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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 429: 128298, 2022 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35066224

RESUMO

In this study, laboratory-scale experiments were conducted to investigate the feasibility of the combined use of calcium peroxide and hydroxyapatite (CaO2/HAP) for simultaneous black-odor sediment remediation and heavy metal stabilization. The ecotoxicological effects of remediated sediment were also evaluated based on biological toxicity. Results showed that CaO2/HAP effectively eliminated the black-odor and simultaneously stabilized heavy metals in the sediment. Under the optimal dosage ratio of CaO2/HAP (1:2), the acid volatile sulfides decreased to approximately 20 mg/kg (dry weight, dw) and oxidation-reduction potential increased from - 165 mV to approximately - 90 mV. The leaching of heavy metals meets the strictest standards (Level I) of the "Technical Specification for Output Disposal of Contaminated Sediment Treatment Plant of River and Lake" (SZDB/Z 236-2017). The indigenous microbial community succession occurred (p < 0.01), Proteobacteria and Firmicutes accounting for 75.54% and 20.19%, respectively, were the predominant bacteria in the remediated sediment. Additionally, CaO2/HAP remediated sediments were safer and more environmentally friendly than raw sediments, and were not biotoxic to the benthic environment (p < 0.01). This study provides new insights into the combined use of the beneficial amendments remediating heavy metal-contaminated black-odor river sediment.

2.
Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev ; 24: 127-141, 2022 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35036470

RESUMO

We tested a new in vivo hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transduction/selection approach in rhesus macaques using HSC-tropic, integrating, helper-dependent adenovirus vectors (HDAd5/35++) designed for the expression of human γ-globin in red blood cells (RBCs) to treat hemoglobinopathies. We show that HDAd5/35++ vectors preferentially transduce HSCs in vivo after intravenous injection into granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)/AMD3100-mobilized animals and that transduced cells return to the bone marrow and spleen. The approach was well tolerated, and the activation of proinflammatory cytokines that are usually associated with intravenous adenovirus vector injection was successfully blunted by pre-treatment with dexamethasone in combination with interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6 receptor blockers. Using our MGMTP140K-based in vivo selection approach, γ-globin+ RBCs increased in all animals with levels up to 90%. After selection, the percentage of γ-globin+ RBCs declined, most likely due to an immune response against human transgene products. Our biodistribution data indicate that γ-globin+ RBCs in the periphery were mostly derived from mobilized HSCs that homed to the spleen. Integration site analysis revealed a polyclonal pattern and no genotoxicity related to transgene integrations. This is the first proof-of-concept study in nonhuman primates to show that in vivo HSC gene therapy could be feasible in humans without the need for high-dose chemotherapy conditioning and HSC transplantation.

3.
Hum Gene Ther ; 2022 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35057635

RESUMO

While SARS-CoV2 vaccines have shown an unprecedented success, the ongoing emergence of new variants and necessity to adjust vaccines justifies the development of alternative prophylaxis and therapy approaches. Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy using a secreted CoV2 decoy receptor protein (sACE2-Ig) would involve a one-time intervention resulting in long-term protection against airway infection, viremia, and extrapulmonary symptoms. We recently developed a technically simple and portable in vivo hematopoietic HSC transduction approach that involves HSC mobilization from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood stream and the intravenous injection of an integrating, helper-dependent adenovirus (HDAd5/35++) vector system. Considering the abundance of erythrocytes, here, we directed sACE2-Ig expression to erythroid cells using strong beta-globin transcriptional regulatory elements. We performed in vivo HSC transduction of CD46-transgenic mice with a HDAd-sACE2-Ig vector. Serum sACE2-Ig levels reached 500-1300 ng/ml after in vivo selection. At 22 weeks, we used genetically modified HSCs from these mice to substitute the hematopoietic system in human ACE2-transgenic mice, thus creating a model that is susceptible to SARS-CoV2 infection. Upon challenge with a lethal dose of CoV2 (WA-1), sACE2-Ig expressed from erythroid cells of test mice diminishes infection sequelae. Treated mice lost significantly less weight, had less viremia, displayed reduced cytokine production and lung pathology. The second objective of this study was to assess the safety of in vivo HSC transduction and long-term sACE2-Ig expression in a rhesus macaque. With appropriate cytokine prophylaxis, intravenous injection of HDAd-sACE2-Ig into the mobilized animal was well tolerated. In vivo transduced HSCs preferentially localized to and survived in the spleen. sACE2-Ig expressed from erythroid cells did not affect erythropoiesis and the function of erythrocytes. While these pilot studies are promising, the anti-viral efficacy of the approach has to be improved, e.g. by using of decoy receptors with enhanced neutralizing capacity and/or expression of multiple anti-viral effector proteins.

