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1.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(1): 230-238, 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34989507

RESUMO

Based on the flow direction of the Fuhe River into Baiyangdian Lake, the impacted area of the Fuhe River was divided into 6 subareas, and sediments from 48 sites were collected in November 2020. The characteristics and risks of sediment nutrients and heavy metal pollution in these six subareas were investigated. The results showed that the average ω(TN), ω(TP), and ω(TOC) were 1841 mg·kg-1, 769 mg·kg-1, and 1.77%, respectively. The major heavy metals were Cd, Cu, Zn, Hg, and Pb, which were 3.73, 1.50, 1.42, 1.31, and 1.31 times the soil background values for Hebei Province, respectively. The TP and heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Zn, Hg, and Pb) content showed a decreasing trend from the Fuhe River estuary to the downstream Zaolinzhuang, whereas the TN and TOC content showed no marked trends. TN, TP, TOC, and heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Zn, Hg, and Pb) were enriched in surface sediments (0-10 cm). The TP content in the surface sediments (0-10 cm) of the Fuhe River estuary, Fuhe River estuary-Nanliuzhuang, and Nanliuzhuang subareas were heavily polluted; the Wangjiazhai and Guangdian subareas were moderately polluted; and the Zaolinzhuang subarea was slightly polluted. Cd and Hg were the major contributors to heavy metal pollution, which were at considerable risk and moderate risk levels, respectively. The heavy metals in surface sediments (0-10 cm) of the Fuhe River estuary, Fuhe River estuary-Nanliuzhuang, and Nanliuzhuang subareas were at a considerable risk level, and the sediments below 30 cm presented a low risk level. The leaching concentrations of heavy metals in sediments from the subarea of severe ecological risk level were far less than the identification standard values of leaching toxicity, suggesting that the sediments can be treated as general waste after dredging.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Lagos , Metais Pesados/análise , Nutrientes , Medição de Risco , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(23): 6163-6177, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34951243

RESUMO

This study aimed to qualitatively analyze the chemical components in Xiaoer Chiqiao Qingre Granules(XRCQ) by UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS/MS and identify its material basis. The absorbed components in plasma were combined for exploring the potential action mechanism by integrated network pharmacology. ACQUITY UPLC HSS T3(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.8 µm) column and mobile phase system of 0.1% formic acid solution(A)-acetonitrile(B) were used for gradient elution, followed by high resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in both positive and negative ion scanning modes. According to the precise relative molecular mass and MS/MS fragment ions, a total of 124 chemical components were identified in XRCQ by the comparison with references and literature reports, among which 29 compounds were completely confirmed by comparison with reference substances. Then, the main absorbed components of XRCQ in plasma were also analyzed and clarified by UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS/MS. BATMAN-TCM and SwissTargetPrediction were used for target prediction of absorbed components in plasma. Following the plotting of association network with Cytoscape 3.8.2, the core targets were subjected to GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis and a component-target-pathway network was constructed. A total of eight main targets of XRCQ against fever in children were obtained together with eight absorbed components in plasma, including glycyrhydinic acid, hesperidin, emodin, reticuline, daidzein, magnolignan C, magnolignan A, and magnolaldehyde D. It was inferred that XRCQ might improve alimentary system abnormality, inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and endocrine disorder through tumor necrosis factor, PI3 K-AKT, and other signaling pathways. The present study comprehensively expounded the chemical profiles of XRCQ and the main absorbed components in plasma and predicted the potential mechanism of XRCQ based on integrated network pharmacology, which has provided certain theoretical reference for the clinical application of XRCQ.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Criança , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Humanos
3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(18): 4774-4781, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581088

