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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 382: 121091, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472465

RESUMO

In this study, we proposed to apply an integrated process which is comprised of in situ ozonation, ceramic membrane filtration (CMF) and biologically active carbon (BAC) filtration to wastewater reclamation for indirect potable reuse purpose. A pilot-scale (20 m3/d) experiment had been run for ten months to validate the prospect of the process in terms of treatment performance and operational stability. Results showed that the in situ O3 + CMF + BAC process performed well in pollutant removal, with chemical oxygen demand, ammonia, nitrate nitrogen, total phosphorus and turbidity levels in the treated water being 5.1 ±â€¯0.9, 0.05 ±â€¯0.01, 10.5 ±â€¯0.8, <0.06 mg/L, and <0.10 NTU, respectively. Most detected trace organic compounds were degraded by>96%. This study demonstrated that synergistic effects existed in the in situ O3 + CMF + BAC process. Compared to pre-ozonation, in situ ozonation in the membrane tank was more effective in controlling membrane fouling (maintaining operational stability) and in degrading organic pollutants, which could be attributed to the higher residual ozone concentration in the tank. Because of the removal of particulate matter by CMF, water head loss of the BAC filter increased slowly and prolonged the backwashing interval to 30 days. BAC filtration was also effective in removing ammonia and N-nitrosodimethylamine from the ozonated water.

2.
Water Res ; 168: 115141, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590036

RESUMO

In this study, next generation sequencing was used to explore the virome in 20L up to 10,000L water from different purification steps at two Swedish drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs), and in tap water. One DWTP used ultrafiltration (UF) with 20 nm pores, the other UV light treatment after conventional treatment of the water. Viruses belonging to 26 different families were detected in raw water, in which 6-9 times more sequence reads were found for phages than for known environmental, plant or vertebrate viruses. The total number of viral reads was reduced more than 4-log10 after UF and 3-log10 over UV treatment. However, for some viruses the reduction was 3.5-log10 after UF, as for hepatitis E virus (HEV), which was also detected in tap water, with sequences similar to those in raw water and after treatment. This indicates that HEV had passed through the treatment and entered into the supply network. However, the viability of the viruses is unknown. In tap water 10-130 International Units of HEV RNA/mL were identified, which is a comparable low amount of virus. The risk of getting infected through consumption of tap water is probably negligible, but needs to be investigated. The HEV strains in the waters belonged to subtypes HEV3a and HEV3c/i, which is associated with unknown source of infection in humans infected in Sweden. None of these subtypes are common among pigs or wild boar, the major reservoirs for HEV, indicating that water may play a role in transmitting this virus. The results indicate that monitoring small fecal/oral transmitted viruses in DWTPs may be considered, especially during community outbreaks, to prevent potential transmission by tap water.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite E , Doenças dos Suínos , Vírus , Animais , Genótipo , Humanos , Filogenia , RNA Viral , Suécia , Suínos
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 698: 134167, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499351

RESUMO

The Middle Route of the South-North Water Transfer Project in China consists of a long open canal and complex hydraulic structures. It provides drinking water for Beijing, Shijiazhuang, and other cities under extremely strict water quality requirements. In the recent decades, water pollution accidents have frequently occurred in water transfer projects. Scientific and effective risk assessment is needed to assess the impact on the overall emergency management, which should be considered to incorporate social, economic, and environmental issues in the timely response to and management of emergencies. In this study, we combine the Drivers-Pressures-State-Impact-Response model, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, and coordinated development degree model into a comprehensive risk assessment tool. This new approach was tested on an emergency drilling simulation related to a sudden MRP water pollution accident in 2016. Based on the combined integration weight ranking, "water delivery status," "pollution accident characteristics," "town size," and "public satisfaction" play prominent roles in the risk assessment. Especially, "town size" is identified as the most important influent factor. The Drivers-Pressures-State-Impact-Response model index system and comprehensive risk assessment method can be used to evaluate accidents more scientifically and versatile, which helps managers or experts to make faster and more efficient decisions.

