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1.
Front Mol Neurosci ; 15: 880858, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35571367

RESUMO

While various septin GTPases have been reported for their physiological functions, their roles in orchestrating complex cognitive/emotional functions in adult mammals remained scarcely explored. A comprehensive behavioral test battery was administered to two sexes of 12-week-old Septin-14 (SEPT14) knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. The sexually dimorphic effects of brain SEPT14 KO on inhibitory avoidance (IA) and hippocampal mGluR5 expression were noticed with greater IA latency and elevated mGluR5 level exclusively in male KO mice. Moreover, SEPT14 KO appeared to be associated with stress-provoked anxiety increase in a stress-related navigation task regardless of animals' sexes. While male and female WT mice demonstrated comparable cell proliferation in the dorsal and ventral hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG), both sexes of SEPT14 KO mice had increased cell proliferation in the ventral DG. Finally, male and female SEPT14 KO mice displayed dampened observational fear conditioning magnitude and learning-provoked corticosterone secretion as compared to their same-sex WT mice. These results, taken together, prompt us to conclude that male, but not female, mice lacking the Septin-14 gene may exhibit increased aversive emotion-related learning and dorsal/ventral hippocampal mGluR5 expressions. Moreover, deletion of SEPT14 may be associated with elevated ventral hippocampal DG cell proliferation and stress-provoked anxiety-like behavior, while dampening vicarious fear conditioning magnitudes.

2.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 211: 114368, 2022 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35597146

RESUMO

In this paper, a photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunosensor was constructed to detect neuron-specific enolase (NSE) with ITO/BiVO4/BiOI/Ag2S as photoanode and ITO/CuInS2 as photocathode. Due to its excellent photocurrent response, Ag2S sensitized BiVO4/BiOI composite was selected to provide stable photocurrent in place of the traditional Pt electrode. ITO/CuInS2 electrode was used to immobilize biomolecules, which solved the deficiency of poor anti-interference ability of single photoanode. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the PEC immunosensor had outstanding linear relationship within the range of NSE concentration from 5 pg/mL-200 ng/mL, and the detection limit was 1.2 pg/mL. The constructed PEC immunosensor had two advantages. On the one hand, the PEC immunosensor was built on the photocathode, which had better anti-interference ability because of the separation of light capture and biomolecular recognition process. On the other hand, the introduction of photoanode increased the photocurrent response and reduced the detection limit of target antigen. The PEC immunosensor had good stability, reproducibility and specificity, and provided a broad prospect for the detection of other molecules.

3.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; : e202201684, 2022 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35484726

RESUMO

Natural products possessing unique scaffolds may have antiviral activity but their complex structures hinder facile synthesis. A pharmacophore-oriented semisynthesis approach was applied to (-)-maoelactone A (1) and oridonin (2) for the discovery of anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents. The Wolff rearrangement/lactonization cascade (WRLC) reaction was developed to construct the unprecedented maoelactone-type scaffold during semisynthesis of 1. Further mechanistic study suggested a concerted mechanism for Wolff rearrangement and a water-assisted stepwise process for lactonization. The WRLC reaction then enabled the creation of a novel family by assembly of the maoelactone-type scaffold and the pharmacophore of 2, whereby one derivative inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication in HPA EpiC cells with a low EC50 value (19±1 nM) and a high TI value (>1000), both values better than those of remdesivir.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; : 155039, 2022 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35390382

RESUMO

Aerobic composting is an economical and effective technology that is widely used to treat animal manure. To study the fate of doxycycline (DOX), the microbial community, and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during composting, aerobic composting of broiler manure and swine manure was carried out under natural environmental conditions. Aerobic composting effectively removed DOX (with a removal rate > 97%) and most ARGs from animal manure. The microbial diversity and the numbers of ARGs were higher in composted swine manure compared with composted broiler manure. The microbial community structure changed during composting, and the dominant phyla of broiler manure and swine manure changed from Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria, respectively. DOX changed the structure and relative abundance of the microbial community during composting, and the relative abundance of multidrug resistance genes and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) increased, which might lead to the risk of transmission of resistance in the environment. The C / N ratio, DOX concentration, Firmicutes, intl1, and intl2 were the key factors driving the change in ARGs during composting. These results help to reveal the effects of DOX on microbial communities, ARGs, and MGEs during composting and clarify the possible ways to reduce the risk of resistance gene transmission in the environment.