RESUMO

Indolealkylamines(IAAs) are the main hydrophilic substances in toad skin, mainly including free N-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, bufotenine, bufotenidine, dehydrobufotenine, and binding bufothionine. In this study, the LPS-activated neutrophils were used to investigate the structure-activity relationship and anti-inflammatory mechanism of the above-mentioned five monomers from the toad skin in vitro. The neutrophils were divided into the control group, model group(1 µg·mL~(-1) LPS), positive drug group(100 µg·mL~(-1) indometacin), as well as the low-(50 µg·mL~(-1)), medium-(100 µg·mL~(-1)) and high-dose(200 µg·mL~(-1)) free N-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, bufotenine, bufotenidine, dehydrobufotenine, and binding bufothionine groups. The levels of IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1ß in the neutrophil supernatant of each group was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) after LPS stimulation, followed by the detection of apoptosis in each group after Annexin V/PI staining. The protein expression levels of caspase-3, Bax, Bcl-2, beclin1, LC3-I, and LC3-Ⅱ were assayed by Western blot. The results showed that IAAs reduced the excessive secretion of inflammatory cytokines caused by LPS compared with the model group. Besides, the activity of each free IAAs(N-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, bufotenine, bufotenidine and dehydrobufotenine), especially bufotenine, was stronger than that of the binding bufothionine. As revealed by Annexin V/PI staining, LPS delayed the early apoptosis of neutrophils compared with the control group, while bufotenine promoted the apoptosis of neutrophils in a dose-dependent manner, which might be related to the elevated expression of apoptosis-related protein Bax/Bcl-2. In addition, LPS activated the autophagy pathways in neutrophils. This study confirmed the efficacy of IAAs in reducing the secretion of inflammatory cytokines in neutrophils induced by LPS for the first time. For instance, bufotenine exerts the anti-inflammatory effect possibly by inducing the apoptosis of neutrophils.


Assuntos
Lipopolissacarídeos , Neutrófilos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Apoptose , Bufonidae , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Pele
4.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(10): 4781-4788, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581120

RESUMO

A dredging demonstration project in the Baiyangdian Lake included open waters and fishing ponds to reduce the internal release of nitrogen and phosphorus from bottom sediments. The dredging depth design was determined by both the sediment vertical distribution profile of total nitrogen and phosphorus, and the sediment adsorption-desorption equilibrium method. The determined dredging depths were very similar and coincident. The dredging depth for the demonstration area of open waters in Nanliuzhuang was identified as(50±10) cm; and the dredging depths for fishing ponds were(30±10) cm in both the Nanliuzhuang and Caiputai demonstration areas. The equilibrium nitrogen(NH4+-N) and phosphorus(SRP) concentrations at zero net sorption or desorption(ENC0 and EPC0) were significantly positively correlated with both exchangeable and total nitrogen and phosphorus in the sediments. The total nitrogen and phosphorus in the sediments were also used to predict the risk of their release from the bottom sediments to the overlying water column. The sediment layers with ENC0 and EPC0 values greater than the NH4+-N and SRP in the overlying water column indicated the sediments act as a source of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus to the overlying water column in the Nanliuzhuang and Caiputai demonstration areas. Accordingly, the sediment layers with both total nitrogen concentrations greater than 750 mg·kg-1 and total phosphorus concentrations greater than 500 mg·kg-1 should be identified as dredging layers.


Assuntos
Fósforo , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , China , Sedimentos Geológicos , Lagos , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 272: 113917, 2021 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609729

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Qingxin Lianzi Yin Decoction (QXLZY), a Chinese classical formula, has been widely used in the treatment of various chronic kidney diseases over 1,000 years. However, the current studies on QXLZY were mostly focused on its clinical efficacy, lacking systematic material basis research on constituents. AIM OF THE STUDY: This work aims to elucidate and quantify the chemical constituents, clarify the blood-absorbed components and excretion pathways, predict major bioactive constituents and discover potential therapeutic targets. MATERIALS AND METHODS: UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap HRMS was employed to clarify the chemical constituents and metabolites of QXLZY. The extraction of diagnostic ion and neutral loss fragment was aimed for searching specific type of constituents. The plasma, urine, bile and feces samples of rats after oral administration of QXLZY were systematically studied. UHPLC-QQQ-MS/MS was employed to simultaneously detect different types of constitutes. Based on the analysis of ingredients in vivo, the bioactive constituents and potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy (DN) was investigated by using network pharmacological analysis. RESULTS: Totally, 220 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized by UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap HRMS. Among them, 59 compounds were confirmed by reference standards. Meanwhile, 21 representative components were simultaneously determined within 15 min by UHPLC-QQQ-MS/MS. 123 components (74 prototypes as well as 49 metabolites) were identified or tentatively characterized. By using network pharmacological analysis, baicalein, liquiritigenin, succinic acid, formononetin, wogonin might be the major effective constituents in QXLZY during the treatment of DN. CONCLUSIONS: Flavonoids, saponins and organic acids were the major chemical ingredients of QXLZY. Flavonoids were the main components absorbed into blood, followed by organic acids. Phase II conjugation reaction was the major metabolic type. The pathways that QXLZY in the treatment of DN were probably related to glucose and lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and inflammation.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Ácidos/análise , Alcaloides/análise , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Masculino , Metaboloma , Compostos Fitoquímicos/administração & dosagem , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Saponinas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(13): 3035-3044, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726009