4.
J Cell Physiol ; 235(2): 1076-1089, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276203

RESUMO

Glycosylation alters the molecular and functional features of glycoproteins, which is closely related with many physiological processes and diseases. During "window of implantation", uterine endometrium transforms into a receptive status to accept the embryo, thereby establishing successful embryo implantation. In this article, we aimed at investigating the role of N-glycosylation, a major modification type of glycoproteins, in the process of endometrial receptivity establishment. Results found that human uterine endometrial tissues at mid-secretory phase exhibited Lectin PHA-E+L (recognizes the branched N-glycans) positive N-glycans as measured by the Lectin fluorescent staining analysis. By utilizing in vitro implantation model, we found that de-N-glycosylation of human endometrial Ishikawa and RL95-2 cells by tunicamycin (inhibitor of N-glycosylation) and peptide-N-glycosidase F (PNGase F) impaired their receptive ability to human trophoblastic JAR cells. Meanwhile, N-glycosylation of integrin αvß3 and leukemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIFR) are found to play key roles in regulating the ECM-dependent FAK/Paxillin and LIF-induced STAT3 signaling pathways, respectively, thus affecting the receptive potentials of endometrial cells. Furthermore, in vivo experiments and primary mouse endometrial cells-embryos coculture model further verified that N-glycosylation of mouse endometrial cells contributed to the successful implantation. Our results provide new evidence to show that N-glycosylation of uterine endometrium is essential for maintaining the receptive functions, which gives a better understanding of the glycobiology of implantation.

5.
J Cell Biochem ; 121(1): 135-141, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578769

RESUMO

MicroRNA-132 (miR-132) has been shown to participate in many diseases. This study aimed to understand the correlation between the level of miR-132 and the severity of dementia post-ischemic stroke. An online tool (www.mirdb.org) was used to find the miR-132 binding site in acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) 3'-untranslated region (UTR), followed by a luciferase reporter assay to validate ACHE as a miR-132 target. A similar relationship between miR-132 and ACHE was also established in cerebrospinal fluid samples collected from human subjects. A negative correlation was established between ACHE and miR-132 by measuring the relative luciferase activity. Meanwhile, Western blot analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction were also conducted to compare the levels of ACHE messenger RNA and protein between two groups (dementia positive, n = 26 and dementia negative, n = 26) or among cells treated with miR-132 mimics, ACHE small interfering RNA, and miR-132 inhibitors. As shown in the results, miR-132 can reduce the expression of ACHE. Further experiments were also carried out to study the effect of miR-132 and ACHE on cell viability and apoptosis, and the results demonstrated that miR-132 enhanced cell viability while suppressing apoptosis. In addition, ACHE reduced cell viability while promoting apoptosis. miR-132 targeted ACHE and suppressed its expression. Additionally, miR-132 and ACHE have been shown to affect the cell viability and apoptosis in the central nervous system.

6.
Ultrasonics ; 100: 105978, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479963

RESUMO

Coherent plane-wave compounding (CPWC) has the ability to generate high quality image using the backscattered signals from plane wave emitting at different steer angles. To improve the image quality of CPWC, adaptive weighting techniques have been introduced in the compounding procedure. This paper proposes subarray zeros-cross factor (SZF) for CPWC, and it is used as an adaptive weighting factor to improve image quality. The SZF is calculated based on polarity of plane-wave imaging results with adjacent steering angle to estimate the coherence of plane wave emitting events. It is effective to suppress noise and maintain background speckle pattern. Simulations and experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. Results demonstrate that the SZF can achieve better performance on contrast ratio (CR) and resolution than traditional CPWC. For simulated cysts, a maximal CR improvement of 125.4% is achieved. For experimental cysts, the maximal CR improvement is 197.9%. Compared with coherence factor (CF) and generalized coherence factor (GCF), SZF can obtain improvements in contrast-to-noise ratio and speckle signal-to-noise ratio at near field and increase CR at far field. In addition, when subarray length L is in the range of [10,12], SZF can obtain satisfying comprehensive performance.