5.
Front Oncol ; 12: 844214, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35433440

RESUMO

Cancer pain is an important factor affecting life quality of patients especially in the advanced stage and relieving pain is one of fundamental strategies for cancer treatment. Opioids such as morphine are the most widely used in clinics. However, they have been reported to be associated with the occurrence and development of several types of cancer. Thus, search for an opioid that has analgesic effect and can retard cancer progress simultaneously is critical for cancer management. In this study, we first examined the expression of µ and κ (MOR and KOR) in cell lines and tumor tissues of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a malignant tumor with high mortality, and then compared the effects of opioid receptors-specific agonists on malignant phenotypes of HCC cells in vitro and tumor growth in an HCC xenograft mouse model. KOR and MOR were found to be highly expressed in HCC cell lines and HCC tissues. The KOR-specific agonist U50488h, oxycodone (agonist for both KOR and MOR) and the MOR-specific agonist morphine inhibited HCC cell proliferation, while only U50488h and oxycodone suppressed colony formation and migration of HCC cells. U50488h and oxycodone, but not morphine, induced HCC apoptosis. Further detection of PERK, GRP78 and CHOP revealed that PERK signaling was upregulated by treatment with U50488h, while treatment with the PERK inhibitor GSK2656157 partially reversed the promotion of apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation by U50488h, indicating that endoplasmic reticulum stress is associated with its suppressing effect on HCC malignant phenotypes. Similar to the in vitro results, HCC growth was significantly reduced by administration of U50488h and oxycodone, but not by morphine, in the HCC xenograft mouse model. PERK and caspase-3 in the HCC tissues were up-regulated by U50488h treatment as detected by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Taken together, our results revealed that activation of KOR by U50488h inhibited malignant phenotypes of HCC both in vitro and in vivo, while activation of MOR by morphine did not have such effect. Because of their dual roles in the relief of pain and in the suppression of malignant phenotypes, opioids such as U50488h that act on KOR should be considered as the first choice for HCC management.

6.
Small Methods ; : e2200260, 2022 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35466585

RESUMO

Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have made significant progress in power conversion efficiency (PCE) by optimizing deposition method, composition, interface, etc. Although the two-step method demonstrates the advantage of being easy to operate, too much residual PbI2 not only forms defect centers, but affects the perovskite crystallization by arising more grain boundaries (GBs) due to the easy-to-crystallize nature of PbI2 . And GBs in polycrystalline perovskite usually provide main channel for ion migration, leading to accumulation of charges at the interface to form a barrier, thus reducing carrier mobility and resulting in degradation of perovskite devices. Here, an organic molecule N-(4-acetylphenyl)maleimide (N-APMI) is used to modify interface between perovskite and hole transport layer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, and nuclear magnetic resonance results show that ketone group (CO) in N-APMI forms a strong coordination with Pb2+ , which effectively reduces the residual amount of PbI2 nanoparticles on the perovskite surface, giving rise to improved crystallization of perovskite. Temperature-dependent current response demonstrates that ion migration is effectively suppressed, and hole mobility validly increases from 10.74 to 19.48 cm2 V-1 s-1 , leading to a champion fill factor (FF) of 82.5% (PCE 21.96%), and the maximum PCE of the device improves from 20.09% to 23.03%.

