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1.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 606(Pt 2): 1024-1030, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487925

RESUMO

Currently, there is considerable interest in developing new electrode materials to construct the new-generation dual-ion batteries (DIBs) with the potential advantages of higher working voltage, good safety, low cost, and environmental friendliness. Herein, a well-known charge-transfer metal-organic compound, copper-tetracyanoquinodimethane (CuTCNQ), is synthesized and then used as an anode material, which can reversibly store Li+/Na+ ions under the lower working voltage. Consequently, the lithium/sodium-based DIBs (LDIBs/SDIBs) are constructed by coupling CuTCNQ anode with graphite cathode and their working mechanisms are also understood in detail. As expected, LDIBs exhibit a high average potential of 4.26 V, a high initial discharge capacity of 195.4 mAh g-1 at 0.1 A g-1, long cycling performance after 200 cycles with good capacity retention and excellent rate capability of 106.2 mAh g-1 at 5 A g-1. Especially, high average potential of 4.23 V and good rate capability of 34.5 mAh g-1 at 5 A g-1 could be maintained in SDIBs. These results may open a new avenue for using metal-organic compound in the field of high-performance energy-storage devices.

2.
One Health ; 13: 100344, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34805474

RESUMO

Prohibiting the unsafe sale of livestock that have died in production and harmlessly disposing of them are key measures to control and prevent outbreaks of zoonotic diseases and exert a great significance for maintaining meat-derived food and public health safety. However, under the strict implementation of governmental initiatives, some farmers still choose to sell dead livestock unsafely in developing countries such as China, Brazil, Mexico, and Kenya, which have become an important hidden danger in preventing and controlling zoonotic diseases. Based on data from 496 pig farmers in Hebei, Henan, and Hubei, China, the Double Hurdle Model was employed to explore the impact of governmental initiatives on the willingness and proportion of dead pigs sold unsafely by farmers. Besides, based on the heterogeneity of organization participation and breeding scale, the impact of governmental initiatives on different scale farmers' unsafely selling behaviors is also discussed. The results showed that the harmless disposal subsidy significantly reduces farmers' willingness to unsafely sell dead pigs (SW, RC = -0.0666, and SE = 0.0261). Still, the impact on the proportion is weak (SP, RC = -0.0502, and SE = 0.0474). Though the effect of supervision punishment is greatly weakened (SW, RC =-0.0381, and SE = 0.0324; SP, RC = -0.0204 and SE = 0.0263), it can significantly enhance the effect of harmless disposal subsidy by creating a good law-abiding environment (SW, RC = -0.1370, and SE = 0.0374; SP, RC = -0.0820, and SE = 0.0431). Governmental initiatives have an undue impact on the unsafe sale of dead livestock by farmers participating in cooperatives. The effects of these measures on different scale farmers' unsafe sale of dead pigs are highly heterogeneous. In addition, the study also found that food and public health safety risk perceptions are important endogenous drivers for curbing farmers selling dead pigs. This research can also provide important inspiration for other countries. The government should raise farmers' risk perception level of food and public safety, optimize governmental initiatives, play the key role of cooperative organization, increase the proportion of dead pigs harmlessly disposed of, and finally eliminate new hidden dangers in the prevention and control of zoonotic diseases.

3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770253

RESUMO

Soil moisture measurement is very important for soil system monitoring. Compared to the traditional thermo-gravimetric technique, which is time-consuming and can be only performed in labs, the optic-fiber technique has unique advantages, such as small size, remote application in fields, fast response time and immunity to electromagnetic fields. In this paper, the soil moisture is measured by using a polymer optical fiber Bragg grating (POFBG) probe with a packaged dimension of 40 mm × 15 mm × 8 mm. Due to the intrinsic water-absorbing property of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), optical fiber Bragg gratings based on PMMA have been widely investigated for humidity measurement. Taking advantage of this, a sensor based on the POFBG is investigated to verify the soil condition. The POFBG is protectively integrated inside a stainless-steel package. A window is opened with a thin polypropylene mat as a filter, which allows the air to go through but prevents the soil from going inside to pollute the POFBG. The sensor probe is embedded in soils with different gravimetric soil moisture contents (SMCs) ranging from 0% to 40% and, then, insulated by polyethylene films to minimize the impact from the external environment, showing an average temperature cross sensitivity of -0.080 nm/°C. For a constant temperature, an exponential relationship between the Bragg wavelength and the SMC is obtained. For the SMCs between 8% and 24%, linear relationships are presented showing a temperature-corresponded sensitivity between 0.011 nm/% and 0.018 nm/%. The maximal sensitivity is calculated to be 0.018 nm/% at 20 °C, which is 28 times as high as that in the previous work. For the SMC over 24%, the sensor becomes insensitive because of humidity saturation in the cavity of the sensor probe. Though temperature cross sensitivity is problematic for SMC measurement, the influence could be eliminated by integrating another humidity-insensitive temperature sensor, such as a silica FBG temperature sensor.


