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1.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 132(14): 1689-1699, 2019 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression affects approximately 5% of elderly people and its etiology might be related to chronic stress exposure during neurodevelopmental periods. In this study, we examined the effects of adolescent chronic social stress in aged mice on depressive behaviors and the excitatory-inhibitory (E/I) balance in stress-sensitive regions of the brain. METHODS: Sixty-four adolescent, male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to either the 7-week (from post-natal days 29 to 77) social instability stress (stress group, n = 32) or normal housing conditions (control group, n = 32). At 15 months of age, 16 mice were randomly selected from each group for a series of behavioral tests, including two depression-related tasks (the sucrose preference test and the tail suspension test). Three days following the last behavioral test, eight mice were randomly selected from each group for immunohistochemical analyses to measure the cell density of parvalbumin (PV)- and calretinin (CR)-positive gamma-aminobutyric-acid (GABA)ergic inhibitory inter-neurons, and the expression levels of vesicular transporters of glutamate-1 (VGluT1) and vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) in three stress-sensitive regions of the brain (the medial pre-frontal cortex [mPFC], hippocampus, and amygdala). RESULTS: Behaviorally, compared with the control group, adolescent chronic stress increased depression-like behaviors as shown in decreased sucrose preference (54.96 ±â€Š1.97% vs. 43.11 ±â€Š2.85%, t(22) = 3.417, P = 0.003) and reduced latency to immobility in the tail suspension test (92.77 ±â€Š25.08 s vs. 33.14 ±â€Š5.95 s, t(25) = 2.394, P = 0.025), but did not affect anxiety-like behaviors and pre-pulse inhibition. At the neurobiologic level, adolescent stress down-regulated PV, not CR, inter-neuron density in the mPFC (F(1, 39) = 19.30, P < 0.001), and hippocampus (F(1, 42) = 5.823, P = 0.020) and altered the CR, not PV, inter-neuron density in the amygdala (F(1, 28) = 23.16, P < 0.001). The VGluT1/VGAT ratio was decreased in all three regions (all F > 10.09, all P < 0.004), which suggests stress-induced hypoexcitability in these regions. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic stress during adolescence increased depression-like behaviors in aged mice, which may be associated with the E/I imbalance in stress-sensitive brain regions.

2.
Hippocampus ; 29(11): 1063-1074, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066147

RESUMO

The early postnatal stage is a critical period of hippocampal neurodevelopment and also a period of high vulnerability to adverse life experiences. Recent evidence suggests that nectin-3, a cell adhesion molecule, mediates memory dysfunction and dendritic alterations in the adult hippocampus induced by postnatal stress. But it is unknown whether postnatal nectin-3 reduction alone is sufficient to alter hippocampal structure and function in adulthood. Here, we down regulated hippocampal expression of nectin-3 and its heterophilic adhesion partner nectin-1, respectively, from early postnatal stage by injecting adeno-associated virus (AAV) into the cerebral lateral ventricles of neonatal mice (postnatal day 2). We found that suppression of nectin-3, but not nectin-1, expression from the early postnatal stage impaired hippocampus-dependent novel object recognition and spatial object recognition in adult mice. Moreover, AAV-mediated nectin-3 knockdown significantly reduced dendritic complexity and spine density of pyramidal neurons throughout the hippocampus, whereas nectin-1 knockdown only induced the loss of stubby spines in CA3. Our data provide direct evidence that nectins, especially nectin-3, are necessary for postnatal hippocampal development of memory functions and structural integrity.