7.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(4): 2055-2062, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492212

RESUMO

Bacteria capture and inactivation with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was investigated in this study. Raw MWCNTs (r-MWCNTs) was oxidized in mixed acid, yielding functionalized MWCNTs (f-MWCNTs) with carboxyl and hydroxyl group. UV-Vis absorption spectra and transmission electron microscope (TEM) shown that surface modifications led to elevated dispersity and stability of f-MWCNTs. The antimicrobial activities of f-MWCNTs to bacterial pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus were further explored. Both the colony forming count method and OD growth assay demonstrated that individually dispersed f-MWCNTs showed a higher antibacterial activity compared to r-MWCNT aggregates, suggesting that dispersity of MWCNTs play an important role to antibacterial effect of CNTs. In addition, viability of bacterial cells treated with f-MWCNTs was found to be incubation time-dependent, however no correlation between incubation shaking speed and antibacterial activity of f-MWCNTs was observed. SEM and TEM prove that f-MWCNTs mostly wound around surfaces of V. parahaemolyticus cells instead of piecing into the bacterial cells. This is a convincing proof of physical sorption other than physical punctures, contributing to the possible antimicrobial mechanism of f-MWCNTs to bacterial cells.

8.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786299

RESUMO

The objective of this work was to fabricate and characterize food-grade pea protein isolate (PPI) and carbohydrate polymer pullulan (PUL) nanofiber films by using green electrospinning technology. The effect of the blend ratios on the PPI/PUL solution properties (e.g. viscosity, surface tension and electrical conductivity) and morphology of the resulting electrospun nanofibers was investigated. The presence of PUL in the blends resulted in decreased apparent viscosity (P < 0.05), stable surface tension (42.09-46.26 mN/m) (P < 0.05) and lower conductivity of the solutions (P < 0.05), which were due to a better chain entanglement and decrease in the polyelectrolyte protein character, respectively, both factors were needed for uniform nanofiber (around 203 nm) formation. Rheological evaluation indicated a pseudoplastic behavior for all formulations. The Fourier transform infrared spectral changes and XRD patterns indicated that the protein and polysaccharide were well tangled in nanofibers. The results of the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) indicate that thermal stability of the electrospun nanofiber films were improved in comparison to pure PUL. Finally, in order to expand the application range of the electrospun nanofiber films in future, thermal crosslinking method was conducted and water contact angles (WCAs) of the thermal treated nanofiber films exhibited better hydrophobic properties compared to the un-crosslinking samples.

9.
Int Immunopharmacol ; : 106036, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoke plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recently, elevated serotonin (5-HT) levels were found in the plasma of COPD patients. The role of 5-HT and its receptors in airway inflammation and remodeling induced by cigarette smoke is unclear. METHODS: BALB/c mice received the 5-HTR2A inhibitor ketanserin, the 5-HTR2B inhibitor RS-127445 or the natural 5-HTR2A/2B inhibitor quercetin intraperitoneally, then were exposed to cigarette smoke for 6 or 12 weeks. Control mice received placebo and were exposed to room air or cigarette smoke. Mice were sacrificed and bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue samples were collected. RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry and western blot confirmed an increase in both 5-HTR2A and 5-HTR2B expression in mouse lungs after exposure to cigarette smoke for 6 and 12 weeks. Cigarette smoke induced accumulation of macrophages and neutrophils and increased levels of inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1ß and TNF-ɑ, in BALF and lung tissue; these effects were inhibited by ketanserin, RS-127445 and quercetin. Pretreatment with 5-HT receptor antagonists suppressed the goblet cell hyperplasia induced by 6- or 12-week exposure to cigarette smoke, based on Alcian blue-periodic acid Schiff staining. After 12 weeks of cigarette smoke exposure, Masson's staining showed fibrosis surrounding the mouse airways, and inhibitor pretreatment significantly attenuated the thickening and collagen deposition around the small airways. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that cigarette smoke-induced airway inflammation and small airway remodeling are partially mediated by 5-HTR2A and 5-HTR2B, which could be a new therapeutic target for airway remodeling in COPD.

