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1.
Life Sci ; : 117392, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014424

RESUMO

Increasing evidence has uncovered that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play extremely important roles in numerous steps of gene regulation concerning the progression of tumors. Defined as a kind of lncRNA, DDX11-AS1 has been considered to be closely related to the tumorigenesis of malignancies. Nevertheless, the underlying regulatory role of it in osteosarcoma remains to be analyzed and elucidated. In this research, a dramatically upregulated expression of DDX11-AS1 was detected in osteosarcoma cells. Loss-of-function assays revealed that decreased expression of DDX11-AS1 impaired osteosarcoma cell proliferation, metastasis as well as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process. Afterwards, molecular mechanism tests validated that DDX11-AS1 could sponge miR-873-5p to upregulate DDX11 expression in osteosarcoma. Additionally, functional tests delineated that upregulation of miR-873-5p inhibited cell proliferation, metastasis as well as EMT process in osteosarcoma progression. Further, DDX11-AS1 was verified to regulate the mRNA stability of DDX11 through binding with IGF2BP2 in osteosarcoma. Final rescue tests in vitro and in vivo further elucidated that DDX11 overexpression could reversed the DDX11-AS1 downregulation-mediated effect on osteosarcoma progression. To sum up, DDX11-AS1 contributes to osteosarcoma progression via stabilizing DDX11.

2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(2): 950-958, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31888986

RESUMO

Engaging in altruistic behaviors is costly, but it contributes to the health and well-being of the performer of such behaviors. The present research offers a take on how this paradox can be understood. Across 2 pilot studies and 3 experiments, we showed a pain-relieving effect of performing altruistic behaviors. Acting altruistically relieved not only acutely induced physical pain among healthy adults but also chronic pain among cancer patients. Using functional MRI, we found that after individuals performed altruistic actions brain activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and bilateral insula in response to a painful shock was significantly reduced. This reduced pain-induced activation in the right insula was mediated by the neural activity in the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), while the activation of the VMPFC was positively correlated with the performer's experienced meaningfulness from his or her altruistic behavior. Our findings suggest that incurring personal costs to help others may buffer the performers from unpleasant conditions.

3.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 30(4): 126930, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926786

RESUMO

Glycogen synthase kinase-3 plays an essential role in multiple biochemical pathways in the cell, particularly in regards to energy regulation. As such, Glycogen synthase kinase-3 is an attractive target for pharmacological intervention in a variety of disease states, particularly non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. However, due to homology with other crucial kinases, such as the cyclin-dependent protein kinase CDC2, developing compounds that are both potent and selective is challenging. A novel series of derivatives of 5-nitro-N2-(2-(pyridine-2ylamino)ethyl)pyridine-2,6-diamine were synthesized and have been shown to potently inhibit glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3). Potency in the low nanomolar range was obtained along with remarkable selectivity. The compounds activate glycogen synthase in insulin receptor-expressing CHO-IR cells and in primary rat hepatocytes, and have acceptable pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics to allow for oral dosing. The X-ray co-crystal structure of human GSK3-ß in complex with compound 2 is reported and provides insights into the structural determinants of the series responsible for its potency and selectivity.

4.
Mol Divers ; 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965437

RESUMO

Nitrogen- or oxygen-containing organic compounds which have significant antifungal activity, twenty one novel nitrogen or oxygen-containing (E)-3-acyl-5-(methoxyimino)-1,5-dihydrobenzo[e][1,2]oxazepin-4(3H)-one analogues were designed and synthesized, and their structures were confirmed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and HRMS. Preliminary bioassay showed that most of them exhibited certain-to-good antifungal activity. Compounds 5k-2, 5n, 5p and 5r exhibited over 80% inhibitory rate against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum at 50 µg/mL, and 5r exhibited good antifungal activity against S. sclerotiorum with EC50 of 7.21 µg/mL. Compounds 5a and 5r also showed over 90% inhibition against Botrytis cinerea. In particular, 5r showed significant higher activity with the lowest EC50 of 7.92 µg/mL than the positive control trifloxystrobin (21.96 µg/mL) and azoxystrobin (9.43 µg/mL). Providing a practical method for the synthesis of new scaffolds 1,2-Benzoxazepinone and systematically investigate their antifungal activity.