7.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 207: 114196, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35325720

RESUMO

Generally, the photoanodic photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunoassay method has an outstanding photocurrent and low detection limit, but its poor anti-interference ability in the detection of real samples restricts its performance. The photocathode immunoassay method has an excellent ability to see interference in actual sample detection, but it has its own defect in that the photocurrent is not obvious. Here, a promising new cathodic PEC immunosensing platform is reported, which integrates a photocathode and photoanode. The photoanode and photocathode are WO3/Mn:CdS composite modified and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes, respectively. In addition to an excellent PEC response, the immunosensor constructed by the integrating the photoanode and photocathode also has good anti-interference ability in actual sample analysis. The constructed immunosensor achieves accurate detection of NSE with a range from 5.0 pg/mL to 20 ng/mL, and the limit of detection (LOD) is 1.2 pg/mL. The proposed immunoassay method has good stability, selectivity and reproducibility. Moreover, it introduces new ideas for the construction of PEC immunosensors.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Nanoestruturas , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Grafite , Imunoensaio , Limite de Detecção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
Front Oncol ; 12: 796738, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35141162

RESUMO

Patients with extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL), nasal type are benefit from peg-asparaginase, gemcitabine, and methotrexate. Therefore, we conducted a prospective phase II trial using a combination of these drugs as GAD-M regimen in naïve ENKTL patients, simultaneously, explored the combinational mechanism. The GAD-M regimen was administered for 6 cycles sandwiched by radiotherapy for stage I/II and 6 cycles for stage III/IV patients. After 6 cycles, the overall response rate of 36 patients was 91.6%, and the complete remission rate increased to 83.3%. The 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 74.8% and 77.8%, respectively. The 5-year PFS and OS were 68.3% and 77.8%. No patient suffered from the central nervous system (CNS) relapse. Most patients experienced recoverable liver dysfunction and anemia in this study. The plasma MTX concentration ratio at 12 to 24 hr during the first cycle could be an early predictor of outcomes in ENKTL (PFS, P=0.005; OS, P=0.002). Additionally, we found that high dose MTX (HD-MTX) and gemcitabine had the synergistic effect of ENKTL cell in vitro. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that the combination could lead to obviously apoptosis in ENKTL cell with extremely release of reactive oxygen spices (ROS), which mediated by endoplasmic reticulum stress. In conclusion, the GAD-M regimen could be a new choice to newly diagnosed ENKTL, especially for stage I/II patients. Furthermore, our results showed the synergy effect of HD-MTX with gemcitabine in ENKTL. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01991158.

9.
Sci Total Environ ; 818: 151767, 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34801490

RESUMO

Plasmid-mediated, transmissible, tigecycline-inactivating enzyme Tet(X) has attracted considerable public attention. However, so far studies have not addressed its impact on public health and the ecosystem. Herein, we report the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of tet(X)-positive bacteria (TPB) from diverse sources, investigate the host-specificity of TPB and the transferability of tet(X). Sample collection was conducted between 2018 and 2020 in 30 provinces in China. PCR screening suggested tet(X) was prevalent among freshwater fishes (24.7%, 95% CI 19.4-30.7%), followed by chickens (23.6%, 21.2-26.2%), cattle (19.3%, 16.4-22.5%), healthy individuals (6.2%, 5.4-7.1%), and patients (0.3%, 0.0-1.1%). Soil and freshwater samples all tested negative for tet(X). A total of 289 TPB were isolated from 7516 samples (120/1181 chicken, 82/669 cattle, 68/3229 healthy individual, 17/239 freshwater fish and 2/2121 clinical samples). TPB distributed in six major families of bacteria including Moraxellaceae (n = 99, 34.3%), Flavobacteriaceae (n = 95, 32.9%), Enterobacteriaceae (n = 83, 28.7%), Pseudomonadaceae (n = 9, 3.1%), Sphingobacteriaceae (n = 2, 0.7%) and unclassified Gammaproteobacteria (n = 1, 0.3%). Diverse tet(X) genes including tet(X2), tet(X3), tet(X4), tet(X5) and tet(X6) were identified from different TPB. The tet(X)-positive bacteria were highly diverse, with ST10 complex belonging to the dominant E. coli clone. Novel hosts of tet(X) including Enterobacter hormaechei, Ignatzschineria indica and Oblitimonas alkaliphila were identified. Isolates from different families exhibited different antimicrobial resistance profiles. Co-existence of tet(X) with other resistance genes such as floR (66.8%) and carbapenemase genes (33.2%) was commonly observed. tet(X) could be transferred among E. coli isolates at frequencies from 10-4 to 10-10. Species other than E. coli failed to transfer tet(X) gene to the E. coli recipient via conjugation. Discriminant analysis of principal components analysis suggested inter-host transmission of tet(X)-positive E. coli among diverse hosts was not observed. Future studies are needed to monitor the transmission trend as well as the impact of this resistance gene in clinical infection control.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Escherichia coli , Animais , Antibacterianos , Bactérias/genética , Bovinos , Galinhas/genética , China/epidemiologia , Genômica , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Epidemiologia Molecular , Plasmídeos , Prevalência
10.
Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 16(1): 21-31, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34937459