10.
Orthop Surg ; 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31788965

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety and effectiveness of one-stage total joint arthroplasty (TJA) or revision for seronegative infections after total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS: This retrospective study included a total of 495 patients who had undergone one-stage total joint (hip or knee) arthroplasty or revision with a diagnosis of osteoarthritis secondary to sepsis, osteoarthritis or osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) secondary to internal fixation surgery of the hip joint, and one-stage revision for prosthesis loosening after THA or TKA from January 2012 to December 2016. Bacterial cultures were taken from all patients (from joint fluid or articular cavity fluid and four to six different parts of soft tissues) during the operation. If the cultures were positive, patients received antibiotic treatment. Microbiology results from surgical samples, clinical evaluations, SF-12 score (physical component summary [PCS] and mental component summary [MCS]), Harris hip score (HHS) or Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) score, and patients' satisfaction was recorded at every follow-up session. RESULTS: A total of 24 patients had a positive result for bacterial culture (4.85%). The bacterial culture results showed that there were 19 cases (79.16%) of gram-positive cocci (Staphylococcus aureus), 4 cases (16.67%) of gram-negative bacilli, and 1 case (4.17%) of fungi. For at least 24 months (mean 35 months) follow-up, no reinfection was discovered. The mean HHS or HSS score improved significantly from 36.29 points preoperatively to 84.21 points postoperatively (P < 0.001). The mean PCS score improved from 10.15 preoperatively to 20.34 postoperatively, and the mean MCS from 13.22 preoperatively to 21.76 postoperatively, with significant differences. Most of the patients were satisfied. CONCLUSION: One-stage arthroplasty or revision with exhaustive debridement, adequate dosage, and duration of sensitive antibiotics is safe and effective for patients who have seronegative infection of hip or knee joints.

12.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796867

RESUMO

Increasing studies show that inflammatory processes may be involved in depressive disorders. Nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) modulates tissue microglial M1 phenotypic changes to the M2 phenotype, which is implicated in protection against inflammatory diseases. We have reported that the adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) display anti-inflammatory activity. In this study we explored whether the mechanism of anti-inflammatory activity of ADSCs was related to Nrf2. ADSCs were isolated from mouse fat pads and intravenously administered to chronic mild stress (CMS)-exposed C57BL/6 mice at the dose of 1 × 106 once a week for 3 weeks. We showed that ADSC administration significantly remedied CMS-induced depressive-like behaviors in sucrose preference test, tail suspension test, and forced swim test accompanied by suppressing microglial activation and the expression of inflammatory factors including MCP-1, TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6. Furthermore, ADSC administration promoted both the expression of BDNF and TrkB, and promoted Nrf2/HO-1 signaling but suppressed TLR4/NF-κB signaling in brain tissue. In order to elucidate the role of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling in ADSC-caused neuroprotection, Nrf2-modified ADSCs were cocultured with BV2 microglial cells, then exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Downregulation of Nrf2 in ADSCs decreased the protective effects of ADSCs against LPS-induced microglial activation and M1 polarization. Nrf2 overexpression in ADSCs markedly suppressed LPS-induced TLR4 and NF-κB expression in microglial cells. These results suggest a possible antidepressive mechanism correlated with microglial polarization for anti-inflammatory agents, which may provide a new microglia-targeted strategy for depression therapy.

13.
Food Funct ; 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799533

RESUMO

Hypotaurine, an important sulfur-containing and nonpeptidic amino acid, is a precursor of taurine and an antioxidant. Our previous study indicated that hypotaurine levels are associated with the ageing of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). However, whether hypotaurine plays a role in the lifespan regulation of C. elegans and the mechanism remains undetermined. Here, we found that hypotaurine enhances oxidative stress resistance and ameliorates ageing in C. elegans. Our results show that hypotaurine regulates a variety of pathways and leads to the upregulation of some age-related genes to extend lifespan. We also found that the stress response-related transcription factors DAF-16/FOXO and SKN-1/NRF2 contribute to the beneficial longevity conferred by hypotaurine. Moreover, our results demonstrate that hypotaurine induced lifespan extension by regulating the insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) pathway, the reproductive signaling pathway and DR-like mechanisms. Additionally, our results also indicated that mitochondrial function also plays a crucial role in the lifespan extension induced by hypotaurine. Taken together, these data indicate that hypotaurine delays the ageing of C. elegans, due, at least in part, to its antioxidant activity, which in turn regulates IIS, and reproductive and DR-related pathways, thereby inducing the activity of the transcription factors DAF-16 and SKN-1.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800129