RESUMO

UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS was developed for the identification of chemical constituents in Qingfei Paidu Decoction, which will clarify its material basis. ACQUITY UHPLC HSS T3 chromatography column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.8 µm) was used with 0.1% formic acid(B)-acetonitrile(A) as the mobile phase in gradient elution. The decoction was detected by high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry equipped with an ESI ion source in positive and negative mode. Based on the accurate mass measurements, retention time, mass fragmentation patterns combined with comparison of reference and literature reports, a total of 87 major compounds including 43 flavonoids, 9 alkaloids, 4 triterpenoid saponins, 1 sesquiterpene, 2 coumarins, 10 phenolic acids and 18 other compounds were tentatively screened and characterized. UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS was employed to comprehensively elucidate the chemical components in Qingfei Paidu Decoction, which basically covered 20 Chinese medicines except gypsum in Qingfei Paidu Decoction. These collective results provide a scientific basis for further research on the quality control standard of Qingfei Paidu Decoction.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cumarínicos/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Espectrometria de Massas
7.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 260: 112943, 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32422359

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Arenobufagin (ArBu) is an important anti-tumor ingredient of Chan'su which has long been used as traditional Chinese medicine in clinic for tumor therapy in China. AIM OF THE STUDY: The purpose of our study is to investigate the lipid homeostasis regulation effects of ArBu on zebrafish model of liver cancer and hepatoma cells, and to provide a reference for further clarifying its active mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The zebrafish xenograft model was established by injecting HepG2 cells stained with CM-Dil red fluorescent dye. Both the xenograft model and HepG2 cells were used to evaluate the anti-hepatoma activity of ArBu. High performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was the main method to study lipidomics, proteomics and the semiquantification of endogenous metabolites. Bioinformatics was used as an assistant tool to further explore the antitumor mechanism of ArBu. RESULTS: The lipidomics analysis revealed that ArBu caused differential lipids changes in a dose-dependent manner, including PCs, PEs, TGs, SMs, DGs, Cer and PA. PCs, PEs, SMs and TGs were markedly altered in both two models. The influence of glycerophospholipid metabolism was the major and commonly affected pathway. Notably, DGs and Cer were significantly changed only in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, the proteomics research in HepG2 cells fished the target proteins related to lipid homeostasis abnormalities and tumor suppression. ArBu reduced the expression of 65 differential proteins associated with the lipid metabolism, apoptosis and autophagy, such as LCLAT1, STAT3, TSPO and RPS27. Meanwhile, 7 amino acids of 29 determined metabolites were significantly changed, including tyrosine, glutamate, glutamine, leucine, threonine, arginine and isoleucine. CONCLUSION: ArBu has a significant anti-hepatoma effect in vitro and a therapeutic effect on zebrafish xenograft model. It regulated the lipid homeostasis. Activated SM synthase and arginine deiminase, inhibited sphingomyelinase, amino acid supply and JAK-STAT3 signaling pathway, and the affected glycerophospholipid metabolism might explain these results.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Bufanolídeos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipidômica , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Proteômica , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Transdução de Sinais , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Peixe-Zebra
8.
Biochem Genet ; 58(5): 677-690, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385670

