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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14132, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575956

RESUMO

Transient receptor potential melastatin channel subfamily member 2 (TRPM2) has an essential role in protecting cell viability through modulation of oxidative stress. TRPM2 is highly expressed in cancer. When TRPM2 is inhibited, mitochondria are dysfunctional, ROS levels are increased, and cell viability is reduced. Here, the importance of NF-E2-related factor (Nrf2) in TRPM2-mediated suppression of oxidant stress was explored. In TRPM2 depleted cells, antioxidant cofactors glutathione, NADPH, and NADH were significantly reduced. Cytoplasmic and nuclear expression of Nrf2 and of IQGAP1, a modulator of Nrf2 stability regulated by intracellular calcium, were decreased. Antioxidant enzymes transcriptionally regulated by Nrf2 and involved in GSH, NADPH, and NADH generation were significantly lower including PRX1 and PRX3, GPX4, GSTP1, GCLC, and MTHFD2. The glutamine pathway leading to GSH production was suppressed, and ATP and GTP levels were impaired. Reconstitution with wild type TRPM2 or Nrf2, but not TRPM2 pore mutant E960D, rescued expression of enzymes downstream of Nrf2 and restored GSH and GTP. Cell viability, ROS, NADPH, NADH, and ATP levels were fully rescued by TRPM2 and partially by Nrf2. These data show that TRPM2 maintains cell survival following oxidative stress through modulation of antioxidant pathways and cofactors regulated by Nrf2.

2.
Dev Neurosci ; : 1-9, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536986

RESUMO

The Papez circuit is crucial for several brain functions, including long-term memory and emotion. Estradiol modulates cognitive functions based on the expression pattern of its receptor subtypes including estrogen receptor (ER) α, ß, and G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30). Similarly, the activity in the cholinergic system correlates with several brain functions, such as learning and memory. In this study, we used immunofluorescence to examine the expression patterns of ERß and Western blotting to analyze GPR30 and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) expression, in different regions of the Papez circuit, including the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, anterior nucleus of the thalamus, and cingulum in female rats at postnatal days (PND) 1, 10, and 56. Our main finding was that the highest expression of ERß and GPR30 was noted in each brain area of the Papez circuit in the PND1 rats, whereas the expression of ChAT was the highest in PND10 rats. These results provide vital information on the postnatal expression patterns of ER subtypes and ChAT in different regions of the Papez circuit.

3.
Chin J Nat Med ; 17(9): 707-712, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526506

RESUMO

Four new 3, 4-seco-labdane diterpenoids, nudiflopenes J-M, were isolated from the leaves of Callicarpa nudiflora along with six known compounds. The structures of these diterpenoids were determined by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on NO production in LPS-stimulated RPMs and RAW264.7 cells. The results suggest that nudiflopenes J-M and other four known compounds showed significant inhibitory effects against NO production comparable to the positive control dexamethasone.

4.
Autophagy ; : 1-2, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512567

RESUMO

The mechanism by which ATG2 (ATG2A and ATG2B in mammals) regulates autophagosome biogenesis remains largely unknown. In our recent study, we showed that ATG2A translocates to the mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAM) to promote phagophore growth during nutrient starvation. Mechanistically, the mitochondrial translocase TOMM40 binds to a C-terminal domain of ATG2A, termed the MAM localization domain (MLD), and mediates its MAM translocation in a manner dependent on the TOMM receptor TOMM70. Moreover, ATG2A associates with ATG9A through its N-terminal domain and this interaction is required for phagophore expansion and efficient autophagic flux. These observations suggest that ATG2 operates a mechanism for phagophore expansion at the MAM through the TOMM40-TOMM70 complex and ATG9 during autophagy.

6.
J Cell Biol ; 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519728

RESUMO

The process of phagophore closure requires the endosomal sorting complex required for transport III (ESCRT-III) subunit CHMP2A and the AAA ATPase VPS4, but their regulatory mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we establish a FACS-based HaloTag-LC3 autophagosome completion assay to screen a genome-wide CRISPR library and identify the ESCRT-I subunit VPS37A as a critical component for phagophore closure. VPS37A localizes on the phagophore through the N-terminal putative ubiquitin E2 variant domain, which is found to be required for autophagosome completion but dispensable for ESCRT-I complex formation and the degradation of epidermal growth factor receptor in the multivesicular body pathway. Notably, loss of VPS37A abrogates the phagophore recruitment of the ESCRT-I subunit VPS28 and CHMP2A, whereas inhibition of membrane closure by CHMP2A depletion or VPS4 inhibition accumulates VPS37A on the phagophore. These observations suggest that VPS37A coordinates the recruitment of a unique set of ESCRT machinery components for phagophore closure in mammalian cells.