5.
Environ Pollut ; 260: 114014, 2020 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000026

RESUMO

Microbial degradation is an important pathway for the attenuation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in natural soils. In this study, the compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) was applied to characterize microbial degradation of BDE-153, one of the prevailing and toxic PBDE congeners, in natural wetland soils. During the 45-day incubation, the residual percentages of BDE-153 decreased to 67.9% and 73.6% in non-sterilized soils spiked with 1.0 and 5.0 µg/g, respectively, which were both much lower than those in sterilized soils (96.0% and 97.2%). This result indicated that microbial degradation could accelerate BDE-153 elimination in wetland soils. Meanwhile, the significant carbon isotope fractionation was observed in non-sterilized soils, with δ13C of BDE-153 shifting from -29.4‰ to -26.7‰ for 1.0 µg/g and to -27.2‰ for 5.0 µg/g, respectively, whilst not in sterilized soils. This phenomenon indicated microbial degradation could induce stable carbon isotope fractionation of BDE-153. The carbon isotope enrichment factor (εc) for BDE-153 microbial degradation was first determined as -7.58‰, which could be used to assess the microbial degradation and bioavailability of BDE-153 in wetland soils. Based on δ13C and εc, the new methods were developed to dynamically and quantitatively estimate degradation degree and bioavailability of BDE-153 during degradation process, respectively, which could exclude interference of physical processes. This work revealed that CSIA was a promising method to investigate in situ microbial degradation of PBDEs in field studies.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; 710: 136296, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918192

RESUMO

The pollution caused by oil spills is a global problem, and outbreaks of blue algae in oil-polluted areas are harmful to plankton in the ocean. The ocean is a barren environment limited by low availabilities of nitrogen and other nutrients, and further nitrogen limitation caused by oil contamination is considered one of the important factors leading to outbreaks of cyanobacteria, but the effects of nitrogen amendment in this situation are not well understood. Here, we present the results from nitrogen amendment experiments conducted in oil-contaminated microcosms. Green mats appeared on the sediment surface of each treatment group at different time points. The appearance of cyanobacterial blooms in the oil-contaminated group supplemented with nitrogen was significantly delayed compared with that in the oil-contaminated group without nitrogen addition. Moreover, oil promoted nitrogen fixation and stimulated the growth of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria in the oil-contaminated microcosms. Our results suggest that nitrogen limitation is a vital factor for the induction of cyanobacterial blooms in oil-contaminated environments, and the addition of nitrogen reduced the abundance of cyanobacteria by up to approximately 2.5-fold and slowed the bloom process.

7.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 194(1): 184-202, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342340

RESUMO

Nano-titanium dioxide is a kind of widely used nanomaterial that exhibits various adverse outcomes. However, the role of oxidative stress in this regard remains controversial. This study aimed to evaluate whether oxidative stress is one of the toxicity mechanisms induced by nano-titanium dioxide in rats and mice model. In this meta-analysis, 64 relevant publications were included through detailed database search. The pooled results showed that nano-titanium dioxide exposure could promote the expression of oxidants, such as malonaldehyde (MDA), 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), superoxide anion (O2-), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Meanwhile, the levels of antioxidant-related enzymes and molecules, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT), were reduced. Subgroup analysis revealed that different intervention routes, exposure periods, exposure dosages, and sample sources could affect the oxidative stress when exposed to nano-titanium dioxide. It was worth noting that the levels of MDA, 8-OHdG, and GSH significantly increased (P < 0.05) when the particle size of nano-titanium dioxide was < 10 nm, whereas H2O2, SOD, and GPx showed the highest effect at 10-40 nm. This study indicated that nano-titanium dioxide could cause oxidative damage by affecting the levels of enzymes and molecules involved in oxidative stress in rats and mice. And these results could provide a reference for studies of the toxicity mechanism induced by nano-titanium dioxide in the future.