4.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(1): 230-238, 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34989507

RESUMO

Based on the flow direction of the Fuhe River into Baiyangdian Lake, the impacted area of the Fuhe River was divided into 6 subareas, and sediments from 48 sites were collected in November 2020. The characteristics and risks of sediment nutrients and heavy metal pollution in these six subareas were investigated. The results showed that the average ω(TN), ω(TP), and ω(TOC) were 1841 mg·kg-1, 769 mg·kg-1, and 1.77%, respectively. The major heavy metals were Cd, Cu, Zn, Hg, and Pb, which were 3.73, 1.50, 1.42, 1.31, and 1.31 times the soil background values for Hebei Province, respectively. The TP and heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Zn, Hg, and Pb) content showed a decreasing trend from the Fuhe River estuary to the downstream Zaolinzhuang, whereas the TN and TOC content showed no marked trends. TN, TP, TOC, and heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Zn, Hg, and Pb) were enriched in surface sediments (0-10 cm). The TP content in the surface sediments (0-10 cm) of the Fuhe River estuary, Fuhe River estuary-Nanliuzhuang, and Nanliuzhuang subareas were heavily polluted; the Wangjiazhai and Guangdian subareas were moderately polluted; and the Zaolinzhuang subarea was slightly polluted. Cd and Hg were the major contributors to heavy metal pollution, which were at considerable risk and moderate risk levels, respectively. The heavy metals in surface sediments (0-10 cm) of the Fuhe River estuary, Fuhe River estuary-Nanliuzhuang, and Nanliuzhuang subareas were at a considerable risk level, and the sediments below 30 cm presented a low risk level. The leaching concentrations of heavy metals in sediments from the subarea of severe ecological risk level were far less than the identification standard values of leaching toxicity, suggesting that the sediments can be treated as general waste after dredging.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Lagos , Metais Pesados/análise , Nutrientes , Medição de Risco , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
5.
Bioresour Technol ; 344(Pt B): 126356, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34822989

RESUMO

Using municipal wastewater sludge to produce microbial lipid is an effective way of resource recycling. Sludge contains heavy metals and may lead to negative impact on lipid production. However, relative study has not been reported. In this study, metal impact on Lipomyces starkeyi lipid accumulation was conducted. Results showed that Cd2+ had great impact on lipid accumulation, but other metals had no much impact. The maximum lipid content of L. starkeyi cultivated in 0.55 mg/L of Cd2+ was only 41% w/w, which was lower than the control (51% w/w). The inhibition on acetyl-CoA formation was observed when Cd2+ was in the medium. After removing metals from sludge, the lipid accumulation was only around half of the one without metal removal. It would be due to that not only the toxic metals in the sludge were removed as well as the metals such as Zn2+ which can enhance lipid accumulation.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Esgotos , Meios de Cultura , Lipídeos , Águas Residuárias
6.
Chemosphere ; 290: 133231, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34902386