RESUMO

This study aims to compare the expression of P2X receptor subtype mRNA in different arterial tissues of rats. After the rats were sacrificed, the internal carotid, pulmonary, thoracic aorta, mesenteric and caudal arteries were dissected out. Then, the P2X receptor mRNA expression in different blood vessels was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The P2X1, P2X4 and P2X7 receptor mRNA amplification products revealed specific bands of the same size as the amplified target fragment in their respective lanes, while the P2X2, P2X3, P2X5 and P2X6 receptor mRNA amplification products did not reveal significant specific bands in their respective lanes by RT-PCR. Based on the P2X1 receptor mRNA expression of the mesenteric artery, there were no significant differences in the internal carotid, pulmonary and thoracic aorta (0.64 ± 0.07, 0.17 ± 0.11 and 1.49 ± 0.65, respectively). However, the P2X1 receptor mRNA expression level in the caudal artery significantly increased (11.06 ± 1.99, P < 0.01). Furthermore, there was no difference in P2X4 receptor mRNA expression among these five blood vessels (P > 0.05). The P2X7 receptor mRNA expression level was significantly different: pulmonary artery < tail artery = thoracic aorta < internal carotid artery < mesenteric artery. The relative P2X1 receptor mRNA expression in the caudal artery was observed to be elevated when compared to that of the internal carotid, pulmonary and thoracic aorta as well as the mesenteric arteries. The P2X7 receptor mRNA expression level is pulmonary artery < caudal artery = thoracic aorta < internal carotid artery < mesenteric artery. P2X4 receptor mRNA expression was not significantly different among these five blood vessels.


Assuntos
Artérias/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X/genética , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X/metabolismo
9.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 91, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32117121

RESUMO

Phosphoglycerate kinase (Pgk), catalyzing the reversible conversions between glycerate-1.3-2P and glycerate-3P, plays an important role in carbohydrate metabolism. Here, we show that a Pgk-deficient mutant (NΔpgk) of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines (Xag) could grow in medium with glucose, galactose, fructose, mannose, or sucrose, as the sole carbon source, suggesting that Xag may employ Entner-Doudoroff (ED) and pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), but not glycolysis, to catabolize glucose. NΔpgk could not utilize pyruvate, suggesting that Pgk might be essential for gluconeogenesis. Mutation in pgk led to a reduction of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) biosynthesis, cell motility, and intracellular ATP. As a result, the virulence of NΔpgk was significantly compromised in soybean. NΔpgk could be fully complemented by the wild-type pgk, but not by clp (encoding Crp-like protein). qRT-PCR analyses demonstrated that pgk is regulated by the HrpG/HrpX cascade, but not by Clp. These results suggest that Pgk is involved in carbohydrate utilization, EPS biosynthesis, and cell motility of Xag independent of Clp.

10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(22): 4932-4939, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872603

RESUMO

This study is aimed to establish a method for the determination of baicalin,baicalin and purpurin in the plasma of rats after oral administration of Pudilan Xiaoyan Oral Liquid( PDL) by using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry( LC-MS),analyze the pharmacokinetics of three components in rats,and investigate the effects of PDL on drug-metabolizing enzymes in rat liver. C18 column was used for liquid chromatography separation,with acetonitrile-water( containing 0. 2% formic acid) as the mobile phase for gradient elution. The mass spectrometry was detected by electrospray ion source( ESI) under multi-reaction monitoring mode( MRM),as well as positive and negative ion alternating mode. Plasma sample collection was performed by using an automatic blood collection meter for small animals. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by Win Nonlin software. The total protein concentration of rat liver microsomes and the total enzyme content of CYP450 were determined by BCA method and spectrophotometry respectively. The methodological study in terms of linear range,recovery rate,precision and sample stability,was used to confirm that the LC-MS analysis method established in this experiment was simple,exclusive,accurate and reliable,and can meet the requirement of determining the content of baicalin,oroxindin and corynoline in plasma after PDL administration in rats. The drug-time curve showed that baicalin and oroxindin had a bimodal phenomenon,and the pharmacokinetic parameters indicated that baicalin,oroxindin and corynoline in PDL had certain drug-like properties. After 7 consecutive days of PDL administration,the rat liver coefficient,total liver microparticle protein and CYP450 enzyme content were increased,but there was no significant difference,indicating that PDL was less likely to develop drug-drug interaction based on CYP enzyme. The results of this experiment can provide reference for the research on in vivo efficacy and drug interaction of PDL as well as on its clinical application.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacocinética , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Administração Oral , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Fígado , Ratos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
11.
Pol J Microbiol ; 68(2): 247-254, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250595