Assuntos
Polimetil Metacrilato , Água , Umidade , Solo , Temperatura
4.
Cytotherapy ; : 1391, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AIMS: Despite the great advances in immunosuppressive therapy for severe aplastic anemia (SAA), most patients are not completely cured. Haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) has been recommended as an alternative treatment in adult SAA patients. However, haplo-HSCT presents a higher incidence of graft failure and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The authors designed a combination of haplo-HSCT and umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) for treatment of SAA in adult patients and evaluated its effects. METHODS: Adult patients (≥18 years) with SAA (N = 25) were given HLA-haploidentical hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) combined with UC-MSCs after a conditioning regimen consisting of busulfan, cyclophosphamide, fludarabine and anti-thymocyte globulin and intensive GVHD prophylaxis, including cyclosporine, basiliximab, mycophenolate mofetil and short-term methotrexate. Additionally, the effects of the protocol in adult SSA patients were compared with those observed in juvenile SAA patients (N = 75). RESULTS: All patients achieved myeloid engraftment after haplo-HSCT at a median of 16.12 days (range, 11-26). The median time of platelet engraftment was 28.30 days (range, 13-143). The cumulative incidence of grade II acute GVHD (aGVHD) at day +100 was 32.00 ± 0.91%. No one had grade III-IV aGVHD at day +100. The cumulative incidence of total chronic GVHD was 28.00 ± 0.85%. The overall survival was 71.78 ± 9.05% at a median follow-up of 42.08 months (range, 2.67-104). Promisingly, the protocol yielded a similar curative effect in both young and adult SAA patients. CONCLUSIONS: The authors' data suggest that co-transplantation of HLA-haploidentical HSCs and UC-MSCs may provide an effective and safe treatment for adult SAA.

5.
J Biomed Mater Res A ; 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766716

RESUMO

Temperature and humidity (TH) are highly important factors that can control the secondary structure and characterization of silk fibroin (SF) biomaterials. In this study, the water stability, secondary structure, mechanical properties, surface morphology, and degradation of silk fibroin films (SFFs) with post-processing in different TH were investigated. Fourier transform infrared indicated that the SFF secondary structure did not change under low-relative humidity (RH) despite temperatures up to 180°C, while it transformed at 40°C with 100% RH in 10 min. A film with a higher tensile strength (42.1 ± 8.2 MPa) could be obtained after post-processing at 90°C/100% RH for 10 min. While a film with higher ductility (elongation at break: 198.8 ± 31.8%) was generated after post-processing at 40°C/100% RH for 10 min. Scanning electron microscope showed that the film presented a network structure of nanoparticles in series under certain TH post-treatment. Enzymatic hydrolysis proved that the SFFs containing a higher content of silk II structure degraded more slowly. Therefore, TH post-treatment is a relatively mild way to change the secondary structure and properties of SFFs, which can be widely used in loading drugs and maintaining the activity of drugs in SF biomaterials.

6.
Small ; : e2105083, 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34825480

RESUMO

Metal deposition with photocatalyst is a promising way to surmount the restriction of fast e- /h+ recombination to improve the photocatalytic performance. However, the improvement remains limited by the existing strategies adopted for depositing metal particles due to the serious aggregation and large unconnected area on photocatalyst surface. Here, a strategy is proposed by directly grafting hypercrosslinked polymers (HCPs) on TiO2 surface to construct Pd-HCPs-TiO2 composite with uniform dispersion of ultrafine Pd nanoparticles on HCPs surface. This composite with surface area of 373 m2 g-1 exhibits improved photocatalytic CO2 conversion efficiency to CH4 with an evolution rate of 237.4 µmol g-1 h-1 and selectivity of more than 99.9%. The enhancement can be ascribed to the grafted porous HCPs with high surface area and N heteroatom on TiO2 surface for the stabilization of Pd nanoparticles, favoring the electron transfer and CO2 adsorption for selective CH4 production. This strategy may hold the promise for design and construction of porous organic polymer with semiconductor for efficient photocatalytic conversion.