8.
Sci Total Environ ; 706: 135700, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818562

RESUMO

Heterosigma akashiwo is an algal blooms species, and thus selected as the target microalgae in this work. This study attempted to investigate the influence of carbon limitation on the growth of H. akashiwo. Experiments were carried out in CO2-unlimited and CO2-limited systems (both include three nutritional groups). The stable isotope signatures and compound-specific stable three nutritional groups carbon isotopic composition of fatty acids were measured. Here we hypothesized that the carbon limitation could lead to the enriched of stable isotope ratios in the H. akashiwo. The results showed that carbon limitation made δ13C and δ13CFAs values more and more enriched in H. akashiwo. δ13C values were enriched in normal group of H. akashiwo within CO2-limited. δ15N values were enriched in nitrogen deficiency of H. akashiwo within both CO2-unlimited and CO2-limited. Furthermore, compared with the exponential phase, the enriched in δ13C was detected during the stationary phase in H. akashiwo within CO2-limited. A total of 8 major FAs were detected in H. akashiwo. Within CO2-unlimited, nitrogen deficiency promoted the synthesis of 4 FAs (14:1n-5c, 16:0, 18:0 and 18:3n-6c) in exponential phase. Within CO2-limited, nitrogen deficiency promoted the synthesis of FAs 14:0, 16:0 and 18:3n-3c, while phosphorus deficiency promoted the synthesis of all 6 FAs in exponential phase. δ13CFAs of H. akashiwo within CO2-limited showed the valley values and were significantly greater than those within CO2-unlimited. Furthermore, δ13CFAs of stationary phase were greater than those of exponential phase. δ13C14:1n-5c in nitrogen deficiency were the highest of the three nutrient groups within CO2-unlimited. This may point out that δ13CFAs could become an indicator of marine phytoplankton blooms. Overall, the present study may provide a novel approach to investigate the physiology and lipid metabolism of H. akashiwo blooms by using stable isotope ratios coupled with FAs profiles.

9.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 78: 106065, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is an infectious lung inflammation in children with high mortality and morbidity rates. Small nucleolar RNA host gene 16 (SNHG16) has been verified to accelerate the progression of acute pneumonia. However, the role of SNHG16 in acute pneumonia has not yet been fully elucidated. The study was aimed to explore the regulatory mechanism of SNHG16 in LPS-induced acute pneumonia in A549 cells. METHODS: The levels of SNHG16, miR-370-3p and IGF2 in serum samples and LPS-induced A549 cells were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The cell viability and apoptosis of A549 cells were examined by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and flow cytometer, respectively. The levels of interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The binding relationships among SNHG16, miR-370-3p and IGF2 were predicted by online database and verified by Dual-luciferase reporter and RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assays. The protein levels of IGF2 were tested by Western blot. RESULTS: SNHG16 and IGF2 were upregulated while miR-370-3p was downregulated in serum of acute pneumonia patients and LPS-induced A549 cells. SNHG16 regulated proliferation, apoptosis and inflammatory cytokines by inhibiting miR-370-3p in LPS-induced A549 cells. MiR-370-3p targeted IGF2 and inhibited LPS-induced inflammatory injury via IGF2 in A549 cells. Furthermore, SNHG16 was verified to promote IGF2 expression by sponging miR-370-3p in A549 cells. CONCLUSION: SNHG16 impeded cell viability and promoted apoptosis, inflammatory injury by targeting IGF2 mediated by miR-370-3p in LPS-induced A549 cells.

10.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 2536, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31824439

RESUMO

Treatment of multi-drug resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli intestinal infections are being hampered by the presence of the mcr-1 (colistin) and tet (tetracycline) resistance genes in these strains. We screened seven traditional Chinese medicines for their ability to synergize with tetracycline to provide an effective new drug for the treatment of animal intestinal diseases caused by MDR E. coli. Our primary screen identified quercetin as a compound that reduced the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of tetracycline against the E. coli standard test strain American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 25922 and clinical isolates fourfold from 4 and 256 µg/mL to 1 and 64 µg/mL, respectively. Low levels of quercetin in combination with tetracycline were bactericidal for clinical E. coli isolates and after 24 h, the differences between this combination and each drug singly were 108 CFU/mL. We used this combination therapy in a mouse infection model and found 100% survival after 48 h compared with <50% for each drug alone. This drug combination also synergized to disrupt the bacterial cell envelope resulting in increased permeability and cell lysis. These data demonstrate that combinatorial screening at low concentrations constitutes an efficient approach to identify clinically relevant quercetin/tetracycline combinations and is a valuable prototypical combination that has a high clinical potential against E. coli infections.