RESUMO

Gastric microbiota provides a biological barrier against the invasion of foreign pathogens from the oral cavity, playing a vital role in maintaining gastrointestinal health. Klebsiella spp. of oral origin causes various infections not only in gastrointestinal tract but also in other organs, with Klebsiella pneumoniae serotype K1 resulting in a liver abscess (KLA) through oral inoculation in mice. However, the relationship between gastric microbiota and the extra-gastrointestinal KLA infection is not clear. In our study, a 454 pyrosequencing analysis of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene shows that the composition of gastric mucosal microbiota in mice with or without KLA infection varies greatly after oral inoculation with K. pneumoniae serotype K1 isolate. Interestingly, only several bacteria taxa show a significant change in gastric mucosal microbiota of KLA mice, including the decreased abundance of Bacteroides, Alisptipes and increased abundance of Streptococcus. It is worth noting that the abundance of Klebsiella exhibits an obvious increase in KLA mice, which might be closely related to KLA infection. At the same time, the endogenous antibiotics, defensins, involved in the regulation of the bacterial microbiota also show an increase in stomach and intestine. All these findings indicate that liver abscess caused by K. pneumoniae oral inoculation has a close relationship with gastric microbiota, which might provide important information for future clinical treatment.Gastric microbiota provides a biological barrier against the invasion of foreign pathogens from the oral cavity, playing a vital role in maintaining gastrointestinal health. Klebsiella spp. of oral origin causes various infections not only in gastrointestinal tract but also in other organs, with Klebsiella pneumoniae serotype K1 resulting in a liver abscess (KLA) through oral inoculation in mice. However, the relationship between gastric microbiota and the extra-gastrointestinal KLA infection is not clear. In our study, a 454 pyrosequencing analysis of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene shows that the composition of gastric mucosal microbiota in mice with or without KLA infection varies greatly after oral inoculation with K. pneumoniae serotype K1 isolate. Interestingly, only several bacteria taxa show a significant change in gastric mucosal microbiota of KLA mice, including the decreased abundance of Bacteroides, Alisptipes and increased abundance of Streptococcus. It is worth noting that the abundance of Klebsiella exhibits an obvious increase in KLA mice, which might be closely related to KLA infection. At the same time, the endogenous antibiotics, defensins, involved in the regulation of the bacterial microbiota also show an increase in stomach and intestine. All these findings indicate that liver abscess caused by K. pneumoniae oral inoculation has a close relationship with gastric microbiota, which might provide important information for future clinical treatment.


Assuntos
Biota , Disbiose/complicações , Mucosa Gástrica/microbiologia , Infecções por Klebsiella/complicações , Abscesso Hepático/complicações , Animais , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Infecções por Klebsiella/microbiologia , Infecções por Klebsiella/patologia , Abscesso Hepático/microbiologia , Abscesso Hepático/patologia , Camundongos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
12.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(8): 1573-1587, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090321

RESUMO

UPLC-ESI-Orbitrap-MS/MS was used to analyze,identify and attribute the chemical constituents in Pudilan Antiphlogistic Oral Liquid. The analysis was performed on an Agilent Eclipse XDB-C18(4.6 mm × 150 mm,3.5 µm) with a gradient mobile phase of methanol-0.1% formic solution system at the flow rate of 0.5 m L·min-1. The sample volume was 2 µL. The column temperature was30 ℃. The high-resolution orbitrap mass spectrometry was used as detector,with electrospray ion source in both positive and negative models,and the MS scanning ranged between m/z 50 and 2 000. Based on the analysis of mass spectrometry and literature reports,79 compounds were confirmed,including 30 alkaloids,28 organic acids,18 flavonoids and 3 coumarins. Finally,39 compounds,such as rutin,esculetin,gallic acid,caffeic acid,cichoric acid,were identified from Taraxacum mongolicum; 11 compounds,such as baicalin,baicalein,apigenin,chrysin,oroxylin A,were identified from Scutellaria baicalensis; 13 compounds,such as arginine,proline,hypoxanthine,epigoitrin,indirubin,were identified from Isatis indigotica; and 18 compounds,such as dehydrocheilanthifoline,oxysanguinarine,corynoline,protopine,spallidamine,were identified from Corydalis bungeana. After the analysis of chemical model and attribution,the contents of some compounds were high in Pudilan Antiphlogistic Oral Liquid,such as baicalin,wogonoside,baicalein,wogonin,apigenin,chrysin,skullcapflavonⅡ,oroxylin A,cichoric acid,chlorogenic acid,caffeic acid,esculetin,dehydrocheilanthifoline,dihydrosanguinarine,protopine,corynoline and indirubin. The established method is simple,accurate,rapid,sensitive and reproducible,and thus suitable for the qualitative identification and quantitative determination of Pudilan Antiphlogistic Oral Liquid,which lays a foundation for the systematic quality control and the establishment of whole-course traceability system of active ingredients.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
13.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 43(14): 3006-3011, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30111062