7.
Appl Opt ; 60(31): 9774-9779, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807163

RESUMO

Strong optical nonlinearities of plasmonic thin films exist at their epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) wavelengths, which are essential to be acquired first for the design and fabrication of ENZ photonic devices. However, it has been challenging to obtain the ENZ wavelength precisely when the film thickness is reduced to tens of nanometers or less. By enhancing both electric field intensity and light-matter interaction distance in the film, we propose that the ENZ wavelength and the medium model of ultrathin films can be extracted accurately from the transmittance and reflectance spectra under oblique light excitation. A characteristic valley in the transmittance spectrum, which originates from the increased light absorption caused by the ENZ electric field enhancement, can be used to determine the ENZ wavelength with significantly improved fitting accuracy of the Drude parameters. The work in this paper provides an accurate and effective method for the acquisition of ENZ wavelength and will contribute to the research of nonlinear plasmonic devices.

8.
Bioengineered ; 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753384

RESUMO

Our study aimed to investigate the clinical significance and biological functions of Spindlin1 (SPIN1) in colorectal cancer (CRC) tumorigenesis and progression, as well as the mechanism underlying its upregulation. The expression of SPIN1 was detected by immunohistochemistry and western blotting assays. Bioinformatics prediction and dual-luciferase reporter assays were used to determine whether microRNA-381 (miR-381) could target SPIN1. A series of cell functional experiments were performed to investigate whether the miR-381-mediated regulation of SPIN1 is involved in the progression and aggressiveness of CRC cells via the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway. Our results showed that SPIN1 is frequently overexpressed in CRC tissues and cell lines, and its upregulation is positively correlated with disease progression and lymph node metastasis. Moreover, SPIN1 depletion suppresses cell growth, migration, and invasion through inactivation of the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway, which recapitulates the effects of miR-381 upregulation. Moreover, SPIN1 is a target gene of miR-381, and miR-381 is downregulated in CRC. Furthermore, the reintroduction of SPIN1 partially abolished the miR-381-mediated inhibitory effects in CRC cells. In summary, our data revealed that the miR-381/SPIN1 axis greatly contributes to CRC tumorigenesis by orchestrating the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway, thereby representing actionable therapeutic targets for colorectal cancer patients.

9.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(11)2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34835302

RESUMO

African swine fever virus (ASFV) poses serious threats to the swine industry. The mortality rate of African swine fever (ASF) is 100%, and there is no effective vaccine currently available. Complex immune escape strategies of ASFV are crucial factors affecting immune prevention and vaccine development. CD2v and MGF360-505R genes have been implicated in the modulation of the immune response. The molecular mechanisms contributing to innate immunity are poorly understood. In this study, we discover the cytopathic effect and apoptosis of ΔCD2v/ΔMGF360-505R-ASFV after infection in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) was significantly less than wild-type ASFV. We demonstrated that CD2v- and MGF360-505R-deficient ASFV decrease the level of apoptosis by inhibiting the NF-κB signaling pathway and IL-1ß mRNA transcription. Compared with wild-type ASFV infection, the levels of phospho-NF-κB p65 and p-IκB protein decreased in CD2v- and MGF360-505R-deficient ASFV. Moreover, CD2v- and MGF360-505R-deficient ASFV induced less IL-1ß production than wild-type ASFV and was attenuated in replication compared with wild-type ASFV. We further found that MGF360-12L, MGF360-13L, and MGF-505-2R suppress the promoter activity of NF-κB by reporter assays, and CD2v activates the NF-κB signaling pathway. These findings suggested that CD2v- and MGF360-505R-deficient ASFV could reduce the level of ASFV p30 and the apoptosis of PAMs by inhibiting the NF-κB signaling pathway and IL-1ß mRNA transcription, which might reveal a novel strategy for ASFV to maintain the replication of the virus in the host.

