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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2190: 229-248, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804369

RESUMO

A fundamental question in precision medicine is to quantitatively decode the genetic basis of complex human diseases, which will enable the development of predictive models of disease risks based on personal genome sequences. To account for the complex systems within different cellular contexts, large-scale regulatory networks are critical components to be integrated into the analysis. Based on the fast accumulation of multiomics and disease genetics data, advanced machine learning algorithms and efficient computational tools are becoming the driving force in predicting phenotypes from genotypes, identifying potential causal genetic variants, and revealing disease mechanisms. Here, we review the state-of-the-art methods for this topic and describe a computational pipeline that assembles a series of algorithms together to achieve improved disease genetics prediction through the delineation of regulatory circuitry step by step.

2.
Food Chem ; 337: 127767, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799162

RESUMO

Egg yolks are a good source of folates. However, the method for analyzing the naturally occurring folates in egg yolks is complicated and time-consuming. In this study, a simplified pre-treatment method followed by validated HPLC-MS/MS was developed to determine native folates in eggs from laying hens treated with different amounts of folic acid. The modified enhanced matrix removal -lipid method to purify samples showed good performance in lipid elimination, reduction of steps and time savings. According to experimental analysis, yolks contained total folate amounts ranging from 147 to 760 µg/100 g when laying hens' diet was supplemented with folic acid from 0 to 10 mg/kg. Four folate vitamers were detected in egg yolks: 5-methyltetrahydrofolate accounted for 91-98% of total folates, whereas folic acid, 5-formyltetrahydrofolate and 10-formylfolic acid together accounted for 2-9%. Therefore, laying hens efficiently converted folic acid in feed into 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in eggs with little folic acid deposition.

3.
J Food Sci ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001454

RESUMO

The mechanism underlying the effect of ursolic acid (UA) on lipid metabolism remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the mechanisms of UA in reducing lipid accumulation in free fatty acids-cultured HepG2 cells and in high-fat-diet-fed C57BL/6J mice. In vivo, UA effectively alleviated liver steatosis and decreased the size of adipocytes in the epididymis. It also significantly decreased the total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) contents in the liver and plasma in C57BL/6 mice. In vitro, UA (20 µM) significantly reduced lipid accumulation; the intracellular TC contents decreased from 0.078 ± 0.0047 to 0.049 ± 0.0064 µmol/mg protein, and TG contents from 0.133 ± 0.005 to 0.066 ± 0.0047 µmol/mg protein, in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, UA reduced the mRNA expression related to fat synthesis, enhanced the mRNA expression related to adipose decomposition, and dramatically upregulated the protein expression of P-AMPK in vivo and in vitro. Of note, these protective effects of UA on a high-fat environment were blocked by the AMPK inhibitor (compound C) in vitro. In addition, the molecular docking results suggested that UA could be docked to the AMPK protein as an AMPK activator. These results indicated that UA lowered the lipid content probably via activating the AMPK signaling pathway, thereby inhibiting lipid synthesis and promoting fat decomposition. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Ursolic acid (UA) widely exists in vegetables and fruits. This study highlighted a lipid-lowing mechanism of UA in HepG2 cells and C57BL/6J mice. The data indicated that UA might be used in lipid-lowering functional foods.