RESUMO

To study the pharmacokinetics of active ingredients (alkaloids, iridoids and flavonoids) in Huanglian Jiedu decoction (HLJDD) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) model rats, and investigate its mechanism in treatment of AD. All of rats were divided into normal control group (n=6), shame operation group (n=6) and model group (n=12). Rats in shame operation group received daily subcutaneous injection of D-galactose (D-gal 50 mg·kg⁻¹) for a total of 45 d to induce subacute aging model. Based on the operation of shame operation group, the rats in model group were given with an injection of Aß25₋35 (4.0 g·L⁻¹)-ibotenic acid (2.0 g·L⁻¹) into the nucleus basalis magnocellularis. Then rats in model group were divided into HLJDD one day administration group (n=6) and HLJDD one week group (n=6). The plasma concentration of alkaloids, iridoid and flavonoids was determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-QQQ-MS) at different time points. The levels of seven inflammatory factors (MIP-2, IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, TNF-α) in cerebrospinalfluid (CSF) were measured by Bio-Plex multi-factor detection technology. Iridoids in AD model rats, with high bioavailability, were easily absorbed and eliminated. The plasma concentration of alkaloid was lower, and the AUC (area under the curve) was higher in HLJDD one week group than that in HLJDD one day group. The plasma concentration-time curves of flavonoids showed obvious bimodal phenomena. After the gastric administration of HLJDD, the inflammatory factors in CSF of AD rats demonstrated a callback trend, including IL-1ß/IL-10 (P<0.05) with significant difference. The pharmacokinetic behaviors of iridoids, alkaloids and flavonoids (41 compounds) in AD model rats were fundamentally elucidated, and HLJDD can improve the central inflammatory status of AD rats by regulating the levels of inflammatory factors.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Animais , Encéfalo , Inflamação , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
14.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 38(4): 1477-1482, 2017 Apr 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29965149

RESUMO

The objective of this experiment was to investigate the influence of SO32-dosage, pH value, initial perfluorooctane sulfonate(PFOS)concentration as well as coexisting substances on the degradation and defluorination of PFOS by VUV-SO32- process. The results indicated that the increase of SO32- dosage could lead to rise in the concentration of active species hydrated electron(eaq-) and thus enhance the degradation and defluorination of PFOS. As the concentration of SO32- increased from 1 mmol·L-1 to 20 mmol·L-1, the degradation and defluorination rates of PFOS increased from 45% and 40% to 97% and 63%, respectively. The degradation and defluorination of PFOS were also enhanced with the increment of the solution pH values, and the defluorination was more sensitive to the pH values. In addition, more PFOS was degraded with the increase of initial PFOS mass concentration, although the degradation and defluorination rates of PFOS were reduced. When the initial PFOS mass concentration changed from 1 mg·L-1 to 50 mg·L-1, the degradation amount of PFOS after four hrs increased by about 50 times, probably due to the higher utilization proportion of eaq- at high pollutants concentration. Last but not least, the influence of co-existing substances, Cl- and HCO3-, on PFOS degradation could be neglected, whereas their effects on defluorination were observed. Defluorination of PFOS was enhanced with the increased Cl- concentration, however, increased first and then decreased with the increment of HCO3- concentration. It was also found that the presence of humic acid(HA) lowered degradation as well as defluorination of PFOS owing to the blockage of effective UV light and trapping of active species for photochemical reaction.