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: With the progress of science and technology, artificial intelligence represented by deep learning has gradually begun to be applied in the medical field. Artificial intelligence has been applied to benign gastrointestinal lesions, tumors, early cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, gallbladder, pancreas, and other diseases. This review summarizes the latest research results on artificial intelligence in digestive endoscopy and discusses the prospect of artificial intelligence in digestive system diseases. AREAS COVERED: We retrieved relevant documents on artificial intelligence in digestive tract diseases from PubMed and Medline. This review elaborates on the knowledge of computer-aided diagnosis in digestive endoscopy. EXPERT OPINION: Artificial intelligence significantly improves diagnostic accuracy, reduces physicians' workload, and provides a shred of evidence for clinical diagnosis and treatment. Shortly, artificial intelligence will have high application value in the field of medicine.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Digestório/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Digestório/terapia , Endoscopia do Sistema Digestório , Inteligência Artificial , Humanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
11.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131641, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325263

RESUMO

The photolysis of amlodipine (AML) as a ubiquitous pollutant in natural water has been extensively studied. Montmorillonite (MMT), a major component of suspended particles in surface aquifers, plays key roles in the natural transportation and transformation of organic contaminants in the environment. However, literature has scarcely focused on whether and how suspended particles affect the phototransformation of AML. This study systematically investigated the phototransformation behavior of AML in MMT suspensions under simulated sunlight. The results obtained showed that MMT significantly enhanced the photolysis of AML. The photodegradation of AML in 0.05 g/L MMT suspension reached 92.2 % after 3 h irradiation under the simulated sunlight. The photodecomposition followed the pseudo-first-order kinetic with a rate constant of 0.803 h-1 in the presence of 0.05 g/L MMT, which is about 19 times larger than that in the absence of MMT (0.0421 h-1). Further mechanistic investigation suggested that MMT accelerated the photolysis of AML by the formation of surface complexes between cationic amino groups of AML and the negatively charged sites on MMT surface, which greatly facilitated light absorption and electron transfer for the production of cationic radical AML+·. Meanwhile, the hydroxyl radicals generated by irradiated MMT also played an important role in the photocatalytic degradation of AML. The probable photodegradation pathways of AML in MMT suspension further supported the proposed mechanisms. The toxicity evaluation of phototransformation products of AML with ECOSAR program indicated that photolysis could reduce its potential threats. These findings reveal an important and previously overlooked phototransformation mechanisms of AML in the presence of MMT clays, which is of importance in assessing the environmental fate of other similar organic contaminants.