3.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(5): 2010-2018, 2019 May 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087835

RESUMO

Catering is an important emission source of atmospheric particulate organic matters (POMs). Mass concentrations, chemical compositions, and emission factors of POMs emitted from catering were studied based on simulation experiments. The effects of different cooking methods, various ingredients, oils, and other factors were investigated. The results showed that the species of POMs emitted from catering were largely influenced by cooking methods, ingredients, and oils. Among all the quantified POMs, the average mass fraction was 68.9%, 20.3%, and 4.2% for N-alkanes, sterols, and fatty acids (including saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids), respectively. The remaining 5.42% was constituted by dicarboxylic acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, monosaccharide anhydrides, and hopane compounds. The average ingredient emission factor was 0.0131 g·kg-1, ranging from 0.0014 g·kg-1 to 0.0271 g·kg-1. The ingredient emission factors of the meat cooking process were much larger than those of the vegetable cooking process. The average oil emission factor was 1.8230 g·kg-1, ranging from 0.0019 g·kg-1 to 10.1730 g·kg-1. The oil emission factors of barbecuing were much larger than those of other cooking methods.

4.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(4): 1627-1633, 2019 Apr 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087902

RESUMO

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) do great harm to human health, and also have some impact on air quality. Cooking is one of the important sources of VOCs, so the study of cooking emissions is of great significance. By simulating the heating of oil and cooking, the characteristics and chemical composition of VOCs emissions for different types of oil fumes were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), using different oils, seasonings, and dishes as variables. The results show that the emission factors of the oils range from 0.81 to 2.53 g·kg-1, and the emissions are dominated by halogenated hydrocarbons and alkanes. The emission factors of the seasonings range from 25.06 to 40.18 g·kg-1, and the seasonings mainly emit alkanes. The quantity of emissions from chili fried meat is much higher than that of tomato scrambled eggs, and the chili fried meat mainly emits halogenated hydrocarbons, while tomato scrambled eggs mainly emit aromatic hydrocarbons and alkanes.

5.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 132(13): 1582-1590, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to adverse experiences in early life may profoundly reshape the neurodevelopmental trajectories of the brain and lead to long-lasting behavioral and neural alterations. One deleterious effect of early-life stress that manifests in later life is sleep disturbance, but this has not been examined in aged mice and the underlying neural mechanisms remain unknown. Considering the important role of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in the sleep-wake regulation, this study aimed to assess the effects of early-life stress on the sleep behaviors in aged mice and the potential involvement of the NAc in stress-induced sleep abnormalities. METHODS: Twenty aged male C57BL/6 mice (>16 months, n = 10 per group) were used in this study. During post-natal days 2 to 9, dams were provided with either sufficient (control) or a limited nesting and bedding materials (stressed). When the mice were 16 to 17 months old, their sleep-wake behaviors were recorded over 24 h using electroencephalogram and electromyelogram. The amount of each sleep-wake stage, mean duration, and stage transition was analyzed. Then, five animals were randomly chosen from each group and were used to measure the expression levels of vesicular glutamate transporter-1 (VGluT1) and vesicular transporters of γ-aminobutyric acid (VGAT) in the NAc using immunohistochemistry. Group comparisons were carried out using Student t test or analysis of variances when appropriate. RESULTS: Compared with the control mice, the early-life stressed aged mice spent less time awake over 24 h (697.97 ±â€Š77.47 min vs. 631.33 ±â€Š34.73 min, t17 = 2.376, P = 0.030), accordingly, non-rapid eye movement sleep time was increased (667.37 ±â€Š62.07 min vs. 723.54 ±â€Š39.21 min, t17 = 2.326, P = 0.033) and mean duration of rapid eye movement sleep was prolonged (73.00 ±â€Š8.98 min vs. 89.39 ±â€Š12.69 min, t17 = 3.277, P = 0.004). Meanwhile, we observed decreased VGluT1/VGAT ratios in the NAc in the stressed group (F(1, 16) = 81.04, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Early adverse experiences disrupt sleep behaviors in aged mice, which might be associated with the excitatory-inhibitory imbalance in the NAc.