15.
Appl Opt ; 55(30): 8601-8605, 2016 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27828142

RESUMO

In this paper, a low-loss and wavelength-insensitive asymmetric 1×5 arbitrary optical power splitter is designed and optimized, which is composed of a three-branch and two Y-branch elements. A low-loss and wavelength-independent arbitrary 1×5 optical power splitter can be obtained. Asymmetric 1×5 optical power splitters of different output ratios are fabricated using silica-based planar lightwave circuit (PLC) technology on a 6-inch quartz substrate. The measured results show that the ILoutput1, ILoutput2∼5, UNIFoutput2∼5, PDL, and WDL of the output ratio 33%:67%, 50%:50%, and 95%:5% are less than (5.302 dB, 8.483 dB, 0.422 dB, 0.191 dB, 0.345 dB), (3.46 dB, 9.71 dB, 0.28 dB, 0.119 dB, 0.231 dB), and (1.52 dB, 14.15 dB, 0.44 dB, 0.366 dB, 0.561 dB), respectively, in the wavelength of 1.27 µm, 1.31 µm, 1.49 µm, 1.55 µm, and 1.625 µm.

16.
PLoS One ; 11(6): e0156256, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27280291

RESUMO

Huang-Lian-Jie-Du Decoction (HLJDD) is a classical Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula with heat-dissipating and detoxifying effects. It is used to treat inflammation-associated diseases. However, no systematic pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) data concerning the activity of HLJDD under inflammatory conditions is available to date. In the present study, the concentration-time profiles and the hepatic clearance rates (HCR) of 41 major components in rat plasma in response to the oral administration of a clinical dose of HLJDD were investigated by LC-QqQ-MS using a dynamic multiple reaction monitoring (DMRM) method. Additionally, the levels of 7 cytokines (CKs) in the plasma and the body temperature of rats were analyzed. Furthermore, a PK-PD model was established to describe the time course of the hemodynamic and anti-inflammatory effects of HLJDD. As one of the three major active constituents in HLJDD, iridoids were absorbed and eliminated more easily and quickly than alkaloids and flavonoids. Compared with the normal controls, the flavonoids, alkaloids and iridoids in inflamed rats exhibited consistently changing trends of PK behaviors, such as higher bioavailability, slower elimination, delays in reaching the maximum concentration (Tmax) and longer substantivity. The HCR of iridoids was different from that of alkaloids and flavonoids in inflamed rats. Furthermore, excellent pharmacodynamic effects of HLJDD were observed in inflamed rats. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1ß, IL-10, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and body temperature significantly decreased after the administration of HLJDD. Based on PK-PD modeling with the three-phase synchronous characterization of time-concentration-effect, flavonoids exhibited one mechanism of action in the anti-inflammatory process, while iridoids and alkaloids showed another mechanism of action. Taken together, the results demonstrated that HLJDD may restrain inflammation synergistically via its major constituents (alkaloids, flavonoids and iridoids). A correlation between the exposure concentration of different types of compounds and their anti-inflammatory effects in the body was shown. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of the anti-inflammatory activity of HLJDD.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacocinética , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacocinética , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Cromatografia Líquida , Citocinas/sangue , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
17.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 41(14): 2669-2674, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28905604

RESUMO

In this study, 10 samples of parasites, cursive, and the whole from six different species of Cordyceps were determined and compared by HPLC and LC-MS methods. Uridine, adenosine, and cordycepin were selected as the main evaluation index. The anti-fibrotic activity of different species Cordyceps extracts was observed using in vitro TGF-ß1-induced ECM accumulation in human embryonic fibroblasts CCC-ESF-1. The results demonstrated that the number of atoms and hyphae ingredients of different species showed little difference, however, the content distribution of each component has obvious significance. The in vitro anti-fibrotic activities of different species were as follow: Cordyceps flower > Cicada Cordyceps (Cicada flower)> Silkworm Cordyceps> Tussah Cordyceps>natural Cordyceps. Our preliminary data could serve as reference for the discovery of artificial alternatives of natural Cordyceps.