4.
Parasitol Res ; 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009944

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to establish an animal model of Neospora caninum infection in pregnant BALB/c mice infected with different doses of N. caninum tachyzoites. After infection, the female BALB/c mice were housed with male BALB/c mice. The aim of this study was to observe clinical signs and pathological changes, detect Nc5 gene expression in the main organs, and measure the wet weight and coefficient of the placenta of the pregnant mice. In addition, the level of cytokines and placental hormones in the serum was measured in pregnant mice. Our results showed that the optimal dose of the mice in the infected model was 105 tachyzoites. The infected pregnant mice presented with various clinical signs, including depression, ataxia, and variable mortality. Pathological observations of the brain, liver, and spleen in the mice exhibited hyperemia, bleeding, and swelling. Moreover, N. caninum tissue cysts or tachyzoites were observed in the brain, liver, and spleen tissues by hematoxylin-eosin (HE). The Nc5 gene was detected in the brain, liver, spleen, and placental tissues of the mice. With the increase in infection days, the weight of the placenta in the model mice increased, and the placenta ratio decreased gradually. Compared with the control group, the placenta weight and placental ratio were significantly different (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the levels of the placental hormones, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), chorionic gonadotropin (CG), prolactin (PRL), and estriol (E3), and cytokines IFN-γ, IL-4, and TGF-ß were differentially expressed between the model and the control group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), which indicated that infection with N. caninum caused an imbalance in the regulatory function of the placental hormones and cytokines in pregnant mice. A pregnant mouse model of N. caninum infection was successfully established in this study, providing a foundation for the study of the pathogenic mechanisms of N. caninum.

5.
Biomater Sci ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026364

RESUMO

Peptides have shown great potential in cancer treatment due to their good biocompatibility and low toxicity. However, the bioavailability and adverse immune response of peptides limit their further translation from bench to bedside. Over the past few decades, various peptide-based nanomaterials have been developed for drug delivery and cancer treatment. Compared with therapeutic peptides alone, self-assembled peptide nanomaterials have obvious advantages, such as improved stability and biodistribution for high-performance cancer therapy. In this review, we have described the synthesis, self-assembly and the anti-cancer application of therapeutic peptides and their conjugates, particularly polymer-peptide conjugates (PPCs).

6.
BMC Med Genet ; 21(1): 192, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Joubert syndrome (OMIM 213300) is an autosomal recessive disorder with gene heterogeneity. Causal genes and their variants have been identified by sequencing or other technologies for Joubert syndrome subtypes. CASE PRESENTATION: A two-year-old boy was diagnosed with Joubert syndrome by global development delay and molar tooth sign of mid-brain. Whole exome sequencing was performed to detect the causative gene variants in this individual, and the candidate pathogenic variants were verified by Sanger sequencing. We identified two pathogenic variants (NM_006346.2: c.1147delC and c.1054A > G) of PIBF1 in this Joubert syndrome individual, which is consistent with the mode of autosomal recessive inheritance. CONCLUSION: In this study, we identified two novel pathogenic variants in PIBF1 in a Joubert syndrome individual using whole exome sequencing, thereby expanding the PIBF1 pathogenic variant spectrum of Joubert syndrome.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017504

RESUMO

Lithium oxygen (Li-O 2 ) batteries have attracted extensive research interest due to their high energy density. Other than Li 2 O 2 (a typical discharge product in Li-O 2 batteries), LiOH is proved to be electrochemically active as an alternative product. Here we report a simple strategy to achieve a reversible LiOH based Li-O 2 battery with the use of a cation additive, sodium ions, to the lithium electrolyte. Without redox mediators in the cell, LiOH is detected as the sole discharge product and it charges at a low charge potential of 3.4 V. A solution-based reaction route is proposed, showing that the competing solvation environment of the catalyst and Li + leads to LiOH precipitation at the cathode. It is critical to tune the cell chemistry of Li-O 2 batteries by designing a simple system to promote LiOH formation/decomposition.

8.
J Appl Microbiol ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021028

RESUMO

AIMS: Ammonia oxidation is a significant process of nitrogen cycles in a lot of ecosystems sediments, while there are few studies in shrimp culture pond (SCP) sediments. This paper attempted to explore the community diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in SCP sediments at different culture stages. METHODS AND RESULTS: We collected SCP sediments and analyzed the community diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria in shrimp pond sediment at different culture stages using the ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) gene with quantitative PCR (qPCR) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The AOB-amoA gene abundance was showed higher than AOA-amoA gene abundance in SCP sediments on Day 50 and Day 60 after shrimp larvae introducing into the pond, and the diversity of AOA in SCP sediments was higher than that of AOB. The phylogenetic tree revealed that the most of AOA were the member of Nitrosopumilus and Nitrososphaera, and the majority of AOB sequences were clustered into Nitrosospira, Nitrosomonas cluster 6a and 7. The AOA community has close relationship with total organic carbon (TOC), pH, total phosphorus (TP), nitrate reductase, urease, acid phosphatase and ß-glucosidase. The AOB community was related to TOC, C/N and nitrate reductase. CONCLUSIONS: AOA and AOB play the different ecological roles in SCP sediments at different culture stages. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Our results suggested that the different community diversity and abundance of AOA and AOB in SCP sediments, which may improve our ecological cognition of shrimp culture stages in SCP ecosystems.