6.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(3): 931-940, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30912386

RESUMO

A field experiment was conducted from 2015 to 2016 in the northwestern Loess Plateau, China, to analyze the relationships among flag-leaf photosynthetic characteristics, water-consumption characteristics, and yield components of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum 'Longchun 35'). There were three treatments: whole-field plastic mulching (PMS), sand mulching (SM), and uncovered (CK). The results showed that soil-water storage levels at 0-300 cm of soil profile before wheat filling under PMS and SM treatments were greater than that in CK by 47.8 and 31.6 mm, respectively, while that under PMS was lower than CK by 15.6 mm at the filling stage. Water consumption under PMS and SM increased in the flagging-heading and flowering-filling stages compared with the CK. Leaf area indices under PMS and SM were increased by 59.0%-73.7% and 40.1%-52.7%, respectively, and leaf SPAD values were increased by 3.5%-28.4% and 2.9%-23.9%, respectively, compared with CK. The net photosynthetic rate of PMS was increased by 23.5%, 33.0% and 17.7% at the flagging, heading, and flowering stages. The corresponding stoma-tal conductance rate was increased by 32.6%, 76.4% and 66.9%, respectively. Net photosynthetic and stomatal conductance rates at the filling stage were decreased by 26.2% and 16.4%, respectively. At the heading, flowering, and filling stages, stomatal limitation values in PMS were decreased by 14.6%, 23.9% and 22.3%, respectively, and by 25.7%, 29.8% and 17.4%, respectively in SM. The instantaneous water-use efficiency of spring wheat in PMS was increased by 57.8% at the flagging stage and decreased by 11.2% at the flowering stage. At the heading and flowering stages, the apparent quantum efficiency was increased by 22.6% and 18.7% in PMS, and by 26.8% and 14.3% in SM, respectively. Plant height and yield component indices in PMS and SM were significantly greater than that in CK, with the enhancement being greater than that in dry years. Grain yield was increased by 36.2% and 8.7% and water-use efficiency increased by 9.4% and 3.4% in PMS and SM, respectively. PMS and SM treatments increased soil water storage before the pre-filling stage of wheat, aggravated water consumption during the flagging-shooting and flowering-filling stages, resulting in greater SPAD values and leaf area indices, which promoted the photosynthetic functions of flag leaves, facilitated sink formation and photosynthetic assimilate transportation, resulting in increased grain yields and water use efficiency of spring wheat. The effects of PMS treatment were more remarkable than those of SM in terms of increasing spring wheat's yield potential in wet years and adaptability in dry years.


Assuntos
Fotossíntese , Triticum , Agricultura , China , Solo , Água
7.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 20(3): 238-252, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30829011