11.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 35(11): 2104-2120, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814358

RESUMO

Phthalates esters (PAEs) are important organic compounds used as plasticizers to enhance their plasticity and versatility. At the same time, PAEs are also typical environmental endocrine disruptors. Long-term production and use of plastic products have caused harm to the environment and organisms, as well as human health. Previous studies found that biodegradation has become a main pathway to reduce PAEs in the environment. This article reviews PAEs' structural characteristics and classifications, toxicology, pollution in the environment, summarizes the diversity of PAEs-degrading bacterial species, and explores the possible mechanisms of bacterial PAEs degradation. The article may provide some reference in solving the problem of PAEs pollution.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Ésteres , China , Poluição Ambiental , Ésteres/química , Ésteres/metabolismo , Ácidos Ftálicos/química , Ácidos Ftálicos/metabolismo , Plastificantes/química , Plastificantes/metabolismo
12.
Cell Biochem Biophys ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696435

RESUMO

Candidate oncogene placenta specific 8 (PLAC8) has been identified to participate in different cellular process and human diseases. However, the effects of PLAC8 on cell proliferation and migration in human kidney cancer (KC) remained unclear. In current study, physiological effects of PLAC8 in immortalized human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK293T) were investigated in vitro. Two PLAC8 knockout (KO) cell lines were established via CRISPR/Cas9-mediated methods combined with fluorescence activated single cell sorting. To classify the characteristic of PLAC8 during cell proliferation and migration in HEK293T, cellular proliferative activity was analyzed by cell counting and colony formation assay. Cell cycle distribution was analyzed by flow cytometry. Cellular motile activity was analyzed by wound-healing and migration assay. Further underlying molecular mechanism was explored via western blot. With the KO cell lines, it was found that PLAC8 KO could decrease cell proliferation. Moreover, the inhibitory effects of PLAC8 KO on cell proliferation were associated with a G2/M arrest in cell cycle progression concomitant with a remarkable inhibition of Cyclin B1 and elevation of Cyclin A. The alteration of cell cycle proteins and E-cadherin might further associate with the enhancement of cell motility. Our study revealed a novel role for PLAC8 in cell proliferation and migration of HEK293T cells, which might shed light on further study of PLAC8 on human KC.

13.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692261

RESUMO

Recent studies have reported the anticancer activity of huaier extract in various human malignancies. However, little is known about the effect of huaier extract in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its underlying mechanism. The current study aimed to investigate whether huaier extract affects the progression of NSCLC. mRNA and proteins expression of pyroptotic-related genes (NLRP3, caspase-1, IL-1ß, and IL-18) in NSCLC tissues and cells were, respectively, detected by qRT-PCR and western blot. The effects of huaier extract on NSCLC cell viability and cytotoxicity were evaluated by CCK-8 assay, colony formation assay, and LDH detection kit. Besides, we established a xenograft model to assess the antitumor effect of huaier extract on tumor growth in vivo. Our results showed that the expression of pyroptotic-related genes was downregulated in NSCLC tissues and cell lines. Huaier extract pretreatment inhibited cell viability and the percentage of colony formation of H520 and H358 cells, and upregulated the expression of pyroptotic-related genes. Mechanistically, huaier extract exhibited antitumor effect in NSCLC via inducing NLRP3-dependent pyroptosis in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, our finding confirmed that huaier extract played an antitumor role in NSCLC progression through promoting pyroptotic cell death, which provided a new potential strategy for NSCLC clinical treatment.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726717

RESUMO

Maize straw biochar-supported nanoscale zero-valent iron composite (MSB-nZVI) was prepared for efficient chromium (Cr) removal through alleviating the aggregation of zero-valent iron particles. The removal mechanism of MSB-nZVI was investigated by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solution by MSB-nZVI was greatly affected by pH and initial concentration. The removal efficiency of Cr(VI) decreased with increasing pH, and the removal kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order model. XRD patterns of MSB-nZVI before and after reaction showed that reduction and precipitation/co-precipitation (FeCr2O4, Fe3O4, Fe2O3) occurred with the conversion of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) and Fe(0) to Fe(II)/Fe(III). The produced precipitation/co-precipitation could be deposited on the MSB surface rather than being only coated on the surface of nZVI particles, which can alleviate passivation of nZVI. For remediation of Cr(VI)-contaminated saline-alkali soil (pH 8.6-9.0, Cr 341 mg/kg), the released amount of Cr(VI) was 70.7 mg/kg, while it sharply decreased to 0.6-1.7 mg/kg at pH 4.0-8.0, indicating that the saline-alkali environment inhibited the remediation efficiency. These results show that MSB-nZVI can be used as an effective material for Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solution and contaminated soil.