7.
Cell Rep ; 28(7): 1744-1757.e5, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412244

RESUMO

During autophagy, phagophores grow into double-membrane vesicles called autophagosomes, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we show a critical role of Atg2A in phagophore expansion. Atg2A translocates to the phagophore at the mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM) through a C-terminal 45-amino acid domain that we have termed the MAM localization domain (MLD). Proteomic analysis identifies the outer mitochondrial membrane protein TOM40 as a MLD-interacting partner. The Atg2A-TOM40 interaction is responsible for MAM localization of Atg2A and requires the TOM receptor protein TOM70. In addition, Atg2A interacts with Atg9A by a region within its N terminus. Inhibition of either Atg2A-TOM40 or Atg2A-Atg9A interactions impairs phagophore expansion and accumulates Atg9A-vesicles in the vicinity of autophagic structures. Collectively, we propose a model that the TOM70-TOM40 complex recruits Atg2A to the MAM for vesicular and/or non-vesicular lipid transport into the expanding phagophore to grow the size of autophagosomes for efficient autophagic flux.

8.
J Biol Chem ; 294(38): 14033-14042, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362979

RESUMO

Selective autophagy sequesters cytoplasmic cargo for lysosomal degradation via the binding of autophagy receptors to Atg8 (autophagy-related 8) family proteins on the autophagic membrane. The sole yeast Atg8 gene has six mAtg8 (mammalian Atg8) homologs, including the MAP1LC3 (microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain 3) family and the GABA receptor-associated proteins. Selective autophagy receptors interact with two conserved hydrophobic pockets (termed the W-site and L-site) of mATG8 proteins through a linear motif called the LC3-interacting region (LIR) with the general composition (W/F/Y)XX(I/L/V). To address a lack in our knowledge regarding LIR peptide specificity toward each mATG8 homolog, here we used competitive time-resolved FRET to sensitively and quantitatively characterize the interactions between LIRs and mAtg8. We report that 14 representative LIR-containing peptides display differential binding affinities toward the mAtg8 proteins and identified the LIR domain peptide of TP53INP1 as exhibiting high affinity for all six mATG8 proteins. Using peptide truncation studies, we found that both N- and C-terminal acidic residues, as well as the C-terminal Cys residue of the TP53INP1 LIR peptide, are required for its high-affinity binding to LC3A and LC3B, whereas binding to the GABARAP subfamily proteins was facilitated by residues either N-terminal or C-terminal to the core motif. Finally, we used NMR chemical shift perturbation analysis to gain molecular insights into these findings. Collectively, our results may aid in the development of molecules that selectively disrupt specific mATG8-LIR interactions to dissect the biological roles of the six mATG8 homologs for potential therapeutic applications.

9.
World Neurosurg ; 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have reported that irregular alteration of facet orientation (IAFO) is associated with lumbar disc herniation (LDH) in adolescents. The present study investigated the association between IAFO and degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis (DLS) at the L4-5 segment. METHODS: Forty-two adults with DLS were enrolled in this study. Facet angles were measured in the bone window of the computed tomography scan. Large-small-large (LSL) was defined as a type of IAFO that includes the angle of facet joints at L4-5, which is smaller than that in L3-4 and L5-S1 segments. Fifty subjects with LDH at L4-5 served as controls. Data were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: In the 42 patients and 50 controls, the facet angle was measured at 276 levers from L3-4 to L5-S1. The mean included angles of L3-4, L4-5, and L5-S1 were 71.5 ± 19.97°, 51.79 ± 21.43°, and 102.89 ± 20.37°, respectively, in the DLS group and 77.48 ± 17.24°, 91.00 ± 17.24, and 102.94 ± 19.75°, respectively, in the control group. LSL was detected in 38 of 42 subjects (90.5%) in the DLS group, compared with 9 of 50 (18.0%) in the controls. The sagittal orientation facet joint in L4-5 was associated with DLS (odds ratio [OR], 26.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 13.30-155.35; P = 0.000). The facet in L3-4 with a more coronal orientation than that in L4-5 was also correlated with DLS (OR, 33.68; 95% CI, 9.86-115.06; P = 0.000). There was no correlation between the facet in L5-S1 and DLS in L4-5 (P = 0.999), but there was a strong relationship between LSL in L3-5 and DLS in L4-5 (OR, 43.278; 95% CI, 12.303-152.232; P = 0.000). CONCLUSIONS: The data presented here demonstrate that LSL, which is an irregular alteration of facet joint orientation, is associated with the degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis at L4-5.

