parasite ; 27: 70, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33306022

RESUMO

Apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) is a type I integral membrane protein that is highly conserved in apicomplexan parasites. Previous studies have shown that Eimeria tenella AMA1 (EtAMA1) is critical for sporozoite invasion of host cells. Here, we show that EtAMA1 is a microneme protein secreted by sporozoites, confirming previous results. Individual and combined treatment with antibodies of EtAMA1 and its interacting proteins, E. tenella rhoptry neck protein 2 (EtRON2) and Eimeria-specific protein (EtESP), elicited significant anti-invasion effects on the parasite in a concentration-dependent manner. The overexpression of EtAMA1 in DF-1 cells showed a significant increase of sporozoite invasion. Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) coupled with LC-MS/MS were used to screen differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in DF-1 cells transiently transfected with EtAMA1. In total, 3953 distinct nonredundant proteins were identified and 163 of these were found to be differentially expressed, including 91 upregulated proteins and 72 downregulated proteins. The DEPs were mainly localized within the cytoplasm and were involved in protein binding and poly(A)-RNA binding. KEEG analyses suggested that the key pathways that the DEPs belonged to included melanogenesis, spliceosomes, tight junctions, and the FoxO and MAPK signaling pathways. The data in this study not only provide a comprehensive dataset for the overall protein changes caused by EtAMA1 expression, but also shed light on EtAMA1's potential molecular mechanisms during Eimeria infections.

17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(51): e23710, 2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33371118

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The typical manifestations of patients with a trisomy 21 syndrome are mental retardation and anatomical deformities of face and neck. In the available literature, all case reports regarding anesthetic management of mentally retarded patients have focused on elective surgeries. There is no report regarding anesthetic management of mentally retarded patients undergoing emergency surgery. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 47-year-old woman with a mental retardation grade 2 by trisomy 21 syndrome suffered from an esophageal foreign body for 3 days and needed emergency removal of esophageal foreign body. The patient had a poor cooperation and obvious anatomical abnormalities of head and neck. DIAGNOSES: Difficult anesthesia and airway managements for emergency removal of esophageal foreign bodies in a trisomy 21patients with mental retardation and predicted difficult airways. INTERVENTIONS: Combined use of an intubating supraglottic airway and the flexible bronchoscope-guided intubation after intravenous anesthesia induction. OUTCOMES: Effective airway was safely established and an esophageal foreign body was successfully removed by rigid esophagoscopy under anesthesia. The patient recovered smoothly without any complication. LESSONS SUBSECTIONS AS PER STYLE: When general anesthesia and emergency airway management are required in the patients with mental retardation and predicted difficult airways, a combination of the supraglottic airway and the flexible bronchoscope maybe a safe and useful choice for airway control.


Assuntos
Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/métodos , Síndrome de Down/complicações , Esôfago/cirurgia , Corpos Estranhos/cirurgia , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Esofagoscopia/métodos , Esôfago/anormalidades , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 13: 2337-2346, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154685

RESUMO

Background: Several cross-sectional studies have suggested an association between SUA and asthma. However, few studies have investigated this relationship longitudinally. Although SUA is an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular diseases, its contribution to incident asthma remains uncertain. Objective: To determine whether a high SUA was a risk factor for adult incident asthma. Methods: By using health care data from the Shandong multicenter health check-up, 76,369 participants, aged 20 to 79 years, were identified who had an SUA determination with a mean follow-up period of 3.73±2.21 years. Multivariate modeling employed Cox proportional hazards models to verify the association between SUA and incident asthma by adjusting age, BMI, smoking habits, drinking habits, and asthma-like diseases. Results: A total of 51,389 individuals were included in the analysis. Cut-off values of SUA able to discriminate asthma status were identified by means of maximally selected rank statistics in the whole participants (≥376.80umol/L), women (≥314.45umol/L), and men (≥376.80umol/L). Multivariate Cox regression analyses adjusted for covariates (age, body mass index (BMI), smoking habit, drinking habit, and asthma-like disease) identified an independent association between SUA and incident asthma in the whole participants (hazard ratio (HR) 2.92, 95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.76-4.48, P=0.00) and men (HR 3.02, 95% CI 1.70-5.39, P=0.00), but not in women. Conclusion: The results of the current study confirmed that high SUA was an independent risk factor for incident asthma after adjustment of potential covariates and suggested that a cut-off value related to incident asthma could be identified only in men.

19.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 267: 113625, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33248184

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY RELEVANCE: The water extract of Panax ginseng (GT) and Polygala tenuifolia (YT), the main constituents of the commonly used kai-xin-san formula of traditional Chinese medicine, represents SY. It possesses strong neuroprotective effects. Using behavioural tests, we have previously established that the SY formulation exerts superior antidepressant activity than that of GT or YT. AIM: To elucidate the impact of SY treatment on chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depressive-like behaviours and the prospective mechanism related to hippocampal neurogenesis and the BDNF signaling pathway. METHODS: We exposed Sprague-Dawley rats (male; 180-200 g) to CUMS for 35 days. The rats in the experimental treatment groups were daily treated with either fluoxetine (10 mg kg-1d-1) or SY (67.5, 135, or 270 mg kg-1d-1) orally until the behavioural tests (tail suspension test [TST], novelty-suppressed feeding test [NSFT], sucrose preference test [SPT], and forced swim test [FST]) were completed. We assessed the modifications in the hippocampal neurogenesis and the BDNF signaling pathway post-treatment with CUMS and SY. Additionally, K252a, a tyrosine protein kinase inhibitor, was utilized to evaluate the antidepressant mechanisms of SY. RESULT: s: The results of SPT, NSFT, FST, and TST in CUMS-exposed rats confirmed the antidepressant actions of SY. Additionally, SY treatment induced the BDNF signaling pathway and reversed the hippocampal neurogenesis caused by CUMS. Moreover, we found that the TrkB antagonist K252a blocked SY effects on behavioural improvement, inhibited the incremental effects of SY on hippocampal neurogenesis, and eliminated the impact of SY on BDNF-TrkB signaling activation. Thus, the impact of SY treatment on BDNF signaling molecules (pAkt, pERK1/2, and pCREB) were significantly inhibited by K252a. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that SY acted as an antidepressant in rats exhibiting CUMS-induced depressive-like behaviours, and was facilitated by promoting hippocampal neurogenesis and the BDNF signaling pathway activation. Thus, SY could act as a potential novel supplement or adjuvant to prevent or treat clinical depressive disorders.

20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(43): e22736, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal manifestations are common in patients with COVID-19, but the association between specific digestive symptoms and COVID-19 prognosis remains unclear. This study aims to assess whether digestive symptoms are associated with COVID-19 severity and mortality. METHODS: We will search PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials up to September, 2020, to identify studies that compared the prevalence of at least one specific digestive symptom between severe and non-severe COVID-19 patients or between non-survivors and survivors. Two independent reviewers will assess the risk of bias of the included cohort studies using the modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Meta-analyses will be conducted to estimate the pooled prevalence of individual symptoms using the inverse variance method with the random-effects model. We will conduct subgroup analyses, sensitivity analyses, and meta-regression analyses to explore the sources of heterogeneity. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach will be used to assess the quality of the evidence. RESULTS: The results of this study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis will comprehensively evaluate the association between different digestive symptoms and the severity and mortality of patients infected with COVID-19. This study will provide evidence to help determine whether special protective measures and treatment options are needed for patients with digestive system comorbidities during the COVID-19 pandemic. INPLASY REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY202090055.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Doenças do Sistema Digestório/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Protocolos Clínicos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Sistema Digestório/diagnóstico , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Prognóstico
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