10.
Vet Microbiol ; 263: 109273, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763144

RESUMO

Meningitis associated with avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is an infectious disease of poultry that has gained significant attention because of its potential to infect humans. APEC can utilize two type Ⅵ secretion systems (T6SSs) to efficiently transport toxin effectors into hosts. ClpV1 is one of the core components of the T6SS1. To our knowledge, it has not been clarified how the clpV1 gene contributes to the pathogenicity of meningitis-associated APEC. To investigate the function of the clpV1 gene in the process of Escherichia coli meningitis, a mutant TW-XMΔclpV1 strain was constructed and characterized. In this study, the clpV1 deleted strain displayed a significant decrease in both motility and biofilm formation as well as a reduction in the expression of virulence genes fliC, luxS and ibeA. In vivo studies using mouse and duck models found that the clpV1 deleted groups showed decreased proliferation, fewer lesions and lower expression of inflammatory cytokines in the brain suggesting that clpV1 is involved in the pathogenicity of TWXM. Besides, the decreased quantity of Evans Blue (EB) and the down-regulation of tight junctions (TJs) proteins in the mouse clpV1 deleted group demonstrating a more intact blood-brain barrier (BBB). In conclusion, these results suggest that the clpV1 gene is associated with motility and biofilm formation of TWXM strain and contributes to meningitis by damaging the BBB and brain tissues.

11.
Int J Mol Med ; 48(6)2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608503

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis and related cardiovascular diseases pose severe threats to human health worldwide. There is evidence to suggest that at least 50% of foam cells in atheromas are derived from vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs); the first step in this process involves migration to human atherosclerotic lesions. Long non­coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been found to play significant roles in diverse biological processes. The present study aimed to investigate the role of lncRNAs in VSMCs. The expression of lncRNAs or mRNAs was detected using reverse transcription­quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The Gene Expression Omnibus datasets in the NCBI portal were searched using the key words 'Atherosclerosis AND tissue AND Homo sapiens' and the GSE12288 dataset. Gene expression in circulating leukocytes was measured to identify patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) or controls, and used to analyze the correlation coefficient and expression profiles. The protein level of ATP­binding cassette sub­family G member 1 (ABCG1) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)3 was determined using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. The analysis of mouse aortic roots was performed using Masson's and Oil Red O staining. The expression of lncRNA AL355711, ABCG1 and MMP3 was found to be higher in human atherosclerotic plaques or in patients with atherosclerotic CAD. The correlation analysis revealed that ABCG1 may be involved in the regulation between lncRNA AL355711 and MMP3 in atherosclerotic CAD. The knockdown of lncRNA AL355711 inhibited ABCG1 transcription and smooth muscle cell migration. In addition, lncRNA AL355711 was found to regulate MMP3 expression through the ABCG1 pathway. The expression of ABCG1 and MMP3 was found to be high in an animal model of atherosclerosis. The results indicated that lncRNA AL355711 promoted VSMC migration and atherosclerosis partly via the ABCG1/MMP3 pathway. On the whole, the present study demonstrates that the inhibition of lncRNA AL355711 may serve as a novel therapeutic target for atherosclerosis. lncRNA AL355711 in circulating leukocytes may be a novel biomarker for atherosclerotic CAD.

12.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696476

RESUMO

African swine fever (ASF) is mainly an acute hemorrhagic disease which is highly contagious and lethal to domestic pigs and wild boars. The global pig industry has suffered significant economic losses due to the lack of an effective vaccine and treatment. The African swine fever virus (ASFV) has a large genome of 170-190 kb, encoding more than 150 proteins. During infection, ASFV evades host innate immunity via multiple viral proteins. A528R is a very important member of the polygene family of ASFV, which was shown to inhibit IFN-ß production by targeting NF-κB, but its mechanism is not clear. This study has shown that A528R can suppress the TLR8-NF-κB signaling pathway, including the inhibition of downstream promoter activity, NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, and the antiviral and antibacterial activity. Further, we found the cellular co-localization and interaction between A528R and p65, and ANK repeat domains of A528R and RHD of p65 are involved in their interaction and the inhibition of p65 activity. Therefore, we conclude that A528R inhibits TLR8-NF-κB signaling by targeting p65 activation and nuclear translocation.