11.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 6927298, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31223424

RESUMO

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is involved in the development and progression of many types of cancer. However, the effect and mechanism of H2S on the growth of human thyroid carcinoma cells remain unknown. In the present study, we found that the proliferation, viability, migration, and invasion of human thyroid carcinoma cells were enhanced by 25-50 µM NaHS (an H2S donor) and inhibited by 200 µM NaHS. However, H2S showed no obvious effects on the proliferation, viability, and migration of human normal thyroid cells. Administration of 50 µM NaHS increased the expression levels of CBS, SQR, and TST, while 200 µM NaHS showed reverse effects in human thyroid carcinoma cells. After treatment with 25-50 µM NaHS, the ROS levels were decreased and the protein levels of p-PI3K, p-AKT, p-mTOR, H-RAS, p-RAF, p-MEK1/2, and p-ERK1/2 were increased, whereas 200 µM NaHS exerted opposite effects in human thyroid carcinoma cells. Furthermore, 1.4-2.8 mg/kg/day NaHS promoted the tumor growth and blood vessel formation in human thyroid carcinoma xenograft tumors, while 11.2 mg/kg/day NaHS inhibited the tumor growth and angiogenesis. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that exogenous H2S regulates the growth of human thyroid carcinoma cells through ROS/PI3K/Akt/mTOR and RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathways. Novel H2S-releasing donors/drugs can be designed and applied for the treatment of thyroid cancer.

12.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0217657, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150457

RESUMO

Lung cancer is among the common and deadly cancers. Although the treatment options for late-stage cancer patients have continued to increase in numbers, the overall survival rates for these patients have not shown significant improvement. This highlights the need for new targets and drugs to more effectively treat lung cancer patients. In this study, we characterize the MCL-1 inhibitor maritoclax alone or in combination with a BCL-2/xL inhibitor in a panel of lung cancer cell lines. BCL-2 family proteins, phosphorylated proteins, and apoptosis were monitored following the treatments. We found that maritoclax was effective at inhibiting growth in these lung cancer cells. We also establish that cell lines with EGFR mutations were most sensitive to the combined inhibition of MCL-1 and BCL-2/xL. In addition, a high level of phosphorylated AKT (S473) was identified as a marker for sensitivity to the combination treatment. This work has defined EGFR mutations and AKT phosphorylation as markers for sensitivity to combined MCL-1 and BCL-2/xL targeted therapy and establishes a rationale to explore multiple BCL-2 family members in patients who are refractory to EGFR inhibitor treatment. Our data support the design of a clinical trial that aims to employ inhibitors of the BCL-2 family of proteins in lung cancer patients.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220411

RESUMO

Metformin, a first-line drug for type-2 diabetes, plays a potentially protective role in preventing Alzheimer's disease (AD), but its underlying mechanism is unclear. In this study, Aß25-35 -treated SH-SY5Y cells were used as a cell model of AD to investigate the neuroprotective effect of metformin, as well as its underlying mechanisms. We found that metformin decreased the cell apoptosis rate and death, ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, and expression of NR2A and NR2B, and increased the expression of LC3 in Aß25-35 -treated SH-SY5Y cells. Metformin also reduced intracellular and extracellular Glu concentrations, as well as the intracellular concentration of Ca2+ and ROS in Aß25-35 -treated SH-SY5Y cells. These findings suggest that metformin inhibits Aß25-35 -treated SH-SY5Y cell death by inhibiting apoptosis, decreasing intracellular Ca2+ and ROS by reducing neurotoxicity of excitatory amino acids, and by possibly reversing autophagy disorder via regulating autophagy process.

14.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol ; 47(1): 2179-2187, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159591

RESUMO

Ghrelin has been widely recognized as a key peptide in the cardiovascular system. This study detected the potential of ghrelin in MI management and tried to decode one of the possible underlying mechanisms. H9c2 cells were pretreated with ghrelin and were subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R). CCK-8, flow cytometry, Western blot and LDH analysis were conducted to assess the changes in cell survival. LY294002 and Compound C were used to treat H9c2 cells for blocking PI3K/AKT and AMPK pathways, respectively. Ghrelin expression in H9c2 cells was suppressed by siRNA-mediated silencing to see the effects of endogenous ghrelin. We found that, following H/R, H9c2 cells viability was decreased, CyclinD1 and CDK4 were down-regulated, apoptosis was induced, the release of LDH was enhanced, and the expression levels of Cox-2 and iNOS were up-regulated. Ghrelin protected H9c2 cells against H/R induced these alterations. Besides, ghrelin activated PI3K/AKT and AMPK pathways even in H/R-stimulated cells. The protective effects of ghrelin against H/R-induced cell damage were all attenuated by the addition of LY294002 or Compound C. Moreover, endogenous inhibition of ghrelin significantly induced cell death of H9c2 cells. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that ghrelin pretreatment protected H9c2 cells against H/R-induced cell damage, possibly via PI3K/AKT and AMPK pathways.