Assuntos
Bentonita , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Anlodipino , Cinética , Fotólise , Luz Solar , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
12.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 4): 132412, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597650

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) in the environment would undergo extensive weathering, which can act as a vector affecting the accumulation of pollutants in organisms. However, the risk of organic pollutants adsorbed on aged MPs to marine organisms is poorly understood. This study revealed the contribution of aged polystyrene (PS) MPs to the total bioaccumulation of atorvastatin (ATV) and amlodipine (AML), and assessed the environmental risks via experimental and model analysis. The results showed that pharmaceuticals were more easily released in gastrointestinal fluids from aged MPs relative to that in simulated seawater. The hydrophobic pharmaceuticals were more bioaccessible than hydrophilic ones by organisms. Model analysis showed that ingestion of water and food were the most important uptake routes for pharmaceuticals in marine fish and seabirds, while aged PS MPs could decrease the bioaccumulation of pharmaceuticals (contributed for -2.9% and -1.2% for the total uptake of ATV, and -25.8% and -4.4% for AML), indicating the cleaning effect of aged MPs, and the potential higher exposure risks of pharmaceuticals in warm-blooded organisms than that in cold-blooded ones via ingested MPs. The study revealed the effect of aged MPs to the bioaccumulation of pharmaceuticals in marine organisms, and highlighted the combined risks of aged MPs and pharmaceuticals in the environment.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/metabolismo , Bioacumulação , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Poliestirenos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(49): 58458-58466, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34866375

RESUMO

Perovskite defect passivation with molecule doping shows great potential in boosting the efficiency and stability of perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Herein, an efficient and low-cost bifunctional Lewis base additive d-tryptophan is introduced to control the crystallization and growth of perovskite grains and passivation defects. It is found that the additive doped in the solution precursors could retard crystal growth by increasing activation energy, resulting in improved crystallization of large grains with reduced grain boundaries, as well as inhibiting ion migration and PbI2 aggregation. As a result, the PSCs incorporated with d-tryptophan additives achieve an improved power conversion efficiency from 18.18 to 21.55%. Moreover, the d-tryptophan passivation agent improves the device stability, which retains 86.85% of its initial efficiency under ambient conditions at room temperature after 500 h. This work provides Lewis base small-molecule d-tryptophan for efficient defect passivation of the grain boundaries toward efficient and stable PSCs.

14.
China CDC Wkly ; 3(47): 1005-1013, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34888116

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial resistance has become a major public health threat globally. The prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infections increased substantially among inpatients under 18 years of age in recent years. In Zhejiang Province, China, the trends of drug-resistance in non-adult patients from 2014 to 2019 were monitored, aiming to determine the variation patterns and epidemiological features of MDR strains. METHODS: Patient data were collected from the Annual Review of Hospital Infection Resistance Survey in Zhejiang Province, 2014-2019. Statistical analysis was performed to analyze the pattern of distribution of five key bacterial pathogens in different age groups, ward settings, and bloodstream infections. RESULTS: From 2014 to 2019, a total of 30,163 multidrug-resistant strains were identified among 212,252 clinical isolates. The prevalence of extended spectrum ß-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E), carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA), and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were 40.6%, 2.3%, 14.7%, 9.0%, and 27.4%, respectively. The prevalence of these key pathogens was lower than that reported in the national surveillance system (China Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System and Infectious Diseases Surveillance of Pediatrics). The prevalence of ESBL-E and CRE decreased since 2015 but that of CRPA and MRSA increased from 2014 to 2018. CONCLUSIONS: Despite an overall decrease in the prevalence of drug-resistant bacteria in 2019, the rising prevalence of MRSA and CRPA still warrant much attention. Multidrug-resistant bacteria prevention and control strategies should be adjusted in a timely manner based on the surveillance results.

15.
Front Oncol ; 11: 769807, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34900720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancers are the most common endocrine malignancies with a dramatic increase in incidences. Anaplastic thyroid cancer is a rare but deadly form among thyroid cancers. To better understand of this field, we assessed the global scientific outputs and tried to depict its overview via bibliometric methods. METHODS: Approximately 1,492 science publications published between 1997 and 2020 were included by systematic retrieval in the WoS database. The general information of them was characterized, and the developmental skeleton and research frontiers were explored. RESULTS: The article number in this field has been increasing in the past 24 years. North America, East Asia, and Western Europe have reached remarkable achievements. Mutations of BARF and TERT and their downstream pathways have attracted researchers' attention, where genetic diagnosis provides new clinical insight and several targeted therapeutic approaches have been on the clinical trial. CONCLUSIONS: Numerous efforts have been made to figure out gene expression reprogramming of anaplastic thyroid cancer and key mechanism in driving its dedifferentiation, invasion and migration process. Targeted therapy, immunotherapy, and systematic combination therapy are the recent current research hotspots. These results provide insightful clues for the funding direction and the potential breakthrough direction of the anaplastic thyroid cancer study.