RESUMO

In this study, bioleaching is employed for removing heavy metals from excess sludge generated during municipal wastewater treatment. To avoid organic matter impact on bioleaching, aerobic digestion was performed as pretreatment of the bioleaching or accompanied with the bioleaching. The results showed that the leaching amounts of heavy metals from the process of aerobic digestion accompanied with bioleaching was 2.3 times more than that of the process of aerobic digestion followed by bioleaching. The stable-state proportions of Zn, Cu, Ni and Mn increased by 83%, 94%, 96% and 91%, respectively, in the process of aerobic digestion accompanied with bioleaching, and moreover, the reduction rate of MLSS increased by 22.7%. Although the content of ammonia nitrogen and total phosphorus in sludge decreased after bioleaching treatment, they were still much higher than the soil background value. It indicates that the treated sludge still has agricultural value. High throughput sequencing analysis showed that the relative abundance of acid-producing bacteria (Romboutsia, Clostridium, Tricibacter, and Intestinibacter) significantly increased from 0% to 28.6%, 6.9%, 3.9%, and 2.4%. The enrichment of these acidogenic bacteria was the main reason for the pH decrease, which was conducive to the removal of heavy metals from sludge.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Purificação da Água , Digestão , Metais Pesados/análise , Esgotos , Solo
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 4): 151418, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742978

RESUMO

As a core component of the biomass, the important role of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on treatment performance has been recognized. However, the comprehensive understanding of its correlation with nitrogen removal remains limited in biofilm-based reactors. In this study, the relevance between EPS and advanced nitrogen removal in a novel step-feed three-stage integrated anoxic/oxic biofilter (SFTIAOB) was specifically investigated. The operation showed as high as 81% TN removal was achieved under optimal conditions. Among the whole reactor, 2nd anoxic (A2) zone was the largest contributor for nitrogen removal, followed by the 3rd anoxic (A3) and 2nd oxic (O2) zones. EPS composition analysis found that high content of polysaccharides in tightly bound-EPS (A2 and A3) and protein in loosely bound-EPS and tightly bound-EPS (O2). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, three-dimensional fluorescence spectrum further verified stratified EPS subfractions containing different secondary protein structures, while 3-turn helix and tryptophan-like protein was the main reason for nitrogen removal. High-throughput sequencing revealed the co-existence of nitrogen removal-associated genera accomplished nitrification/denitrification combined with aerobic denitrification and anammox. Moreover, the correlation of EPS and microbial composition with nitrogen removal was clarified by redundancy analysis (RDA). Finally, potential mechanism for nitrogen removal was illuminated. This research gives more insight into EPS characteristics in enhancing nitrogen removal during the operation and optimization of a step-feed multi-stage A/O biofilm process.


Assuntos
Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas , Nitrogênio , Biofilmes , Reatores Biológicos , Desnitrificação , Esgotos
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 2): 150638, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592276

RESUMO

Green roofs are commonly used in sponge city construction. However, the limitations of substrate thickness and strong sunlight have caused water retention to become the primary problem in the promotion of this technology. Super-absorbent polymer (SAP) is a material with excellent water absorption capacity that is expected to improve the substrate to solve the problem of the insufficient water storage capacity of green roofs. In this study, the basic performances of two types of SAPs, namely polyacrylate sylvite and acrylic acid-attapulgite hybrid (P-SAP and A-SAP, respectively), were evaluated on a bench-scale. The results showed that both SAPs had good water absorption, reusability, and fertilizer protection ability. These SAPs could maintain high water absorption within a certain range of salinity, pH, and temperature. Although water absorption of P-SAP was higher than that of A-SAP, the latter showed a significant advantage in substrate modification. After adding A-SAP (application rate: 0.6%, particle size: 12 mesh), the water storage capacity of the substrate was significantly improved, with an increase in the saturation moisture content of 23.8% and a decrease in the infiltration rate of 48.5%. A simulator of green roof was constructed with A-SAP under optimal conditions. The enhancement of the water retention capacity increased the drought resistance of the plants, which improved their growth; in particular, the fresh weight was 98% higher than that of the control group. A-SAP increased the rate of building up the lawn by 25%. The average soil moisture of the A-SAP group was 63.3%, which was 10.0% higher than that of the control group. An increase of more than 26% in the runoff control capacity was found in the green roof with A-SAP. Overall, our study indicates that A-SAP is a practical and efficient modifier for green roofs.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Chuva , Plantas , Polímeros , Movimentos da Água
9.
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi ; 45(6): 698-701, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34862788

RESUMO

Ramping-up is the magnet current injection procedure which is under the control of resistance, voltage, current lead temperature, magnet pressure, temperature and so on. In this procedure, the factors related to the stability of the magnet such as, magnet temperature, pressure and currents are constantly changing. This procedure is the main step which the magnet-quench occurs in. This study uses the data collected during 7 years and SIMENS MRI ramping-up theory, in order to help engineers understand the key factors to reduce the magnet quench during the ramping up procedure.