15.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 30(7): 1174-1191, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126972

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that undergo fission and fusion. During cell stress, mitochondrial dynamics shift to fission, leading to mitochondrial fragmentation, membrane leakage, and apoptosis. Mitochondrial fragmentation requires the cleavage of both outer and inner membranes, but the mechanism of inner membrane cleavage is unclear. Bif-1 and prohibitin-2 may regulate mitochondrial dynamics. METHODS: We used azide-induced ATP depletion to incite cell stress in mouse embryonic fibroblasts and renal proximal tubular cells, and renal ischemia-reperfusion to induce stress in mice. We also used knockout cells and mice to determine the role of Bif-1, and used multiple techniques to analyze the molecular interaction between Bif-1 and prohibitin-2. RESULTS: Upon cell stress, Bif-1 translocated to mitochondria to bind prohibitin-2, resulting in the disruption of prohibitin complex and proteolytic inactivation of the inner membrane fusion protein OPA1. Bif-1-deficiency inhibited prohibitin complex disruption, OPA1 proteolysis, mitochondrial fragmentation, and apoptosis. Domain deletion analysis indicated that Bif-1 interacted with prohibitin-2 via its C-terminus. Notably, mutation of Bif-1 at its C-terminal tryptophan-344 not only prevented Bif-1/prohibitin-2 interaction but also reduced prohibitin complex disruption, OPA1 proteolysis, mitochondrial fragmentation, and apoptosis, supporting a pathogenic role of Bif-1/prohibitin-2 interaction. In mice, Bif-1 bound prohibitin-2 during renal ischemia/reperfusion injury, and Bif-1-deficiency protected against OPA1 proteolysis, mitochondrial fragmentation, apoptosis and kidney injury. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that during cell stress, Bif-1 regulates mitochondrial inner membrane by interacting with prohibitin-2 to disrupt prohibitin complexes and induce OPA1 proteolysis and inactivation.

16.
Cell Mol Neurobiol ; 39(6): 809-822, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037516

RESUMO

We established a model of Alzheimer's disease in vitro by exposing primary hippocampal neurons of neonatal Wistar rats to the ß-Amyloid peptide fragment 25-35, Aß25-35. We then observed the effects of genistein, a type of soybean isoflavone, on Aß25-35-incubated hippocampal neuron viability, and the electrophysiological properties of voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV) and potassium channels (KV) in the hippocampal neurons. Aß25-35 exposure reduced the viability of hippocampal neurons, decreased the peak amplitude of voltage-activated sodium channel currents (INa), and significantly reduced INa at different membrane potentials. Moreover, Aß25-35 shifted the activation curve toward depolarization, shifted the inactivation curve toward hyperpolarization, and increased the time constant of recovery from inactivation. Aß25-35 exposure significantly shifted the inactivation curve of transient outward K+ currents (IA) toward hyperpolarization and increased its time constant of recovery from inactivation. In addition, Aß25-35 significantly decreased the peak density of outward-delayed rectifier potassium channel currents (IDR) and significantly reduced IDR value at different membrane potentials. We found that genistein partially reversed the decrease in hippocampal neuron viability, and the alterations in electrophysiological properties of NaV and KV induced by Aß25-35. Our results suggest that genistein could inhibit Aß25-35-induced neuronal damage with changes in the electrophysiological properties of NaV and KV.

17.
Exp Cell Res ; 381(2): 256-264, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112736

RESUMO

Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) is a hematological malignancy marked by the accumulation of large numbers of immature myeloblasts in bone marrow. The overall prognosis in AML is poor; hence, there is a pressing need to improve treatment. Although the sphingolipid (SL) ceramide demonstrates known cancer suppressor properties, it's mechanism of action is multifaceted. Our studies in leukemia and other cancers have demonstrated that when combined with the antiestrogen, tamoxifen, the apoptosis-inducting effect of ceramide is greatly enhanced. The goal of the present study was to establish whether a ceramide-tamoxifen regimen also affects autophagic-driven cellular responses in leukemia. Using the human AML cell line KG-1, we demonstrate that, unlike exposure to the single agents, combination C6-ceramide-tamoxifen upregulated LC3-II expression, inhibited the mTOR signaling pathway, and synergistically induced KG-1 cell death in an Atg5-dependent manner. In addition, colocalization of autophagosome and mitochondria, indicative of mitophagosome formation and mitophagy, was observed. Versatility of the drug regimen was confirmed by experiments in MV4-11 cells, a FLT3-ITD AML mutant. These results indicate that the C6-ceramide-tamoxifen regimen plays a pivotal role inducing autophagy in AML, and thus constitutes a novel therapeutic design.