15.
Biosci Rep ; 39(10)2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652451

RESUMO

Isoflurane/surgery (I/S) may induce neurocognitive disorders, but detailed mechanisms and appropriate treatment remain largely unknown. This experiment was designed to determine whether ginsenoside Rg1 could attenuate I/S-induced neurocognitive disorders and Sirtuin3 (Sirt3) dysfunction. C57BL/6J male mice received 1.4% isoflurane plus abdominal surgery for 2 h. Ginsenoside Rg1 10 mg/kg was intraperitoneally given for 8 days before surgery. Neurocognitive function was assessed by the Barnes Maze test. Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxygen consumption rate (OCR), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), expression and deacetylation activity of Sirt3 in the hippocampus tissues were measured. Results showed that I/S induced hippocampus-dependent learning and memory impairments, with increased ROS levels, and reduced OCR, MMP, and expression and deacetylation activity of Sirt3 in hippocampus tissues. Ginsenoside Rg1 treatment before I/S intervention significantly ameliorated learning and memory performance, reduced ROS levels and improved the OCR, MMP, expression and deacetylation activity of Sirt3. In conclusion, this experiment demonstrates that ginsenoside Rg1 treatment can attenuate I/S-induced neurocognitive disorders and Sirt3 dysfunction.

16.
Plants (Basel) ; 8(10)2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623135

RESUMO

The harsh environmental conditions in alpine tundra exert a significant influence on soil macro-arthropod communities, yet few studies have been performed regarding the effects of vegetation heterogeneity on these communities. In order to better understand this question, a total of 96 soil macro-arthropod samples were collected from four habitats in the Changbai Mountains in China, namely, the Vaccinium uliginosum habitat, Sanguisorba sitchensis habitat, Rhododendron aureum habitat, and Deyeuxia angustifolia habitat. The results revealed that the taxonomic composition of the soil macro-arthropods varied among the habitats, and that dissimilarities existed in these communities. The abundance, richness and diversity in the D. angustifolia habitat were all at their maximum during the sampling period. The vegetation heterogeneity affected the different taxa of the soil macro-arthropods at various levels. In addition, the vegetation heterogeneity had direct effects not only on soil macro-arthropod communities, but also indirectly impacted the abundance, richness and diversity by altering the soil fertility and soil texture. Overall, our results provide experimental evidence that vegetation heterogeneity can promote the abundance, richness and diversity of soil macro-arthropods, yet the responses of soil macro-arthropods to vegetation heterogeneity differed among their taxa.

17.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 85(24)2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585997

RESUMO

c-Type cytochromes (cyts c) are proteins that contain covalently bound heme and that thus require posttranslational modification for activity, a process carried out by the cytochrome c (cyt c) maturation system (referred to as the Ccm system) in many Gram-negative bacteria. It has been established that during cyt c maturation (CCM), two cysteine thiols of the heme binding motif (CXXCH) within apocytochromes c (apocyts c) are first oxidized largely by DsbA to form a disulfide bond, which is later reduced through a thio-reductive pathway involving DsbD. However, the physiological impacts of DsbA proteins on CCM in fact vary significantly among bacteria. In this work, we used the cyt c-rich Gram-negative bacterium Shewanella oneidensis as the research model to clarify the roles of DsbA proteins in CCM. We show that in terms of the oxidation of apocyts c, DsbA proteins are an important but not critical factor, and, strikingly, oxygen is not either. By exploiting the DsbD-independent pathway, we identify DsbA1, DsbA2, and DsbA3 as oxidants contributing to the oxidation of apocyts c and reductants, such as cysteine, to be an effective antagonist against DsbA-independent oxidation. We further show that DsbB proteins are partially responsible for the reoxidization of reduced DsbA proteins. Overall, our results indicate that the DsbA-DsbB redox pair has a limited role in CCM, challenging the established notion that it is the main oxidant for apocyts c IMPORTANCE DsbA is a powerful oxidase that functions in the bacterial periplasm to introduce disulfide bonds in many proteins, including apocytochromes c It has been well established that although DsbA is not essential, it plays a primary role in cytochrome c maturation, based on studies in bacteria hosting several cyts c Here, with cyt c-rich S. oneidensis as a research model, we show that this is not always the case. Moreover, we demonstrate that DsbB is also not essential for cytochrome c maturation. These results underscore the need to identify oxidants other than DsbA/DsbB that are crucial in the oxidation of apocyts c in bacteria.