9.
Sci Total Environ ; 755(Pt 1): 142507, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032134

RESUMO

Although the adverse health effects caused by PM2.5 (particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm) and PM10 (PM with an aerodynamic diameter <10 µm) have been examined in numeric studies, far less scientific evidence is available for PM with an aerodynamic diameter <1 µm (PM1). We performed a time series analysis to elucidate the associations between PM1 exposure and emergency department visits (EDVs) in 19 hospitals within Beijing. During the study period from January 2016 to December 2017, the average PM1 (mean ± standard deviation) was determined to be 39 ± 39 µg/m3, which was approximately 36% lower than that of 61 ± 56 µg/m3 for PM2.5. Results based on meta-analysis suggest that non-accidental and respiratory EDVs increased by 0.47% (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.35, 0.59%) and 0.59% (95%CI: 0.38, 0.8%) per 10 µg/m3 uptick in PM1 exposure. By comparison, the magnitude downgraded to 0.27% (95%CI: 0.15, 0.39%) in non-accidental and 0.32% (95%CI: 0.18, 0.47%) in respiratory EDVs for PM2.5 exposure, indicating that PMs of a smaller size may be a higher risk factor for EDVs. No significant differences in PM-associated EDV effects were noted between males and females, while stratified analysis by age and season illustrated that stronger effects were found for a warm season and young population. Our analysis reinforces the notion that PM1 exhibited a higher risk for EDVs, suggesting more efforts may be required to mitigate PM1 pollution.

10.
Biomed Eng Online ; 19(1): 76, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028306

RESUMO

Three-dimensional (3D) printing is widely used in medicine. Most research remains focused on forming rigid anatomical models, but moving from static models to dynamic functionality could greatly aid preoperative surgical planning. This work reviews literature on dynamic 3D heart models made of flexible materials for use with a mock circulatory system. Such models allow simulation of surgical procedures under mock physiological conditions, and are; therefore, potentially very useful to clinical practice. For example, anatomical models of mitral regurgitation could provide a better display of lesion area, while dynamic 3D models could further simulate in vitro hemodynamics. Dynamic 3D models could also be used in setting standards for certain parameters for function evaluation, such as flow reserve fraction in coronary heart disease. As a bridge between medical image and clinical aid, 3D printing is now gradually changing the traditional pattern of diagnosis and treatment.

11.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 301, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is an animal virus that is globally responsible for the high economic losses in the swine industry. Isatis root is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb that possesses immune-enhancing and antiviral properties. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of the active component of the isatis root polysaccharide (IRPS) extract on immature dendritic cells remain elusive. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the molecular changes in primary porcine peripheral blood monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs) during PRV infection, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Additionally, we studied the effect of IRPS on PRV-infected DCs. RESULTS: The results showed that IRPS stimulated the maturation of MoDCs, induced IL-12 secretion, and downregulated IL-6 expression. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these results suggest that IRPS is a promising candidate for promoting maturation of DCs and enhancing their secretory potential after PRV infection.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036988