13.
J Surg Res ; 269: 249-259, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systemic inflammation status has been recognized as a sensitive marker associated with survival in cancers and anti-inflammatory treatment outcomes in inflammation-derived diseases. This study aimed to investigate the role of systemic inflammation status as a predictive marker for survival and anti-inflammatory treatment benefit in rectal cancer patients. METHODS: A total of 475 patients with stage I-III rectal cancer receiving curative resection were prospectively enrolled. The platelet-neutrophils to lymphocytes ratio (PNLR) that integrates neutrophil-to-lymphocyte and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratios was applied to enable a comprehensive evaluation of systemic inflammation status and investigate its association with survival and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) benefit. Patients were grouped according to baseline PNLR and perioperative use of NSAIDs. RESULTS: The high-PNLR group had worse 5-y disease-free survival (DFS) compared with the low-PNLR group (61.2% versus 70.9%, P = 0.014). Multivariate analyses confirmed that PNLR was an independent predictor for DFS (hazard ratio [HR] 1.42, 95% CI: 1.03-1.97, P = 0.031). A nomogram including PNLR and other independent prognostic factors was developed and validated to predict DFS. In the high-PNLR subset, NSAIDs group had a 21.3% lower risk of recurrence than non-NSAIDs group (P = 0.009), and multivariate analysis confirmed the independently significant association of perioperative NSAIDs use with better DFS (hazard ratio 0.36, 95% CI 0.16-0.78, P = 0.010). However, this association was not significant in the low-PLR subset. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline PNLR could be used to predict DFS and NSAIDs benefit in rectal cancer patients. This study highlights the potential survival benefit from the anti-inflammatory treatment in the patients with elevated systemic inflammation status in cancer patients.

14.
Front Physiol ; 12: 737481, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34630156

RESUMO

Necrotic enteritis (NE), caused by Clostridium perfringens, is an economically important disease in the broiler. Among normal flora in the broiler intestinal region, Clostridium butyricum has been identified as a probiotic agent that reduces the susceptibility of broilers to C. perfringens. However, the effects of C. butyricum supplement on broiler intestinal integrity during NE are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of C. butyricum on the growth performance, intestinal morphology and barrier function, and the functions of immune-related cytokines under NE in broilers. Chickens were divided into five groups: control group (NC), supplement C. butyricum only group (CB), NE-infected group (PC), supplement C. butyricum from Day 14 (NECB1) to Day 22 NE-infected group, and supplement C. butyricum from Day 1 (NECB2) to Day 22 NE-infected group. The results showed that there were significantly decreased average daily weight gain and increased feed conversion rate in the infected group (PC) compared with the C. butyricum-supplemented groups (NECB1 and NECB2) through the diet. Histopathological observation on the Hematoxylin-Eosin staining avian small intestine sections revealed that supplementation of C. butyricum (NECB1 and NECB2) could increase the intestinal villus height/crypt depth and lessen the intestinal damage under NE. ELISA and Limulus test showed that broilers infected with NE (PC) had higher serum IgA and lipopolysaccharide content; however, after C. butyricum supplementation (NECB1 and NECB2), they returned to a normal level. Furthermore, real-time PCR and Western blot results indicated that compared with PC, supplementing C. butyricum (NECB1 and NECB2) could initialize the expressions of genes related to the intestinal barrier-associated molecules (such as CLDN-1, CLDN-3, OCLN, MUC2, ZO-1, and CLDN5), cytokines (such as IL-10, IL-6, and TGFB1), and C. perfringens plc gene expression. Moreover, the results detected by the Ussing chamber suggested that C. butyricum (NECB1 and NECB2) could amend the decrease in conductivity value and short-circuit current value caused by NE. In addition, NECB2 significantly reduced the upregulation of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran flux caused by the NE disease. In conclusion, these findings suggest that dietary supplementation of C. butyricum in broilers with NE improved chicken growth performance, intestinal integrity and barrier function, and immunological status. Notably, no statistical difference was observed with the addition of C. butyricum on day 1 or day 14.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34709546