10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(23): 6163-6177, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34951243

RESUMO

This study aimed to qualitatively analyze the chemical components in Xiaoer Chiqiao Qingre Granules(XRCQ) by UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS/MS and identify its material basis. The absorbed components in plasma were combined for exploring the potential action mechanism by integrated network pharmacology. ACQUITY UPLC HSS T3(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.8 µm) column and mobile phase system of 0.1% formic acid solution(A)-acetonitrile(B) were used for gradient elution, followed by high resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in both positive and negative ion scanning modes. According to the precise relative molecular mass and MS/MS fragment ions, a total of 124 chemical components were identified in XRCQ by the comparison with references and literature reports, among which 29 compounds were completely confirmed by comparison with reference substances. Then, the main absorbed components of XRCQ in plasma were also analyzed and clarified by UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS/MS. BATMAN-TCM and SwissTargetPrediction were used for target prediction of absorbed components in plasma. Following the plotting of association network with Cytoscape 3.8.2, the core targets were subjected to GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis and a component-target-pathway network was constructed. A total of eight main targets of XRCQ against fever in children were obtained together with eight absorbed components in plasma, including glycyrhydinic acid, hesperidin, emodin, reticuline, daidzein, magnolignan C, magnolignan A, and magnolaldehyde D. It was inferred that XRCQ might improve alimentary system abnormality, inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and endocrine disorder through tumor necrosis factor, PI3 K-AKT, and other signaling pathways. The present study comprehensively expounded the chemical profiles of XRCQ and the main absorbed components in plasma and predicted the potential mechanism of XRCQ based on integrated network pharmacology, which has provided certain theoretical reference for the clinical application of XRCQ.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Criança , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Humanos
11.
Chemosphere ; : 132770, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736942

RESUMO

In this study, four groups of laboratory scale experiments were performed by adding sodium acetate (SA), phthalic acid (PA), and SA-PA to river sediment to observe the microbial response and biodegradation efficiency of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The results showed that the amount of total organic carbon consumed and the amount of sulfate reduction were both positively correlated (p < 0.01) with the biodegradation efficiency of the sum (∑) PAHs (∼40.5%). The lower the number of rings, the more PAHs were biodegraded, with an efficiency of 63.0% for ∑ (2 + 3) ring PAHs. Based on high-throughput sequencing and molecular ecological network analysis, it was found that the combined stimulation of SA and PA not only increased the relative abundance of PAHs-degrading bacterial (eg., Proteobacteria, Desulfobacterota, Campilobacterota and Firmicutes), but also had a strengthening effect on microbes in sediments. The altered microbial structure caused a variation in metabolic functions, which increased the amino acid metabolism to 12.2%, thus increasing the positive correlations among genera and improving the connectivity of the microbial network (p < 0.01). These changes may be responsible for the enhanced biodegradation of PAHs under SA-PA dosing in comparison to SA or PA dosing alone. This study revealed that the microbial community was stimulated by the combined addition of SA and PA, and indicated its role in enhancing biodegradation of PAHs in contaminated river sediments.

12.
Sci Total Environ ; : 151940, 2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34843783

RESUMO

The heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrification system can be used to remove wastewater nitrogen effectively. However, the relationship between nitrogen removal performance and microbial community composition variation needs to be explored further. Therefore, a combined heterotrophic­sulfur autotrophic biofilter (HSAD) was established to remove nitrogen from municipal tailwater. As methanol dosage increased from 12 mg/L to 36 mg/L, NO3--N removal efficiency increased from 86.1% to 98.9%, and the generation of SO42- in the effluent was controlled within 167.6-113.2 mg/L under the condition of 30 mg/L NO3--N in influent and 3 h hydraulic retention time. Increasing methanol dosage promoted the synergism of heterotrophic denitrification (HD) and sulfur autotrophic denitrification (SAD). Different denitrification performance was associated with the microbial community composition. Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Chloroflexi were major phyla with cumulative abundance of over 70% and Proteobacteria was predominate in all samples. Denitrifying bacteria, such as Ferritrophicum, Thiobacillus, Thauera and Comamonas dominated in different operation stages of mixotrophic reactor. The decrease in dominant HD bacteria accompanied with the increase in SAD bacteria, and the SAD bacterial richness declined with the rise of HD contribution in the total denitrification process. Correlation networks analysis indicated that the dominant bacteria had positive or negative correlation with each other, but a stable coexistence state of microbial community structure was formed under the mixotrophic conditions. This work deepens our understanding of HSAD and reveals the interconnection between nitrogen removal mechanism and microbial community composition variation.