RESUMO

Several reviews have assessed the relationship between exposure to ambient air pollution and adverse birth outcomes during pregnancy, but the results remain controversial. The objective of this study was to assess this correlation quantitatively and to explore sources of heterogeneity. We included all published case-control or cohort studies that evaluated the correlation between ambient air pollution and low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth (PTB), and small for gestational age (SGA). Analytical methods and inclusion criteria were provided on the PROSPERO website (CRD42018085816). We evaluated pooled effects and heterogeneity. Subgroup analyses (grouped by exposure period, study settings, study design, exposure types, data source, Newcastle-Ottawa quality score (NOS), and adjustment for smoking or meteorological factors) were also conducted and publication bias was examined. The risk of bias in systematic reviews (ROBIS) tool was used to evaluate the overall risk of bias in this review. Forty studies met the inclusion criteria. We observed pooled odds ratios (ORs) of 1.03-1.21 for LBW and 0.97-1.06 for PTB when mothers were exposed to CO, NO2, NOx, O3, PM2.5, PM10, or SO2 throughout their pregnancy. For SGA, the pooled estimate was 1.02 in relation to NO2 concentrations. Subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis decreased the heterogeneity to some extent, such as the subgroups of continuous measures (OR=0.98 (0.97-0.99), I2=0.0%) and NOS>7 (OR=0.98 (0.97-0.99), I2=0.0%) in evaluating the association between PTB and NO2. This review was completed with a low risk of bias. High concentrations of air pollution were significantly related to the higher risk of adverse birth outcomes. However, the sources of heterogeneity among studies should be further explored.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental , Exposição Materna , Resultado da Gravidez , Viés , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco
8.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 132(9): 1079-1086, 2019 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30870265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endothelial dysfunction, the initial pathogenic factor in atherosclerosis, can be alleviated via transient limb ischemia. We observed the effects of regular transient limb ischemia (RTLI) on atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. METHODS: Twenty-eight rabbits were randomized to control, cholesterol, sham, ischemia groups (n = 7 each) between October 2010 and March 2011. They were fed a normal diet in the control group and hypercholesterolemic diet in other groups for 12 weeks. Six cycles of RTLI were performed once per day on the ischemia group. Serum samples were prepared to measure the total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) before the experiment (W0), at the end of weeks 4, 8, 12 (W4, W8, W12). The whole aorta was harvested at W12 and stained using Sudan IV to identify the plaque. The plaque area was measured using Image J. Results were analyzed by analysis of variance or rank sum test. RESULTS: Concentrations of TC in the cholesterol group were higher than those in the control group at W4 (29.60 [23.75, 39.30] vs. 1.00 [0.80, 1.55], Z = -2.745, P = 0.006), W8 (41.78 [28.08, 47.37] vs. 0.35 [0.10, 0.68], Z = -2.739, P = 0.006), W12 (48.32 [40.04, 48.95] vs. 0.61 [0.50, 0.86], Z = -2.739, P = 0.006). Similar results were obtained for HDL-C and LDL-C. Serum concentrations of TC, HDL-C, and LDL-C in the hypercholesterolemic groups had no differences (all P > 0.05). The percentage of plaque area in the cholesterol group was higher than that in the control group (47.22 ±â€Š23.89% vs. 0, Z = -2.986, P = 0.003). Square root of the percentage of plaque area was smaller in the ischemia group than that in the cholesterol (0.44 ±â€Š0.13 vs. 0.67 ±â€Š0.18, P = 0.014) or sham groups (0.44 ±â€Š0.13 vs. 0.61 ±â€Š0.12, P = 0.049). CONCLUSION: In hypercholesterolemic rabbits, RTLI might prevent atherosclerosis progression by reducing the percentage of plaque area.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Extremidades/patologia , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/sangue , Pós-Condicionamento Isquêmico/métodos , Animais , Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Masculino , Coelhos , Triglicerídeos/sangue
9.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 20(1): 84-94, 2019 Jan..
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30614232

RESUMO

Peach brown rot, caused by Monilinia fructicola, is one of the most serious peach diseases. A strain belonging to the Actinomycetales, named Streptomyces blastmyceticus JZB130180, was found to have a strong inhibitory effect on M. fructicola in confrontation culture. Following the inoculation of peaches in vitro, it was revealed that the fermentation broth of S. blastmyceticus JZB130180 had a significant inhibitory effect on disease development by M. fructicola. The fermentation broth of S. blastmyceticus JZB130180 had an EC50 (concentration for 50% of maximal effect) of 38.3 µg/mL against M. fructicola, as determined in an indoor toxicity test. Analysis of the physicochemical properties of the fermentation broth revealed that it was tolerant of acid and alkaline conditions, temperature, and ultraviolet radiation. In addition, chitinase, cellulase, and protease were also found to be secreted by the strain. The results of this study suggest that S. blastmyceticus JZB130180 may be used for the biocontrol of peach brown rot.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Prunus persica/microbiologia , Streptomyces/fisiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Celulase/metabolismo , Quitinases/metabolismo , Fermentação , Frutas/microbiologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Filogenia , Sideróforos/metabolismo , Streptomyces/classificação , Streptomyces/genética
10.
Curr Gene Ther ; 18(5): 286-295, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30306868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autophagy exists widely in various physiological and pathological conditions. Lots of investigations have verified that the autophagic activity is always related to the occurrence and the development of cancer. Endometriosis (EMs) is a disease that endometrium-like tissues abnormally grow outside the uterus and also considered to possess the characters of tumor because of its malignant biological behavior. INTRODUCTION: Recently, several studies have already revealed that autophagy may play a potential role in proliferative-phase EMs. However, the function of autophagic activity in secretory-phase EMs is still unclear. METHODS: In our work, we explored autophagic activity between normal endometrium and EMs lesion endometrium during different menstrual phases and EMs stages. The clinical endometrium samples from 73 women were selected in this study, including 30 healthy individuals and 43 patients with EMs (endometrium samples include eutopic and its matched ectopic endometrium). All the participants were divided into two groups according to the menstrual cycle, namely proliferative-phase and secretive- phase group. Among the patients with EMs, 22 individuals in proliferative phase and the other 21 individuals in secretory phase were further classified into the groups of Stage I-II and Stage III-IV according to revised-American Fertility Society (r-AFS). Two autophagy-related proteins microtubuleassociated protein 1 light chain 3 beta-II (LC3B-II) and sequestosome protein (P62), which are believed to be the indicators of autophagy activity, were chosen in the study. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining, Western blot assay and Real-Time quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RTqPCR) were used to examine the expression of LC3B-II and P62 in protein and mRNA level accordingly. RESULT: It showed that the expression of LC3B-II both in protein and mRNA level decreased and that of P62 increased in secretory phase of the healthy group (P<0.05), but showed no significant difference in ectopic and its eutopic endometrium group during proliferative and secretory phase (P>0.05). In addition, the expression of LC3B-II in ectopic endometrium group was significantly lower than that of its eutopic endometrium group (P<0.05), and the expression of P62 was significantly higher accordingly (P<0.05). At the same time, both LC3B-II and P62 levels remained same between eutopic endometrium group and control group (P>0.05). Furthermore, compared to Stage I-II EMs group, the expression of LC3B-II was significantly lower (P<0.05) and P62 was significantly higher (P<0.05) in Stage III-IV EMs during secretory phase. CONCLUSION: Taken together, the periodicity-losing in EMs and the decreased autophagic activity in ectopic endometrium may exert a potential role in the pathogenesis of EMs. Down-regulated autophagy of ectopic endometrium in secretory phase may be related to the progression of EMs.