RESUMO

Influent and effluent wastewater at the Rya treatment plant in Gothenburg, Sweden, were continuously monitored for enteric viruses by qPCR during one year. Viruses in effluent wastewater were also identified by next generation sequencing (NGS) in samples collected during spring, early summer and winter. Samples of incoming wastewater were collected every second week. Seasonal variations in viral concentrations in incoming wastewater were found for noroviruses GII, sapovirus, rotavirus, parechovirus and astrovirus. Norovirus GI and GIV and aichi virus were present in varying amounts during most weeks throughout the year, while hepatitis A virus, enterovirus and adenovirus were identified less frequently. Fluctuations in viral concentrations in incoming wastewater were related to the number of diagnosed patients. The viruses were also detected in treated wastewater, however, with a 3-6 log10 reduction in concentration. Seven different hepatitis E virus (HEV) strains were identified in the effluents. Five of these strains belonged to genotype 3 and have been isolated in Sweden from swine, wild boar, humans and in drinking water. The other two strains were divergent and had not been identified previously. They were similar to strains infecting rats and humans. Surveillance of enteric viruses in wastewater is a tool for early detection and follow-up of gastroenteritis outbreaks in the society, and for the identification of new viruses that can cause infection in humans.ImportanceBoth influent and treated wastewater at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) contain a high variety of human viral pathogens with seasonal variability when followed for one year. The peak of the amount of 11 different viruses in the inlet wastewater preceded the peak of the number of diagnosed patients with 2-4 weeks. The treatment of wastewater reduced the viral concentrations by 3-6 log10 Despite the treatment of wastewater, up to 5 log10 virus particles per L were released from into the surrounding river. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) strains previously identified in drinking water and two new strains, similar to those infecting rats and humans were identified in the treated wastewater released from the WWTP.

13.
Mol Cancer Res ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037085

RESUMO

It is commonly accepted that cellular protein levels are primarily determined by mRNA levels. However, discordance between protein and mRNA expression has been implicated in many pathological conditions including oncogenesis. The mechanisms involved in this discordance are complicated and far from understood. In this study, it was observed that the expression levels of PCBP2 mRNA and protein were diametric in breast normal and cancer cell lines, paraffin-embedded and fresh tissue specimens, consistent with data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC). Moreover, PCBP2 protein expression was significantly associated with disease progression and poor outcome in patients with breast cancer. Depletion of PCBP2 protein inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation, migration, invasion and in vivo tumor growth and metastasis. Forced expression of PCBP2 exhibited the opposite effect. Mechanistically, it was demonstrated that PCBP2 3'UTR was subject to alternative splicing and polyadenylation (APA) in breast cancer tissues and cell lines. Non-full-length 3'UTR PCBP2 transcripts yielded more protein than the full-length 3'UTR transcripts and enhanced the oncogenic and metastatic capacities of human breast cancer cells. Furthermore, UFD1 and NT5E were identified as genes downstream of PCBP2. PCBP2 promoted oncogenicity of breast cancer cells via upregulation of the expression of UFD1 and NT5E by direct binding to their 3'UTR-B portions. Implications: Findings demonstrate that APA of PCBP2 3'UTR contributes to its increased expression with subsequent promotion of breast cancer progression by regulating UFD1 and NT5E.

14.
Cardiovasc Ther ; 2020: 8138764, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33042225

RESUMO

Background: Despite evidence for beneficial effects of Qishen Yiqi Drop Pill (QSYQ) on congestive heart failure, the majority of studies are based on insufficient sample sizes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of QSYQ using a meta-analysis approach. Methodology/Principal Findings. All relevant studies published before December 31, 2019, were identified by searches of various databases with key search terms. In total, 85 studies involving 8,579 participants were included. The addition of QSYQ to routine Western medicine increased 6-minute walking distance (SMD = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.72-2.44, p < 0.001), left ventricular ejection fraction (SMD = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.87-1.23, p < 0.001), and cardiac index (SMD = 1.44, 95% CI: 0.92-1.95, p < 0.001) and reduced brain natriuretic peptide (SMD = -2.28, 95% CI: -2.81 to -1.76, p < 0.001), N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (SMD = -2.49, 95% CI: -3.24 to -1.73, p < 0.001), left ventricular end-diastolic dimensions (SMD = -0.92, 95% CI: -1.25 to -0.59, p < 0.001), and left ventricular end-systolic dimensions (SMD = -0.55, 95% CI: -0.89 to -0.21, p < 0.001). The results were stable in subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses. Conclusions: Our current meta-analysis indicated that QSYQ combined with Western therapy might be effective in CHF patients. Further researches are needed to identify which subgroups of CHF patients will benefit most and what kind of combination medicines work best.