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The monitoring of the plasma concentration and dose adjustment of anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs are beneficial for improving responses to drug treatment and avoiding drug adverse reactions. A simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method was developed to measure the plasma concentrations of 14 anti-TB drugs: ethambutol, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, prothionamide, linezolid, rifampin, rifapentine, rifabutin, cycloserine, p-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) and clofazimine. METHODS: Human plasma was precipitated by acetonitrile and was subsequently separated by an AQ-C18 column with a gradient elution. Drug concentrations were determined using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in positive ion ESI mode. According to pharmacokinetic data of patients, the peak concentration ranges and timing of blood collection were determined. RESULTS: Intra- and inter-day precision was less than 14.8%. Linearity, accuracy, extraction recovery and matrix effect were acceptable for each drug. Stability of the method satisfied different storage conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The method applied the sensitive and reproducible determination of 14 frequently-used anti-TB drugs, which already showed benefit for some TB patients.

15.
Comput Biol Med ; 116: 103565, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790963

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Pedicle location and recognition play important roles in spinal morphology analysis and orthodontic screw implantation, which can help doctors avoid injuring the pedicle during screw implantation. However, because of the complex spatial structures of vertebrae and the close connection between the pedicle and other parts of the vertebrae, it is challenging to locate and recognize the pedicle of the vertebral arch in 2D or 3D vertebral images. METHODS: In this paper, based on deep learning technology, we propose a method for automatically recognizing the vertebral pedicle in individual vertebral models and drawing pedicle contours. The goal is to provide references so doctors can simulate the pedicle screw implantation operation to prevent screw deviation and further enhance the automation of our team's scoliosis-correction assistive system. First, we preprocess the individual vertebral models to obtain their point clouds. Then, we use a modified PointNet model to segment the pedicle areas from the individual vertebral point clouds. We use the segmentation results to automatically fit the cross-sections of pedicles and finally generate the pedicle contours as surgical references. RESULTS: The experiments show that the method can generate contours quickly and accurately with a small amount of manual adjustment and can provide good references for simulating screw placement. CONCLUSIONS: The efficiency of generating pedicle contours during the process of simulated screw placement is greatly improved, and the difficulty of using our simulation system has also been greatly reduced, both of which play essential roles in pedicle screw implantation and the formulation of surgical plans.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802595

RESUMO

Visible light-driven molecular switches endowing reversible modulation of the functionalities of self-organized soft materials are currently highly sought after for fundamental scientific studies and technological applications. Herein, we report the design and synthesis of two novel halogen bond donor chiral molecular switches that are able to exhibit reversible photoisomerization upon exposure to visible light of different wavelengths. These halogen bond donor based chiral molecular switches induce photoresponsive helical superstructures, i.e., cholesteric liquid crystals, when doped into the commercially available room temperature achiral liquid crystal host 5CB which also acts as a halogen bond acceptor. The induced helical superstructure containing the molecular switch with terminal iodo atoms exhibits visible light-driven reversible unwinding, i.e., a cholesteric-nematic phase transition. Interestingly, the molecular switch with terminal bromo atoms confers reversible handedness inversion to the helical superstructure upon irradiation with visible light of different wavelengths. This visible light-driven reversible handedness inversion, enabled by halogen bond donor molecular switch, is unprecedented. These halogen bond donor chiral molecular switches would inspire the development of visible light-driven advanced photonic materials based on specific molecular interactions and beyond.

17.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(11): 830, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685796