11.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 29(10): 3293-3301, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30325154

RESUMO

To examine the effects of vertically rotary sub-soiling tillage (VRT) on stage water consumption, individual and population development, yield, water use efficiency, and economic profit of potato is helpful to find the optimized tillage method which could increase crop drought-resistant, yield, and resource use efficiency. With randomized block design, the field experiment involved in three treatments, 1) vertically rotary sub-soiling tillage for 40 cm depth (VRT), 2) deep loosing tillage for 40 cm (DLT), and 3) rotary tillage for 15 cm (TT). The soil water storage in 0-200 cm soil profile in different growth stages of potato, foliar SPAD value, leaf area index (LAI), plant dry matter content, tuber yield were recorded, and stage water consumption, water use efficiency (WUE), tuber commodity rate, tuber commodity yield, and profit were calculated, to investigate the effects of VRT on production efficiency and economic profit. The results showed that VRT increased water consumption in flowering and tuber expanding stage by 46.7, 35.7 mm in 2016 and 27.2, 47.3 mm in 2017, as compared with DLT and TT. Based on the increased stage water consumption, foliar SPAD value, dry matter content, and LAI increased significantly, suggesting the VRT promoted individual and population development. The higher individual and population biomass resulted in significant increase in tuber yield which increased by 156.8%, 47.8% in 2016 and 24.8%, 41.0% in 2017 respectively, as compared with DLT and TT. Accordingly, WUE increased by 92.3%, 19.2% and 18.9%, 26.6%. The tuber commodity yield and profit significantly increased in VRT treatment, as well as the profit which reached to 12631.9, 11019.1 yuan·hm-2 in 2016 and 29498.3, 18245.5 yuan·hm-2 in 2017, respectively. VRT promoted potato water consumption in flowering and tuber expanding stages, resulted in significant increases of foliar SPAD value, plant dry matter, and LAI, with positive consequences on the tuber yield, WUE, as well as the tuber commodity yield and economic profit. These indicated that the VRT was helpful to increase potato drought resistance, yield and profit, and thus would be the appropriate tillage method on semi-arid northwest Loess Plateau.