16.
Int J Gen Med ; 14: 9361-9369, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34908865

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sharp-pointed FBs with both sides embedded in the duodenal wall are rare. Compared with smooth edged FBs, sharp objects are more likely to be associated with significant adverse events, when penetrating the wall of the digestive tract. The clinical features of patients who experienced sharp-pointed FBs embedded in both sides of the duodenum were retrospectively analyzed, as were the efficacy and safety of endoscopic removal of these FBs. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 21 adults with both sides of sharp-pointed FBs embedded into the duodenal wall who were admitted to the Second Xiangya Hospital in China between January 1, 1996, and May 31, 2021. Data associated with the endoscopic removal of these FBs were collected from the electronic medical record system (EMRS) of the hospital. RESULTS: The incidence rate of duodenal total FBs and FBs embedded in both sides was 8.87% and 1.03%, respectively. The success rate of endoscopic treatment was 100.00% in 124 patients without embedded duodenal FBs and 97.14% in 35 patients with one side embedded duodenal FBs. Of the 21 patients with FBs embedded in both sides of the duodenal wall, endoscopic removal was successful in 85.71% of patients, whereas 14.29% required surgery. FBs removed from these patients included toothpicks in 12; needles in 3; jujube pits in 2; and a chopstick, dentures, fish bones, and chicken bones in one each. Most of these 21 FBs were located in the bulb and descending duodenum, followed by the third part of duodenum. CONCLUSION: Sharp-edged FBs with both sides embedded in the duodenal wall are rare. Endoscopic removal may be considered as a feasible, safe, and effective method of removing sharp-pointed FBs with both sides embedded in the duodenal wall. And if endoscopic removal is unsuccessful, surgical management can be a secondary option.

17.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 754876, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34899308

RESUMO

Illegal use of salbutamol (SAL), a ß-adrenergic leanness-enhancing agent, has posed potential threat to human health in China. The excretion and depletion of SAL in pigs and goats were investigated, and the concentration correlations between edible tissues and living samples were analyzed to find out a suitable living sample for pre-slaughter monitoring of SAL in pigs and goats. After a single oral dosage of 1.2 mg/kg SAL, approximately 70% of the dose was excreted by pigs and goats from their excreta. When pigs and goats were supplied feed containing SAL (20 mg/kg) for 14 consecutive days, high concentrations of SAL were observed in the liver and kidneys, and the longest persistence was observed in hair. Unlike pigs, SAL was presented primarily as conjugated SAL in goats. Excellent concentration correlations of SAL were observed between urine and edible tissues both in pigs and goats, and in addition, good correlations also were found between hair and edible tissues in pigs and between feces and edible tissues in goats. Hence, urine and hair could accurately predict SAL concentrations in edible tissues of pigs, whereas feces and urine were satisfactory for predicting SAL concentrations in edible tissues of goats. These data make it possible for pre-slaughter monitoring of SAL residues in the edible tissues of pigs and goats.