13.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 758158, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778410

RESUMO

Aims: The pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is complex and the detailed mechanism remains unclear. Coagulation protease activated Protein C (aPC) has been reported to have a protective effect in diabetic microvascular disease. Here, we investigated whether aPC could play a protective role in the occurrence and development of major diabetic complication DCM, and its underlying molecular mechanism. Methods and Results: In a mouse model of streptozotocin (STZ) induced DCM, endogenous aPC levels were reduced. Restoring aPC levels by exogenous administration of zymogen protein C (PC) improved cardiac function of diabetic mice measured by echocardiography and invasive hemodynamics. The cytoprotective effect of aPC in DCM is mediated by transcription factor Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1). Mechanistically, MEF2B lies downstream of YB-1 and YB-1/MEF2B interaction restrains deleterious MEF2B promoter activity in DCM. The regulation of YB-1 on MEF2B transcription was analyzed by dual-luciferase and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. In diabetic mice, aPC ameliorated YB-1 degradation via reducing its K48 ubiquitination through deubiquitinating enzyme otubain-1 (OTUB1) and improving the interaction between YB-1 and OTUB1. Using specific agonists and blocking antibodies, PAR1 and EPCR were identified as crucial receptors for aPC's dependent cytoprotective signaling. Conclusion: These data identify that the cytoprotective aPC signaling via PAR1/EPCR maintains YB-1 levels by preventing the ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation of YB-1 via OTUB1. By suppressing MEF2B transcription, YB-1 can protect against DCM. Collectively, the current study uncovered the important role of OTUB1/YB-1/MEF2B axis in DCM and targeting this pathway might offer a new therapeutic strategy for DCM. Translational Perspective: DCM is emerging at epidemic rate recently and the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study explored the protective cell signaling mechanisms of aPC in mouse models of DCM. As a former FDA approved anti-sepsis drug, aPC along with its derivatives can be applied from bench to bed and can be explored as a new strategy for personalized treatment for DCM. Mechanistically, OTUB1/YB-1/MEF2B axis plays a critical role in the occurrence and development of DCM and offers a potential avenue for therapeutic targeting of DCM.

14.
Opt Lett ; 46(22): 5699-5702, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780440

RESUMO

In this Letter, a two-dimensional (2D) beam steering on silicon nitride (SiNx) nanophotonic phased arrays from visible to near-infrared wavelengths is reported for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. In order to implement beam steering along the transverse direction for one-dimensional waveguide surface grating arrays, wavelengths from 650 to 980 nm provided by the supercontinuum laser are used to excite the phased array. Then the beams are parallel radiated with steering angles in a sequence of 26.84° to -16.54∘ along the transverse direction, and a continuous line in the far field consisting of parallel emitted spots is produced with a total view angle of 43.38°. Moreover, this continuous far-field line is steered along the longitudinal direction with massive wavelengths simultaneously tuned by phase shifts from -π/2 to over +π/2. This method with massive parallel wavelengths emitted paves a new way for 2D steering on SiNx nanophotonic phased arrays.