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) indicated potential modulating effects in tumor development. However, the specific role of circ_0000554 in ovarian tumor remains unknown. We found that circ_0000554 was overexpressed in ovarian tumor specimens and cells. Forced expression of circ_0000554 promoted cell growth, invasion, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). We illustrated that miR-567 was downregulated in ovarian tumor specimens and cells. circ_0000554 was negatively correlated with miR-567 in ovarian tumor specimens. circ_0000554 sponged miR-567 expression in ovarian tumor. RIP assay showed that elevated expression of miR-567 could be enriched with circ_0000554. Luciferase reporter assay indicated that luciferase intensity was inhibited after treated with miR-567 mimic; however, the luciferase value of mut type was not decreased. Elevated expression of circ_0000554 suppressed miR-567 expression in HO8910 cell. circ_0000554 promoted ovarian tumor cell growth, invasion, and EMT via sponging miR-567. It suggested that circ_0000554 represent a potential therapy target for ovarian tumor.

16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(41): 48525-48535, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623799

RESUMO

Solid-state lithium batteries using solid polymer electrolytes can improve the safety and energy density of batteries. Smoother lithium-ion channels are necessary for solid polymer electrolytes with high ionic conductivity. The porosity and channel structure of the polymer film affect the transfer of lithium ions. However, their controllable synthesis remains a big challenge. Here, we developed a simple synthesis approach toward wrinkled microporous polymer electrolytes by combining the amphoteric (water solubility and organic solubility) polymer in three polymer blends. The homogeneous blend solution spontaneously wrinkled to vertical fold channels as the solvent evaporated. Two minor polymers, poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) and polyetherimide (PEI), formed close stacks, and Janus PVP was dispersed in the poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) matrix. The interfacial tensions between the three polymers were different, so stress was produced when they solidified. The solvent was evaporated to the top layer of the polymers when the temperature increased. The bottom layer wrinkled owing to the stress during solidification. The evaporation of the solvent generated micropores to form the lithium-ion channel. They helped Li+ transference and created a wrinkled microporous PVDF-based polymer electrolyte, which achieved an ionic conductivity of 5.1 × 10-4 S cm-1 and a lithium-ion transference number of 0.51 at room temperature. Meanwhile, the good flame retardancy and tensile strength of the polymer electrolyte film can improve the safety of the battery. At 0.5C and room temperature, the batteries with a LiFePO4 cathode and the wrinkled microporous LiTFSI/PEI/PVP/PVDF electrolyte reached a high discharge specific capacity of 122.1 mAh g-1 at the 100th cycle with a Coulombic efficiency of above 99%. The results of tensile and self-extinguishing tests show that the polymer electrolyte film has good safety application prospects.

17.
Zool Res ; 42(6): 772-782, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643071

RESUMO

Salamanders are unique among tetrapods in their ability to regenerate their limbs throughout life. Like other poikilothermic amphibians, salamanders also show a remarkable capacity to survive long periods of starvation. Whether the physiological reserves necessary for tissue regeneration are preserved or sacrificed in starved salamanders is unknown. In the current study, we maintained Iberian ribbed newts ( Pleurodeles waltl) under extreme physiological stress to assess the extent of regeneration and identify the molecular and cellular changes that may occur under such conditions. After 19 months of complete food deprivation, the animals exhibited extensive morphological and physiological adaptations but remained behaviorally active and vigilant. Autophagy was elevated in different tissues and the transformed gut microbiota indicated remodeling of the intestinal tract related to autophagy. Upon limb amputation in animals starved for 21 months, regeneration proceeded with progenitor cell proliferation and migration, leading to limb blastema formation. However, limb outgrowth and patterning were substantially attenuated. Blockage of autophagy inhibited cell proliferation and blastema formation in starved animals, but not in fed animals. Hence, tissue autophagy and the regenerative response were tightly coupled only when animals were under stress. Our results demonstrate that under adverse conditions, salamanders can exploit alternative strategies to secure blastema formation for limb regeneration.