15.
Strahlenther Onkol ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Frameless stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) requires dedicated systems to monitor patient motion in order to avoid inaccurate radiation delivery due to involuntary shifts. The purpose of this study is to assess the accuracy and sensitivity of two distinct motion monitoring systems used for frameless SRS. METHODS: A surface image-guided system known as optical surface monitoring system (OSMS), and a fiducial marker-based system known as high definition motion management (HDMM) as part of the latest Gamma Knife Icon® were compared. A 3D printer-based cranial motion phantom was developed to evaluate the accuracy and sensitivity of these two systems in terms of: (1) the capability to recognize predefined shifts up to 3 cm, and (2) the capability to recognize predefined speeds up to 3 cm/s. The performance of OSMS, in terms of different reference surfaces, was also evaluated. RESULTS: Translational motion could be accurately detected by both systems, with an accuracy of 0.3 mm for displacement up to 1 cm, and 0.5 mm for larger displacements. The reference surface selection had an impact on OSMS performance, with flat surface resulting in less accuracy. HDMM was in general more sensitive when compared with OSMS in capturing the motion, due to its faster frame rate, but a delay in response was observed with faster speeds. Both systems were less sensitive in detection of superior-inferior motion when compared to lateral or vertical displacement directions. CONCLUSION: Translational motion can be accurately and sensitively detected by OSMS and HDMM real-time monitoring systems. However, performance variations were observed along different motion directions, as well as amongst the selection of reference images. Caution is needed when using real-time monitoring systems for frameless SRS treatment.

16.
Arch Virol ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034764

RESUMO

Here, we investigated the fecal, oral, blood, and skin virome of 10 laboratory rabbits using a viral metagenomic method. In the oral samples, we detected a novel polyomavirus (RabPyV), and phylogenetic analysis based on the large T antigen, VP1 and VP2 regions indicated that the novel strain might have undergone a recombination event. Recombination analysis based on related genomes confirmed that RabPyV is a multiple recombinant between rodent-like and avian-like polyomaviruses. In fecal samples, three partial or complete genome sequences of viruses belonging to the families Picobirnaviridae, Parvoviridae, Microviridae and Coronaviridae were characterized, and phylogenetic trees were constructed based on the predicted amino acid sequences of viral proteins. This study increases the amount of genetic information on viruses present in laboratory rabbits.

17.
Neurotoxicology ; 81: 127-136, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039505

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal that is one of the most toxic environmental pollutants throughout the world. We previously reported that Cd exposure impairs olfactory memory in mice. However, the underlying mechanisms for its neurotoxicity for olfactory function are not well understood. Since adult Subventricular zone (SVZ) and Olfactory Bulb (OB) neurogenesis contributes to olfaction, olfactory memory defects caused by Cd may be due to inhibition of neurogenesis. In this study, using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling and immunohistochemistry, we found that 0.6 mg/L Cd exposure through drinking water impaired adult SVZ/OB neurogenesis in C57BL/6 mice. To determine if the inhibition of olfactory memory by Cd can be reversed by stimulating adult neurogenesis, we utilized the transgenic caMEK5 mouse strain to conditional stimulate of adult neurogenesis by activating the endogenous ERK5 MAP kinase signaling pathway. This was accomplished by conditionally induced expression of active MEK5 (caMEK5) in adult neural stem/progenitor cells. The caMEK5 mice were exposed to 0.6 mg/L Cd for 38 weeks, and tamoxifen was administered to induce caMEK5 expression and stimulate adult SVZ/OB neurogenesis during Cd exposure. Short-term olfactory memory test and sand-digging based, odor-cued olfactory learning and memory test were conducted after Cd and tamoxifen treatments to examine their effects on olfaction. Here we report that Cd exposure impaired short-term olfactory memory and odor-cued associative learning and memory in mice. Furthermore, the Cd-impaired olfactory memory deficits were rescued by the tamoxifen-induction of caMEK5 expression. This suggests that Cd exposure impairs olfactory function by affecting adult SVZ/OB neurogenesis in mice.