15.
ACS Nano ; 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766747

RESUMO

Ceramic aerogels are attractive candidates for high-temperature thermal insulation, catalysis support, and ultrafiltration materials, but their practical applications are usually limited by brittleness. Recently, reversible compressibility has been realized in flexible nanostructures-based ceramic aerogels. However, these modified aerogels still show fast and brittle fracture under tension. Herein, we demonstrate achieving reversible stretch and crack insensitivity in a highly compressible ceramic aerogel through engineering its microstructure by using curly SiC-SiOx bicrystal nanowire as the building blocks. The aerogel exhibits large-strain reversible stretch (20%) and good resistance to high-speed tensile fatigue test. Even for a prenotched sample, a reversible stretch at 10% strain is achieved, indicating good crack resistance. The aerogel also displays reversible compressibility up to 80% strain, ultralow thermal conductivity of 28.4 mW m-1 K-1, and excellent thermal stability even at temperatures as high as 1200 °C in butane blow torch or as low as -196 °C in liquid nitrogen. Our findings show that the attractive tensile properties arise from the deformation, interaction, and reorientation of the curly nanowires which could reduce stress concentration and suppress crack initiation and growth during tension. This study not only expands the applicability of ceramic aerogels to conditions involving complex dynamic stress under extreme temperature conditions but also benefits the design of other highly stretchable and crack-resistant porous ceramic materials for various applications.

16.
Sci Total Environ ; : 151678, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34793800

RESUMO

Information on the sources and transformations of particulate organic N (PN) and dissolved organic N (DON) at the coastal interface remains insufficient due to technological difficulties and complicated features of intensive physical mixing and rapid biological activities. Here, we investigated the spatial distribution of concentrations and isotopic compositions of PN and DON in the Changjiang plume during the summer flood period. In average, DON and PN accounted for 25.6 ± 12.1% and 8.1 ± 9.1% (n = 55), respectively, of the total N pool, with the remaining N primarily in the form of nitrate (NO3-). Mean δ15N values were the lowest for DON (-0.1 ± 2.7‰, n = 58) and slightly higher for PN (2.0 ± 1.6‰, n = 101), and the highest for NO3- (6.5 ± 2.2‰, n = 67), suggesting multiple transformations had occurred to differentiate isotopic characteristics among the three N pools. By applying a conservative mixing model, we found DON deficits (-3.5 ± 3.7 µmol L-1, n = 43) and negative shift in δ15NDON (-3.6 ± 2.2‰, n = 43) in the Changjiang plume, revealing nonconservative DON behaviors. In the offshore surface plume where Chlorophyll a was high, the most likely cause is the DON uptake by phytoplankton with a strong inverse isotope effect (around -40‰). This DON assimilation by phytoplankton contributed to ~16 ± 12% of the PN production, with the remaining supported by NO3- assimilation, producing an overall isotope effect of 4-9‰. However, in waters near the river mouth and at the bottom of the offshore plume where total suspended matter concentrations were high (>5 mg L-1), the DON deficit was most likely induced by the selective adsorption of 15N enriched moieties of DON onto particulate surfaces (with an isotope effect of -20‰ to -5‰). Unlike dissolved organic carbon to behave conservatively in most estuaries, our results show that active transformations had occurred between the DON and PN pools in the Changjiang plume.

17.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 705154, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616362

RESUMO

Background: Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DbCM) is characterized by initial impairment of left ventricular relaxation followed by contractile dysfunction. Despite intensive research, the exact mechanism remains so far unsolved. Methods: We constructed weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) to screen gene modules that were closely related with DbCM based on the GSE5606 dataset, which contained expression data of the cardiac left ventricle in a rodent model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced DbCM. Then, the most related hub gene, angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4), was selected for functional ex vivo and in vitro assays. In our experiments, STZ-induced diabetic mice (C57BL/6J) and human cardiomyocytes (AC16) were used to study the functional roles and potential mechanisms of ANGPTL4 in DbCM. Results: WGCNA analysis revealed the yellow and green modules were most correlated with DbCM, and identified ANGPTL4 as one of the most significantly upregulated hub genes (ANGPTL4, ACOT1, DECR1, HMGCS2, and PDK4). Consistent with the bioinformatic analysis, the amount of ANGPTL4 was significantly upregulated in diabetic mouse heart. DbCM group, compared with the control group, had increased phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), reduced SIRT3 expression, increased SOD2 acetylation, upregulated NADPH oxidase activation, elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) produciton, and enhanced apoptosis in the diabetic mouse heart. Moreover, ANGPTL4 induced apoptosis via FAK/SIRT3/ROS pathway in human cardiomyocytes (AC16) under high glucose condition in vitro.These effects were abrogated by treatment of two independent siRNA for ANGPTL4, whereas exogenous recombinant ANGPLT4 protein treatment exacerbated those effects in AC16. Conclusion: We found ANGPTL4, ACOT1, DECR1, HMGCS2, and PDK4 were significantly increased in diabetic heart. ANGPTL4 could promote cardiac apoptosis via a FAK/SIRT3/ROS dependent signaling pathway in DbCM.