18.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 736525, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34745037

RESUMO

Suan zuo rou (SZR), a traditional fermented meat from Guizhou province, China, is loved by local people for its unique flavor and nutritional value. However, the microbial communities and related flavor characteristics of SZR from different regions of Guizhou are unclear. We studied the correlation between the microbial communities and the physicochemical properties and volatile flavor compounds (VFCs) of 15 SZR samples from three regions in Guizhou province. The microbial community structure of SZR was determined by high-throughput sequencing and VFCs were identified by headspace-solid phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results indicated that the microbial communities of SZR varied among the regions, as evidenced by the relative abundance of Weissella, Staphylococcus, Brochothrix, Kazachstania, and Debaryomces. There were also significant differences in pH, water activity, NaCl, and total volatile basic nitrogen (P < 0.05). Based on orthogonal projections to latent structures and Pearson's correlation coefficient, we showed that Wickerhamomyces, Kazachstania, Lactobacillus, Weissella, Brochothrix, Debaryomyces, Staphylococcus, Pediococcus, Pichia, Candida, and Leuconostoc were highly correlated with 48 VFCs (| ρ| > 0.8, P < 0.05). Redundancy analysis showed that most of the dominant bacteria were positively related to water activity, whereas Lactobacillus was positively related with pH, and negatively related with total volatile basic nitrogen.

19.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 748, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal health services are essential for reducing maternal and newborn mortality. However, maternal health service status in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) remains poorly understood. This study aims to explore the trends of antenatal care (ANC) and skilled birth attendance coverage in the past decade in the DRC. METHODS: The 13,361 participants were from two rounds of Multiple Indicators Cluster Survey (MICS) conducted by the National Institute of Statistics of the Ministry of Planning of the DRC, in collaboration with the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), in 2010 and 2017-2018. A regression-based method was adopted to calculate adjusted coverage of ANC and skilled birth attendance. Subgroup analysis based on different socioeconomic status (SES) was conducted to explore the impact of domestic conflicts. RESULTS: From 2010 to 2018, the overall weighted ANC coverage in the DRC declined from 87.3 % (95 % CI 86.1-88.0 %) to 82.4 % (95 % CI 81.1-84.0 %), while the overall weighted skilled birth attendance coverage increased from 74.2 % (95 % CI 72.5-76.0 %) to 85.2 % (95 % CI 84.1-86.0 %). Adjusted ANC coverage and adjusted skilled birth attendant coverage both declined in Kasai Oriental, but increased in Nord Kivu and Sud Kivu. In Kasai Occidental, ANC coverage declined, but skilled birth coverage increased. In the Kasai region, the largest decline in adjusted coverage of ANC was found among the poorest women. However, in the Kivu region, both the adjusted coverage of ANC and skilled birth attendance increased among the poorest women. CONCLUSIONS: Due to ongoing conflicts, there has been a systemic deterioration of maternal healthcare coverage in some regions of the DRC, particularly among people with low SES. However, in other regions, maternal healthcare services were not severely disrupted possibly due to substantial international health assistance.


Assuntos
Utilização de Instalações e Serviços/tendências , Serviços de Saúde Materna/tendências , Cuidado Pré-Natal/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Conflitos Armados/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , República Democrática do Congo/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Classe Social , Adulto Jovem
20.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(23): 15810-15820, 2021 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757731

RESUMO

We investigated the photoaging of polypropylene (PP) microplastics (MPs) in lake water. The results showed that photoaging of PP MPs was significantly inhibited in lake water compared with ultrapure water after 12 d of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, and humic acid and fulvic acid, rather than carbonate (CO32-), nitrate (NO3-), or chloride (Cl-) ions, were identified as the primary contributors to the observed inhibition. Mechanisms for the roles of humic acid (Suwannee River humic acid) and fulvic acid (Pony Lake fulvic acid) in reducing the rates of photodegradation showed that humic acid and fulvic acid acted as both reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers (e.g., of •OH) (dominant contribution) and optical light filters. As ROS scavengers, humic acid and fulvic acid significantly decreased the capacity for the formation of •OH and O2•- by PP MPs under irradiation. In addition, the chromophores in humic acid and fulvic acid competed for photons with MPs through the light-shielding effect, thereby causing less fragmentation of PP particles and changes in other properties (melting temperature, contact angle, and surface zeta potential). The proposed mechanisms for inhibition by humic acid and fulvic acid will aid our efforts to assess the duration of aging and alterations of MP properties during long-term weathering in natural waters.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Benzopiranos , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Lagos , Plásticos , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
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