RESUMO

Cancer is, fundamentally, a disorder of cell growth and proliferation, which requires adequate supplies of energy and nutrients. In this study, we report that the haplo-insufficient tumor suppressor ASPP2, a p53 activator, negatively regulates the mevalonate pathway to mediate its inhibitory effect on tumor growth in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Gene expression profile analysis revealed that the expression of key enzymes in the mevalonate pathway were increased when ASPP2 was downregulated. HCC cells gained higher cholesterol levels and enhanced tumor-initiating capability in response to the depletion of ASPP2. Simvastatin, a mevalonate pathway inhibitor, efficiently abrogated ASPP2 depletion-induced anchorage-independent cell proliferation, resistance to chemotherapy drugs in vitro, and tumor growth in xenografted nude mice. Mechanistically, ASPP2 interacts with SREBP-2 in the nucleus and restricts the transcriptional activity of SREBP-2 on its target genes, which include key enzymes involved in the mevalonate pathway. Moreover, clinical data revealed better prognosis in patients with high levels of ASPP2 and low levels of the mevalonate pathway enzyme HMGCR. Our findings provide functional and mechanistic insights into the critical role of ASPP2 in the regulation of the mevalonate pathway and the importance of this pathway in tumor initiation and tumor growth, which may provide a new therapeutic opportunity for HCC.

18.
Theranostics ; 9(24): 7168-7183, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695760

RESUMO

Background: The dense fibrotic stroma enveloping pancreatic tumors is a major cause of drug resistance. Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) in the stroma can be activated to induce intra-tumor fibrosis and worsen patient survival; however, the molecular basics for the regulation of PSC activation remains unclear. Methods: The in vitro coculture system was used to study cancer cell-PSC interactions. Atomic force microscopy was used to measure the stiffness of tumor tissues and coculture gels. Cytokine arrays, qPCR, and Western blotting were performed to identify the potential factors involved in PSC activation and to elucidate underlying pathways. Results: PSC activation characterized by α-SMA expression was associated with increased pancreatic tumor stiffness and poor prognosis. Coculture with cancer cells induced PSC activation, which increased organotypic coculture gel stiffness and cancer cell invasion. Cancer cells-derived PAI-1 identified from coculture medium could activate PSCs, consistent with pancreatic cancer tissue microarray analysis showing a strong positive correlation between PAI-1 and α-SMA expression. Suppression by knocking down PAI-1 in cancer cells demonstrated the requirement of PAI-1 for coculture-induced PSC activation and gel stiffness. PAI-1 could be upregulated by KRAS in pancreatic cancer cells through ERK. In PSCs, inhibition of LRP-1, ERK, and c-JUN neutralized the effect of PAI-1, suggesting the contribution of LRP-1/ERK/c-JUN signaling. Furthermore, activated PSCs might exacerbate malignant behavior of cancer cells via IL-8 because suppression of IL-8 signaling reduced pancreatic tumor growth and fibrosis in vivo. Conclusions: KRAS-mutant pancreatic cancer cells can activate PSCs through PAI-1/LRP-1 signaling to promote fibrosis and cancer progression.

19.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 26(Pt 6): 2075-2080, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721753

RESUMO

The upgrade of the laser pump time-resolved X-ray probes, namely time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy (TR-XAS) and X-ray diffraction (TR-XRD), implemented at the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, is described. The improvements include a superbunch fill, a high-efficiency fluorescence collection, an efficient spatial overlap protocol and a new data-acquisition scheme. After upgrade, the adequate TR-XAS signal is now obtained in a 0.3 mM solution, compared with a 6 mM solution in our previous report. Furthermore, to extend application in photophysics, the TR-XAS probe is applied on SrCoO2.5 thin film. And for the first time, TR-XAS is combined with TR-XRD to simultaneously detect the kinetic trace of structural changes in thin film.

20.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0216182, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697677

RESUMO

Neural activity within the default mode network (DMN) is widely assumed to relate to processing during off-task states, however it remains unclear whether this association emerges from a shared role in self or social content that is common in these conditions. In the current study, we examine the possibility that the role of the DMN in ongoing thought emerges from contributions to specific features of off-task experience such as self-relevant or social content. A group of participants described their experiences while performing a laboratory task over a period of days. In a different session, neural activity was measured while participants performed Self/Other judgements (e.g., Does the word 'Honest' apply to you (Self condition) or Barack Obama (Other condition)). Despite the prominence of social and personal content in off-task reports, there was no association with neural activity during off-task trait adjective judgements. Instead, during both Self and Other judgements we found recruitment of caudal posterior cingulate cortex-a core DMN hub-was above baseline for individuals whose laboratory experiences were characterised as detailed. These data provide little support for a role of the DMN in self or other content in the off-task state and instead suggest a role in how on-going thought is represented.

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