18.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 2): 113332, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606663

RESUMO

Organophosphate esters (OPEs) in indoor dust were closely related to human health. However, OPE contamination in college library dust remained unknown at present. In this study, OPEs were first investigated in 78 indoor dust samples and 26 field blanks of 26 college libraries from 13 prefecture-level cities across China between October and December 2017. The total OPEs fell in the range of 8706-34872 ng/g, and were dominated by tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP). OPEs exhibited geography-specific distributions, with high levels in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou. OPEs significantly correlated with population density and gross domestic product (p < 0.01), indicating the distinct effect of these two indicators on OPE pollution. Analysis of pollution source indicated volatilization and abrasion as main emission pathways of OPEs from OPEs-added products to dust. The daily exposure doses (DEDs) of OPEs via dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal contact were similar for male and female students, ranging from 1.35 to 5.92 ng/kg-bw/day during study time in libraries (25% of day). High DEDs were found in Beijing, shanghai and Guangzhou, indicating high exposure risk of OPEs to college students in large cities. The non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks of OPEs to college students were quantitatively evaluated based on the oral reference dose and cancer slope factor of OPEs recently updated by USEPA, and all much lower than the threshold risk values. However, the potential risk may occur if exposure to OPEs is high in other microenvironments over remaining hours of the day.


Assuntos
Poeira/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Organofosfatos/análise , Universidades , Pequim , China , Cidades , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ésteres/análise , Feminino , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Humanos , Estados Unidos , United States Environmental Protection Agency
19.
Brain Res Bull ; 153: 239-249, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542427

RESUMO

Chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) is a widely used behavioural paradigm of psychosocial stress that can be used to research the pathogenesis of depression and seek antidepressant drugs. Dammarane sapogenins (DS), the deglycosylated product of ginsenosides, has a wide range of biological activities, including immunomodulatory, antifatigue, antitumour and antidepressant activities. However, whether DS has antidepressant-like effects in a CSDS mouse model remains unknown. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the antidepressant properties of DS in CSDS mice and its underlying mechanisms. The results showed that the oral administration of DS (40 and 80 mg/kg) increased the time spent in the interaction zone in the social interaction test and the sucrose intake in the sucrose preference test, decreased the latency in the novelty-suppressed feeding test, and reduced the immobility time in both the tail suspension test and forced swimming test. Biochemical analyses of brain tissue and serum showed that DS treatment significantly decreased serum corticosterone levels and enhanced brain monoamine neurotransmitter levels in CSDS mice. In addition, an impairment in hippocampal neurogenesis that paralleled a reduced BDNF level in the hippocampus was observed in the mice that were subjected with CSDS for 3 weeks, while treatment with DS reversed these changes. Moreover, DS treatment significantly upregulated BDNF, pTrkB/TrkB, pAkt/Akt, pPI3K/PI3K, pCREB/CREB, pERK1/2/ERK1/2 and pmTOR/mTOR protein expression in the hippocampus. In conclusion, our results showed that DS exerts antidepressant-like effects in mice with CSDS-induced depression, that the effects may be mediated by the normalization of monoamine neurotransmitter levels, the prevention of HPA axis dysfunction and the impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis, and that this occurs partly through the ability of DS to enhance BDNF expression by increasing the TrkB/CREB/ERK pathway and the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway.

20.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 39(9): 936-9, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544380

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compared the therapeutic effect between filiform fire needle assisted 308 nm excimer laser and simple 308 nm excimer laser on vitiligo of different parts. METHODS: Target lesions of 134 patients were divided into an observation group and a control group according to the principle of self-controlled, 201 pieces in each one. In the observation group, filiform fire needle was performed at target lesions. Then target lesions both of the two groups were irradiated with 308 nm excimer laser at the same time. Once every 2 weeks, totally 10 treatments were required. The effective rate and effective rate, color recovery rate and responding time of different parts in the two groups were evaluated 2 weeks after treatment. RESULTS: The effective rate in the observation group was 82.59% (166/201), which was higher than 68.16% (137/201) in the control group (P<0.01). The effective rate of face-neck, trunk, limbs and hand-foot were 90.32%, 81.63%, 81.48% and 58.62% respectively in the observation group, which were higher than 82.80%, 69.39%, 51.85% and 31.03% in the control group (P<0.01, P<0.05). The color recovery rate of different parts in the observation group was higher than the control group, and the effect was faster in the observation group (P<0.01, P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Filiform fire needle as an adjunctive therapy, combined with 308 nm excimer laser are more effective than simple 308 nm excimer laser for vitiligo of different parts. Combination therapy has a shorter responding time, the face-neck has the best effect and hand-foot has poor effect.


Assuntos
Lasers de Excimer , Vitiligo , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Pescoço , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitiligo/terapia
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