Assuntos
Cordyceps/química , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adenosina/farmacologia , Células Cultivadas , Desoxiadenosinas/farmacologia , Fibrose , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1 , Uridina/farmacologia
18.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 41(20): 3767-3772, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28929654

RESUMO

Fifteen compounds were isolated from the toad skin by a combination of various chromatographic methods including macroporous resin, silica gel, ODS and semi-preparative HPLC. Their structures were identified as 4,5-dimethyl-1,3,4,5-tetrahydropyrrolo[4,3,2-de]quinolin-6-ol(1), serotonin(2), N-methyl serotonin(3), O-methyl bufotenine(4), 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6-hydroxy-ß-carboline(5), O-methylserotonin(6), glycinebetaine(7), caffeine(8), bufotenine(9), shepherdine(10), tryptophan(11), (5-hydroxy-1H-indol-3-yl)acetic acid(12), 5-hydroxy tryptophol(13), 2-methyl-6-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-ß-carboline(14), bufothionine(15). Among them, compound 1 was a new compound,compound 5 was a new natural product. Compounds 4-8 and 10-14 were separated from toad skin for the first time.


Assuntos
Bufonidae , Pele/química , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão
19.
Xenobiotica ; 46(1): 65-81, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26084375

RESUMO

1. Huang-Lian-Jie-Du Decoction (HLJDD) is widely used for the treatment of hypertension, diabetes, inflammation and neural system diseases in clinic. In the present study, the comprehensive metabolic profile of HLJDD was demonstrated reliably and rapidly followed by the metabolic pathway analysis of six typical pure compounds (four alkaloids, one flavonoid and one iridoid) in HLJDD using LC-IT-MS combined with high resolution LC-FT-ICR-MS. 2. Totally, 85 compounds, including 32 prototype components and 53 biotransformed metabolites were detected and characterized in the urine and feces after oral administration of HLJDD and six pure compounds to rats, respectively. Among them, 17 prototypes were identified definitely with standard references. 3. Hydroxylation, demethylation and glucuronidation reactions of alkaloids, as well as glucuronidation and sulfonation reactions of iridoids and flavonoids, were observed as the major metabolic pathways of HLJDD. Flavonoids, iridoids and their metabolites were mainly excreted from urine. However, amount of alkaloids were detected in feces. 4. In general, the distinctive metabolic process of three kinds of representative components in HLJDD was clarified. The in vivo metabolic network of HLJDD was demonstrated. Meanwhile, the investigation of representative pure compounds in metabolic study provided a valuable strategy to elucidate the full-scale metabolic fate of HLJDD. This might be helpful to understand the in vivo mechanism of Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Urina/química , Alcaloides/urina , Animais , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Flavonoides/urina , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Metaboloma , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Padrões de Referência
20.
DNA Cell Biol ; 35(1): 24-32, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26430912

RESUMO

Different domains of the multifunctional transcription factor Y-box binding protein 1 (YB1) regulate proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis by transactivating or repressing the promoters of various genes. Here we report that the C-terminal domain of YB1 (YB1 CTD) is involved in endothelial cell proliferation, apoptosis, and tube formation. The oligo pull-down assays demonstrated that YB1 directly binds double-stranded GC box sequences in endothelial cells through the 125-220 amino acids. Adenovirus expression vectors harboring green fluorescent protein (GFP) or GFP-tagged YB1 CTD were constructed and used to infect EA.hy926 endothelial cells. Overexpression of the YB1 CTD significantly increased p21 expression, decreased cyclin B1 expression, and inhibited the proliferation of EA.hy926 cells. YB1 CTD overexpression also increased Bax and active caspase 3 expression, decreased Bcl-2 expression, and induced apoptosis in EA.hy926 cells. Furthermore, overexpression of the YB1 CTD significantly suppressed migration and tube formation in EA.hy926 cells. Finally, YB1 CTD decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation in EA.hy926 cells. These findings demonstrated vital roles for YB1 in endothelial cell proliferation, apoptosis, and tube formation through transcriptional regulation of GC box-related genes.


Assuntos
Apoptose/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Células Endoteliais/fisiologia , Neovascularização Fisiológica/genética , Proteína 1 de Ligação a Y-Box/fisiologia , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Movimento Celular/genética , Células Cultivadas , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas/genética , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína/genética , Transativadores/genética , Transfecção , Proteína 1 de Ligação a Y-Box/química , Proteína 1 de Ligação a Y-Box/genética
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