18.
Life Sci ; 228: 198-207, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039363

RESUMO

Oxidative stress and blood-retinal barrier (BRB) damage induced by hyperglycemia are the principal processes involved in the early stages of diabetic retinopathy (DR). CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3)-mediated inflammatory infiltration exists in many disease models. The main objective of the present study was to determine whether AMG487, a CXCR3 antagonist, can ameliorate BRB disruption and reactive oxygen species generation in the DR model. The retinal endothelial cell and ganglion cell ultrastructures were observed using a transmission electron microscope. The pericyte marker PDGFR-ß, tight junction occludin, and leaking albumin were evaluated. The oxidative stress level, CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), and p-p38 expression were also investigated in vivo and in vitro. The results indicated that AMG487 application might alleviate PDGFR-ß and occludin loss, and decreased the residual content of retinal albumin in the streptozocin-induced DR mouse model via the inhibition of oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress, in which p38 activation was also involved. Thus, CXCR3 inhibition might be a target to prevent the early stage of DR injury.


Assuntos
Acetamidas/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Barreira Hematorretiniana/efeitos dos fármacos , Retinopatia Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Pirimidinonas/uso terapêutico , Receptores CXCR3/antagonistas & inibidores , Acetamidas/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Barreira Hematorretiniana/metabolismo , Barreira Hematorretiniana/patologia , Retinopatia Diabética/metabolismo , Retinopatia Diabética/patologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Receptores CXCR3/metabolismo
19.
Mol Biol Rep ; 46(3): 2665-2678, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028568

RESUMO

Thyroid carcinoma is the most common endocrine malignancy, and the incidence of thyroid carcinoma is increasing in recent decades. CYYGQSKYC (P6), a nonapeptide with anti-lymphangiogenic effect by its binding to VEGFR-3 and selectively inhibiting VEGF-C binding to VEGFR-3, could suppress the migration and invasion of cancer cells. LSPPRYP (P9) acts as an effective bFGF/FGFR antagonist and inhibits the growth of the murine melanoma B16-F10 cells. In order to increase the anti-tumor effects of P6 and P9, we connected P6 with P9 via a flexible linker Gly-Gly-Gly (GGG) to reconstruct a novel peptide P11, CYYGQSKYCGGGLSPPRYP. In the present study, the mechanism of action of peptide P11 on the growth of human thyroid carcinoma cells both in vitro and in vivo was determined. Our results showed that peptide P11 inhibited the proliferation, viability, migration, and invasion of human thyroid carcinoma cells. Peptide P11 increased the apoptosis and decreased the protein levels of p-PI3K, p-AKT, and p-mTOR in human thyroid carcinoma cells. In addition, P11 could effectively inhibit the growth of human thyroid carcinoma xenograft tumors in nude mice. In conclusion, peptide P11 could inhibit the growth of human thyroid carcinoma by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Novel peptides can be designed and applied for the treatment of various types of cancer.

20.
J Lipid Res ; 60(6): 1078-1086, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30962310

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common acute leukemia in adults. More than half of older AML patients fail to respond to cytotoxic chemotherapy, and most responders relapse with drug-resistant disease. Failure to achieve complete remission can be partly attributed to the drug resistance advantage of AML blasts that frequently express P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an ATP-binding cassette transporter. Our previous work showed that elevated acid ceramidase (AC) levels in AML contribute to blast survival. Here, we investigated P-gp expression levels in AML relative to AC. Using parental HL-60 cells and drug-resistant derivatives as our model, we found that P-gp expression and efflux activity were highly upregulated in resistant derivatives. AC overexpression in HL-60 conferred resistance to the AML chemotherapeutic drugs, cytarabine, mitoxantrone, and daunorubicin, and was linked to P-gp upregulation. Furthermore, targeting AC through pharmacologic or genetic approaches decreased P-gp levels and increased sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs. Mechanistically, AC overexpression increased NF-κB activation whereas NF-kB inhibitors reduced P-gp levels, indicating that the NF-kappaB pathway contributes to AC-mediated modulation of P-gp expression. Hence, our data support an important role for AC in drug resistance as well as survival and suggest that sphingolipid targeting approaches may also impact drug resistance in AML.

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