18.
Opt Lett ; 46(19): 4948-4951, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598240

RESUMO

We report a simple concept to implement a single-wavelength beam steering based on a liquid-cladded one-dimensional (1D) optical phased array (OPA). The beam steering was realized by modifying the waveguide mode effective index through replacing the liquid upper claddings. A prototype of a 32-channel liquid-cladded OPA was fabricated and characterized. Owing to the high refractive index range of liquids (>0.625), a maximum steering angle of >10∘ was achieved with the liquid range from 1.0 to 1.63 at a wavelength of 940 nm. Moreover, the liquid-cladded OPA reveals a quasi-continuous beam steering range of >29∘ by combining the liquid cladding tuning and discrete wavelength tuning of λ=785nm, 852 nm, and 940 nm. Further integration with optofluidic systems offers the OPA potential for low power consumption and all-fluidic beam steering operating at a single wavelength.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655384

RESUMO

Baiyangdian Lake (BYD), a large shallow lake in North China, has complex water landscape patterns that are underlies spatial variations in water quality. In this study, we collected 61 water samples from three water landscapes (reed littoral zones, fish ponds, and open water) and analyzed them for water quality parameters, such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP). Water landscape distribution (determined using remote sensing imagery) was then used to assess correlations between water quality parameters and water landscape proportion in differently scaled buffer zones. There was substantial variation across all subareas, with TN and TP concentrations ranging from 0.90 to 4.10 mg/L and 0.06 to 0.18 mg/L, respectively, in class IV of water quality as a whole. Spatial variations in water quality were mainly caused by water landscape distribution and external nutrient inputs. There were negative correlations between DOC, TN, and TP concentrations and the area proportion of reed littoral zones in the 300 and 500 m buffers. In contrast, DOC, TN, and TP concentrations were significantly positively correlated with the area proportion of fish ponds in the 100 m buffer. Furthermore, compared with reed littoral zones, a lower ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus and a higher proportion of dissolved organic nitrogen and tyrosine-like proteins were found in fish ponds. These effects were mainly attributed to the development of internal sediment loadings due to nutrient exchange across the sediment-water interface. Therefore, dredging-based sediment removal from fish ponds should be considered to suppress internal phosphorus loading and accelerate recovery of the BYD ecosystem.

20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(43): 12654-12660, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34695356

RESUMO

Chiral fosthiazate enters the organisms via environmental exposure and food web enrichment. Liver subcellular fractions of rats (RLM) and cocks (CLM) were prepared to explore the stereoselective metabolism of fosthiazate in vitro. The results indicated that fosthiazate exhibited different stereoselective metabolism behaviors in RLM and CLM. The clearance rate order of RLM to four fosthiazate stereoisomers was (1R,3R)-fosthiazate > (1S,3R)-fosthiazate > (1R,3S)-fosthiazate > (1S,3S)-fosthiazate. However, CLM showed a faster clearance rate to (1S,3S)-fosthiazate and (1S,3R)-fosthiazate than the other two stereoisomers. The molecular docking results revealed that the stereoselectivity was partially due to the stereospecific binding between fosthiazate stereoisomers and cytochrome P450 proteins. The main metabolism pathways of fosthiazate in RLM and CLM were oxidation and hydrolysis with five common metabolites including M299, M243, M227, M103, and M197 being identified by LC-TOF-MS/MS. The present study provides the accurate data on risk assessment of chiral fosthiazate.


Assuntos
Microssomos Hepáticos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Animais , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Compostos Organofosforados , Ratos , Estereoisomerismo , Tiazolidinas
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