18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(20)2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066387

RESUMO

The spacecraft tracking telemetering and command (TT&C) system plays an essential role in celestial and terrestrial networks, requiring relative ranging and communication, particularly in satellite formation flying networks and distributed spacecraft networks. To achieve precious ranging and high-data-rate communication in a Master/Slave satellite architecture, an integrated communication-ranging system (ICRS) is introduced. ICRS is based on the inter-satellite spread spectrum ranging and spread/non-spread spectrum communication modulated by unbalanced quadrature phase shift keying (UQPSK). In both uplink and downlink, the in-phase (I) branches and the quadrature (Q) branches undertake the tasks of ranging and communication, respectively. In addition, a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) like signal is adopted in I branches for the sake of better ranging accuracy, and binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modulation is employed in Q branches for a higher data rate. Therefore, the key point of the ICRS design is the power resource allocation between two branches via the selection of a suitable power distribution factor (PWDF). Simulation results demonstrate the good performance of the proposed approach in ranging error and bit error rate (BER). In addition, a reasonable PWDF is recommended. Furthermore, the influence of clock offset is also taken into consideration.

19.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(10): e1008848, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007034

RESUMO

Colonization factor CFA/I defines the major adhesive fimbriae of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and mediates bacterial attachment to host intestinal epithelial cells. The CFA/I fimbria consists of a tip-localized minor adhesive subunit, CfaE, and thousands of copies of the major subunit CfaB polymerized into an ordered helical rod. Biosynthesis of CFA/I fimbriae requires the assistance of the periplasmic chaperone CfaA and outer membrane usher CfaC. Although the CfaE subunit is proposed to initiate the assembly of CFA/I fimbriae, how it performs this function remains elusive. Here, we report the establishment of an in vitro assay for CFA/I fimbria assembly and show that stabilized CfaA-CfaB and CfaA-CfaE binary complexes together with CfaC are sufficient to drive fimbria formation. The presence of both CfaA-CfaE and CfaC accelerates fimbria formation, while the absence of either component leads to linearized CfaB polymers in vitro. We further report the crystal structure of the stabilized CfaA-CfaE complex, revealing features unique for biogenesis of Class 5 fimbriae.

20.
Eur Respir J ; 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033150

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The tissue stiffness information may help in the diagnosis of lung lesions. This study aimed to investigate and validate the application of transthoracic two-dimensional shear-wave ultrasound elastography in differentiating malignant from benign subpleural lung lesions. METHODS: This study involved one retrospective observational derivation cohort from January 2016 to December 2017 and one prospective observational validation cohort from December 2017 to December 2019. The inclusion criterion was radiographic evidence of pulmonary lesions. The patients were categorised into the air-bronchogram and hypoechoic groups based on the B-mode grayscale images. The elasticity of subpleural lung lesions with acceptable shear-wave propagation was measured. Diagnoses were made on the basis of pathology, microbiological studies, or following up the clinical course for at least 6 months. RESULTS: A total of 354 patients were included. Among the 121 patients in the derivation cohort, a receiver operating characteristic curve was constructed and the cut-off point to differentiate benign from malignant lesions was 65 kPa with Youden index 0.60 and accuracy 84.3%. Among the 233 patients in the validation cohort, the diagnostic performance was maintained with Youden index 0.65 and accuracy 86.7%. Upon applying the cut-off point to the air-bronchogram group, Youden index was 0.70 and accuracy 85.0%. CONCLUSIONS: This study validated the application of transthoracic shear-wave ultrasound elastography for assessing lung malignancy. A cut-off point of 65 kPa is suggested for predicting lung malignancy. Furthermore, for pulmonary air-bronchogram lesions with high elasticity, tissue proofing should be considered because of the high possibility of malignancy.

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