Assuntos
Extremidades/lesões , Extremidades/fisiologia , Regeneração/fisiologia , Urodelos/metabolismo , Urodelos/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Animais , Autofagia/fisiologia , Privação de Alimentos/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos
18.
Photosynth Res ; 150(1-3): 239-250, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669149

RESUMO

Domestication involves dramatic phenotypic and physiological diversifications due to successive selection by breeders toward high yield and quality. Although photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE) is a major trait for understanding leaf nitrogen economy, it is unclear whether PNUE of cotton has been improved under domestication. Here, we investigated the effect of domestication on nitrogen allocation to photosynthetic machinery and PNUE in 25 wild and 37 domesticated cotton genotypes. The results showed that domesticated genotypes had higher nitrogen content per mass (Nm), net photosynthesis under saturated light (Asat), and PNUE but similar nitrogen content per area (Na) compared with wild genotypes. As expected, in both genotypes, PNUE was positively related to Asat but negatively correlated with Na. However, the relative contribution of Asat to PNUE was greater than the contribution from Na. Domesticated genotypes had higher nitrogen allocation to light-harvesting (NL, nitrogen in light-harvesting chlorophyll-protein complex), to bioenergetics (Nb, total nitrogen of cytochrome f, ferredoxin NADP reductase, and the coupling factor), and to Rubisco (Nr) than wild genotypes; however, the two genotype groups did not differ in PNUEp, the ratio of Asat to Np (itself the sum of NL, Nb, and Nr). Our results suggest that more nitrogen allocation to photosynthetic machinery has boosted Asat under cotton domestication. Improving the efficiency of nitrogen use in photosynthetic machinery might be future aim to enhance Asat of cotton.

19.
Adipocyte ; 10(1): 483-492, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34693860

RESUMO

Intramuscular fat, as one of the most important palatability attribute of beef carcase, is the primary determinant of beef quality. The research of adipogenesis mechanism would provide new insight into intramuscular fatty deposition. Here, the role of microRNA-378 was investigated during bovine adipogenic differentiation. It was revealed that miR-378 expression exists variably in bovine major tissue and organs by RT-qPCR. It was predicted that miR-378 targets CaMKK2, as an AMPKα kinase, by DIANA Tools. For better research, primary preadipocytes with stable transfection for up-/down-regulated expression of miR-378 were constructed by lentiviral vectors with GFP gene. The analyses of qPCR showed that PPARγ and adiponectin mRNA levels increased, but C/EBPß, pref-1 and CaMKK2 mRNA levels decreased during adipogenic differentiation. When miR-378 was overexpressed, preadipocytes proliferation became slower, there are more cellular lipid droplets, and PPARγ and C/EBPß mRNA levels were higher, but pref-1, adiponectin and CaMKK2 were lower than control groups. Luciferase assay and western blot analysis validated that miR-378 binds the nucleotide sites of the 3'- untranslated region of CaMKK2, which inhibits the mRNA and protein expression of CaMKK2. These findings suggest that miR-378 promotes adipogenic differentiation in bovine intramuscular preadipocytes by targeting CaMKK2 via AMPK signalling pathway.

20.
Virulence ; 12(1): 2382-2399, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529552

RESUMO

Colibactin is synthesized by a 54-kb genomic island, leads to toxicity in eukaryotic cells, and plays a vital role in many diseases, including neonatal sepsis and meningitis. Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is speculated to be an armory of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli and can be a potential zoonotic bacterium that threatens human and animal health. In this study, the APEC XM meningitis mouse model was successfully established to investigate the effect of colibactin in in vivo infection. The clbH-deletion mutant strain induced lower γ-H2AX expression, no megalocytosis, and no cell cycle arrest in bEnd.3 cells, which showed that the deletion of clbH decreased the production of colibactin in the APEC XM strain. The deletion of clbH did not affect the APEC XM strain's ability of adhering to and invading bEnd.3 cells. In vitro, the non-colibactin-producing strain displayed significantly lower serum resistance and it also induced a lower level of cytokine mRNA and few disruptions of tight junction proteins in infected bEnd.3 cells. Meningitis did not occur in APEC ΔclbH-infected mice in vivo, who showed fewer clinical symptoms and fewer lesions on radiological and histopathological analyses. Compared with the APEX XM strain, APEC ΔclbH induced lower bacterial colonization in tissues, lower mRNA expression of cytokines in brain tissues, and slight destruction of the brain blood barrier. These results indicate that clbH is a necessary component for the synthesis of genotoxic colibactin, and colibactin is related to the development of meningitis induced by APEC XM.

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