Assuntos
Solanum tuberosum , Biomassa , China , Secas , Solo , Água
12.
Exp Mol Med ; 50(8): 94, 2018 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089772

RESUMO

This study was carried out to explore the roles of circular RNAs (circRNAs) in nucleus pulposus (NP) tissues in intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). Differentially expressed circRNAs in IDD and normal NP tissues were identified based on the results of microarray analysis. Bioinformatics techniques were employed to predict the direct interactions of selected circRNAs, microRNAs (miR), and mRNAs. CircRNA_104670 was selected as the target circRNA due to its large multiplier expression in IDD tissues. After luciferase reporter and EGFP/RFP reporter assays, we confirmed that circRNA_104670 directly bound to miR-17-3p, while MMP-2 was the direct target of miR-17-3p. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve showed that circRNA_104670 and miR-17-3p had good diagnostic significance for IDD (AUC circRNA_104670 = 0.96; AUC miRNA-17-3p = 0.91). A significant correlation was detected between the Pfirrmann grade and expression of circRNA_104670 (r = 0.63; p = 0.00) and miR-17-3p (r = -0.62; p = 0.00). Flow-cytometric analysis and the MTT assay showed that interfering with circRNA_104670 using small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibited NP cell apoptosis (p < 0.01), and this inhibition was reduced by interfering with miR-17-3p. Interfering with circRNA_104670 suppressed MMP-2 expression and increased extracellular matrix (ECM) formation, which were also reduced by interfering with miR-17-3p. Finally, an MRI evaluation showed that circRNA_104670 inhibition mice had a lower IDD grade compared with control mice (p < 0.01), whereas circRNA_104670 and miRNA-17-3p inhibition mice had a higher IDD grade compared with circRNA_104670 inhibition mice (p < 0.05). CircRNA_104670 is highly expressed in the NP tissues of IDD and acts as a ceRNA during NP degradation.

13.
Gastroenterol Res Pract ; 2018: 8352756, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30158970

RESUMO

Caustic esophageal stricture (CES) in children still occurs frequently in developing countries. We aimed to evaluate the long-term outcomes of endoscopic balloon dilatation (EBD) in treating CES in children and the influencing factors associated with outcome. We retrospectively reviewed the data of all patients who had a diagnosis of CES and underwent EBD from August 1, 2005, to December 31, 2014. The primary outcome was EBD success, which was defined as the maintenance of dysphagia-free status for at least 12 months after the last EBD. The secondary outcome was to analyze influencing factors associated with EBD success. Forty-three patients were included for analysis (29 males; mean age at first dilatation 44 months with range 121 months). 26 (60.5%) patients had long segment (>2 cm) stricture. A total of 168 EBD procedures were performed. Twenty-six (60.5%) patients were considered EBD success. Seventeen (39.5%) patients failed EBD and required stent placement and/or surgery. Patients in the EBD success group had significantly shorter stricture segments when compared to the EBD failure group (t = 2.398, P = 0.018, OR = 3.206, 95% OR: 1.228-8.371). Seven (4.4%) esophageal perforations occurred in 6 patients after EBD. Stents were placed in 5 patients, and gastric tube esophagoplasty was performed in 14 patients. In conclusion, 26 (60.5%) of 43 children with CES had EBD success. Length of stricture was the main influencing factor associated with EBD treatment outcome.

14.
Oncol Lett ; 16(2): 1659-1665, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30008850

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to investigate and analyze the epithelial-cadherin (E-cadherin) expression in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast, and to analyze the associations between the expression and clinicopathological characteristics of lymph node metastasis and the prognosis of breast cancer. The immunohistochemical streptavidin-peroxidase method was used to detect the E-cadherin expression in 30 cases of breast fibroadenoma and in 450 cases of invasive breast cancer, and then the χ2test and Kaplan-Meier method were used to analyze the data. The 30 cases of breast fibroadenoma showed positive expression of E-cadherin. Specifically, results found that E-cadherin was highly expressed in 49.04% (77/157) of patients with non-metastatic breast cancer, while low expression was found in 50.96% (80/157). Additionally, E-cadherin was highly expressed in 29.69% (87/293) of patients with lymph node metastasis of breast cancer, with low expression in 70.31% (206/293); these differences were significantly different (χ2=16.53; P<0.001). E-cadherin was expressed in 35.48% (22/62), 33.73% (84/249), 63.83% (30/47) and 30.43% (28/92) of patients with luminal A type, luminal B type, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2positive and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), respectively. It was found that patients with high expression of E-cadherin had a better prognosis than the low expression group with regards to TNBC, and this result was significantly different (χ2=4.48; P=0.034). In conclusion, low E-cadherin expression was associated with lymph node metastasis in invasive breast cancer, and the patients with low expression also had a poor prognosis compared with those in the high expression group. The present results suggested that E-cadherin could be used in a prognostic index for patients with lymph node metastasis and TNBC.

15.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 39(7): 3090-3095, 2018 Jul 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29962130

RESUMO

The status of treatment equipment, the emission characteristics, and the ozone formation potential (OFP) of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for 11 typical enterprises, which were categorized into the 8 major VOC emission industries identified by the emission inventory of a typical city in the Yangtze River Delta, are discussed in this paper. There was a large difference in the removal efficiency of non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) between different treatment techniques, and even an increase in concentration occurred after some of the treatments. The current treatment equipment for VOCs needs further optimization. The emissions of NMHC, benzene, toluene, and xylene in most of the surveyed enterprises exceeded their corresponding standards, with toluene the worst offender. The most abundant compounds in the eight emission industries were aromatic hydrocarbons and oxygenated VOCs, whereas aromatic hydrocarbons contributed the most to ozone formation potential. There were large differences in emission characteristics of VOCs from different industries. Priority should be placed on the industries that have large OFP when control strategies of VOCs are considered.

16.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 39(2): 493-501, 2018 Feb 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29964808

RESUMO

Volatile organic compounds(VOCs)are important precursors of ozone and secondary organic aerosol. The effect of industrial emissions on ambient VOC concentrations in the Jiangbei Industrial Zone in Nanjing was evaluated using the ambient VOCs measurements taken at Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology (NUIST) during March 2017. The monitoring data showed that the sum of 92 measured VOCs (TVOCs) ranged from 10.3×10-9 to 200.5×10-9. Some VOC species, such as ethylene, propene, benzene, styrene, and dichloromethane had abnormally high values. Positive matrix factorization model (PMF) was used to identify the main sources of VOCs. The results showed that industrial emissions on average accounted for 50.0% of TVOCs, while petrochemical industry, chemical industry, and paints & solvents use accounted for 14.9%, 19.3% and 15.8%, respectively. During a VOC pollution episode, the contribution of industrial emissions reached 74.9%. The direction of industrial sources was determined by combining the wind speed and wind direction data.

17.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 39(2): 608-617, 2018 Feb 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29964822

RESUMO

Based on the land surface vegetation data interpreted via remote sensing and the meteorological conditions predicted via the WRF model, the MEGAN model was applied to calculate the regional BVOC emissions in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) in 2014. The chemical components and the temporal and spatial allocations were further analyzed. Results show that the annual BVOC emissions in the YRD were 1886 kt, in which isoprene emissions were 704.2 kt (accounting for 37.3%), monoterpenes 303 kt (16.1%), and other VOCs 878.8 kt (46.6%). Seasonal variation of the BVOC emissions was very significant. The BVOC emissions had a strong seasonal pattern, with maximum emissions in summer, accounting for 60.9% (1088 kt) of the total, whereas the minimum emissions occurred in winter, accounting for 3.2% (57 kt). Spatially, the southern YRD produced more BVOC emissions than the northern part did. In Zhejiang, Anhui, Jiangsu, and Shanghai, the BVOC emissions were 842 kt (44.6%), 760 kt (40.3%), 272 kt (14.4%), and 12 kt (0.7%), respectively. This is mainly related to the distribution of vegetation types.

18.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 39(2): 626-632, 2018 Feb 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29964824

RESUMO

Two diesel buses respectively certified to meet China Ⅲ and China Ⅴ emission standards were used as prototype vehicles, fixed on a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer and driven according to a typical city bus driving cycle to analyze the pollutant emissions and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The buses were fueled with diesel and waste cooking oil based biodiesel with 10 vol% blend ratio (B10). The emissions of total hydrocarbon(THC), CO, particulate matter (PM), and the number of solid particles with a diameter of 23 nm to 2.5 µm (referred to as "solid particulate number of PM2.5") from the bus certified to meet China Ⅴ (referred to as "China V bus") were 39.3%, 19.9%, 77.4%, and 28.4% lower than those from the other bus certified to meet China Ⅲ (referred to as "China Ⅲ bus"), while NOx emissions were 31.7% higher. Moreover, alkanes, alkenes, aromatic hydrocarbons, and oxygenated compounds in VOCs emitted from the China V bus were lower than those emitted from the China Ⅲ bus, suggesting lower atmospheric reactivity and smaller potential of secondary organic aerosol formation. Compared with the emission results of two diesel-fueled buses, the B10-fueled buses emitted smaller amounts of THC, CO, PM, and solid particulate number of PM2.5, lower oxygenated compounds but higher alkenes; slightly higher NOx emissions than China Ⅲ but slightly lower NOx emissions than China V. Consequently, the atmospheric reactivity of VOCs in exhaust gas from the bus fueled with B10 was higher than that from the diesel-powered bus.

19.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 39(5): 1971-1977, 2018 May 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29965494

RESUMO

Cooking is one of important emission sources of fine particles (PM2.5). This study using the catering enterprises of Shanghai as an example, presents a method to estimate the PM2.5 emission inventory from cooking according to the number of stoves, cooking time, and number of customers. Based on in situ measurements, the concentrations of PM2.5 emissions ranged from 0.1 mg ·m-3 to 1.8 mg ·m-3, which exceeded the limit (1.0 mg ·m-3 for lampblack) in the national standard. Organic carbon dominated the PM2.5 emitted from cooking, accounting for more than 50%. Extremely high ratios of organic carbon to elemental carbon were observed, ranging from 58.8 to 752.3, which could be used as an indicator of cooking emissions. The emission factors of PM2.5 in the catering industry are closely related to the scale of the catering enterprises. The emission factors of large-and medium-sized enterprises are obviously higher than those of small and micro enterprises. The PM2.5 emissions of catering enterprises are mainly attributed to high emission loads of large enterprises and those for a large number of small and medium enterprises. The PM2.5 emission inventory of cooking in Shanghai was calculated according to the three emission factors above, and the results were very close. Therefore, the method for estimating the PM2.5 emission inventory for cooking presented in this study is helpful for other Chinese cities to calculate their PM2.5 emission inventory from cooking.

20.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 39(5): 1978-1986, 2018 May 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29965495

RESUMO

Particulate organic matter (POM) has attracted increasing attention recently due to its great contribution to fine particles (PM2.5) and complex components and sources. In the present study, 78 particulate organic compounds in PM2.5 were quantified at three sites in Shanghai during summer; these sites were located in urban (Xuhui), suburban (Qingpu), and coastal (Lin'gang) areas of the city. Accordingly, the chemical composition and spatial distribution were investigated and sources were explored based on the indicators and diagnostic ratios combined with backward trajectory. The results showed that during the period of observation, the quantified organic matter in the suburban area is about 319 ng ·m-3, close to the urban area but much higher than that of the coastal areas. Fatty acids were the largest contributors, followed by levoglucosan, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), n-alkanes, and hopanes. Source analysis based on tracer methods indicates that gasoline vehicle emissions were the main source of POM in Shanghai. Biomass burning from the northeast impacted somewhat on the urban area and western suburbs during the observation period. Terrestrial plant emissions played an important role in the source of fatty acids at Qingpu and Lin'gang, and emissions of marine phytoplankton and microorganisms were also important for fatty acids at Lin'gang. Coal combustion and motor vehicle exhaust made an important contribution to PAHs according to an analysis of diagnostic ratios. This study presented the characteristics and sources of POM in summertime Shanghai, which facilitates the development of an effective control strategy on PM2.5 pollution.

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