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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(9)2020 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357418

RESUMO

A highly sensitive photoelectrochemical (PEC) biosensor without external bias was developed in this study. The biosensor was configured with a p-Cu2O and n-ZnO heterostructure. Hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) was used to improve the crystal structure of Cu2O and ZnO and reduce the defects in the Cu2O/ZnO interface. This fabrication method provided the highly crystallized Cu2O/ZnO structure with excellent electrical property and photoresponse in visible light. The structure was applied to a biosensor for detecting two different cancerous levels of esophageal cells, namely, OE21 and OE21-1, with a high gain in photocurrent (5.8 and 6.2 times, respectively) and a low detection limit (3000 cells in 50 µL). We believe that such a p-n heterojunction PEC biosensor could advance biosensor development and provide a promising candidate for biomedical applications.

2.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 14(1): 236, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309306

RESUMO

This paper proposes a new encapsulation structure for aluminum nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diodes (DUV-LEDs) and eutectic flip chips containing polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fluid doped with SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) with a UV-transparent quartz hemispherical glass cover. Experimental results reveal that the proposed encapsulation structure has considerably higher light output power than the traditional one. The light extraction efficiency was increased by 66.49% when the forward current of the DUV-LED was 200 mA. Doping the PDMS fluid with SiO2 NPs resulted in higher light output power than that of undoped fluid. The maximum efficiency was achieved at a doping concentration of 0.2 wt%. The optical output power at 200 mA forward current of the encapsulation structure with NP doping of the fluid was 15% higher than that without NP doping. The optical output power of the proposed encapsulation structure was 81.49% higher than that of the traditional encapsulation structure. The enhanced light output power was due to light scattering caused by the SiO2 NPs and the increased average refractive index. The encapsulation temperature can be reduced by 4 °C at a driving current of 200 mA by using the proposed encapsulation structure.

3.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 13797, 2018 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30218087

RESUMO

Esophageal squamous neoplasm presents a spectrum of different diatheses. A precise assessment for individualized treatment depends on the accuracy of the initial diagnosis. Detection relies on comprehensive and accurate white-light, iodine staining, and narrow-band imaging endoscopy. These methods have limitations in addition to its invasive nature and the potential risks related to the method. These limitations include difficulties in precise tumor delineation to enable complete resection, inflammation and malignancy differentiation, and stage determination. The resolution of these problems depends on the surgeon's ability and experience with available technology for visualization and resection. We proposed a method for identifying early esophageal cancerous lesion by endoscopy and hyperspectral endoscopic imaging. Experimental result shows the characteristic spectrum of a normal esophagus, precancerous lesion, canceration, and intraepithelial papillary capillary loop can be identified through principal component score chart. The narrow-band imaging (NBI) image shows remarkable spectral characteristic distribution, and the sensitivity and specificity of the proposed method are higher than those of other methods by ~0.8 and ~0.88, respectively. The proposed method enables the accurate visualization of target organs, it may be useful to capsule endoscope and telemedicine, which requires highly precise images for diagnosis.


Assuntos
Endoscopia/métodos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/patologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Esôfago/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Imagem de Banda Estreita/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
4.
Beilstein J Nanotechnol ; 9: 1602-1612, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29977694

RESUMO

We produced an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) structure with periodic nanopores on the surface of flip-chip blue light-emitting diodes (FC-BLEDs). The nanopores had diameters ranging from 73 to 85 nm and were separated by distances ranging from approximately 10 to 15 nm. The light extraction efficiency enhancement of the FC-BLEDs subjected to different durations of the second pore-widening process was approximately 1.6-2.9%. The efficiency enhancement may be attributed to the following mechanism: periodic nanopores on the surface of FC-BLEDs reduce the critical angle of total reflection and effective energy transfer from a light emitter into a surface plasmon mode produced by AAO.

5.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(14): 9038-9044, 2018 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29565083

RESUMO

As the feature sizes of devices decrease to the nanoscale, electron microscopy and lithography will become increasingly essential techniques for fabrication and inspection. In this study, we probed the memory effects of MoS2 field-effect transistors (FETs) subjected to electron beam (e-beam) irradiation; after fabricating the devices on 300 nm SiO2/Si substrates, we irradiated the MoS2 FETs with various doses of irradiation from a 30 kV e-beam. The threshold voltage shifted to the negative side and the mobility increased-a so-called memory effect-upon increasing the e-beam dose. These changes resulted from positively charged oxide traps, formed upon e-beam irradiation, in the gate oxide layer. Interestingly, the electrical characteristics of the MoS2 FETs after e-beam irradiation continued to change upon aging: the threshold voltage shifted toward the positive side and the mobility decreased, suggesting that the dominant mechanism changed from the presence of positively charged oxide traps to the presence of negatively charged interface traps. Notably, the threshold voltage shifts of the MoS2 FETs could be retained for one or two days. This behavior should be useful for preparing property-adjustable nanodevices, with particular potential for applications in multi-level memory devices.

6.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 12(1): 591, 2017 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29124372

RESUMO

The features of eight-period In0.2Ga0.8N/GaN quantum wells (QWs) with silicon (Si) doping in the first two to five quantum barriers (QBs) in the growth sequence of blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are explored. Epilayers of QWs' structures are grown on 20 pairs of In0.02Ga0.98N/GaN superlattice acting as strain relief layers (SRLs) on patterned sapphire substrates (PSSs) by a low-pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (LP-MOCVD) system. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectra, current versus voltage (I-V) curves, light output power versus injection current (L-I) curves, and images of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) of epilayers are measured. The consequences show that QWs with four Si-doped QBs have larger carrier localization energy (41 meV), lower turn-on (3.27 V) and breakdown (- 6.77 V) voltages, and higher output power of light of blue LEDs at higher injection current than other samples. Low barrier height of QBs in a four-Si-doped QB sample results in soft confinement potential of QWs and lower turn-on and breakdown voltages of the diode. HRTEM images give the evidence that this sample has relatively diffusive interfaces of QWs. Uniform spread of carriers among eight QWs and superior localization of carriers in each well are responsible for the enhancement of light output power, in particular, for high injection current in the four-Si-doped QB sample. The results demonstrate that four QBs of eight In0.2Ga0.8N/GaN QWs with Si doping not only reduce the quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) but also improve the distribution and localization of carriers in QWs for better optical performance of blue LEDs.

7.
Beilstein J Nanotechnol ; 8: 1939-1945, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29046841

RESUMO

In this work, textured, well-faceted ZnO materials grown on planar Si(100), planar Si(111), and textured Si(100) substrates by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and cathode luminescence (CL) measurements. The results show that ZnO grown on planar Si(100), planar Si(111), and textured Si(100) substrates favor the growth of ZnO(110) ridge-like, ZnO(002) pyramid-like, and ZnO(101) pyramidal-tip structures, respectively. This could be attributed to the constraints of the lattice mismatch between the ZnO and Si unit cells. The average grain size of ZnO on the planar Si(100) substrate is slightly larger than that on the planar Si(111) substrate, while both of them are much larger than that on the textured Si(100) substrate. The average grain sizes (about 10-50 nm) of the ZnO grown on the different silicon substrates decreases with the increase of their strains. These results are shown to strongly correlate with the results from the SEM, AFM, and CL as well. The reflectance spectra of these three samples show that the antireflection function provided by theses samples mostly results from the nanometer-scaled texture of the ZnO films, while the micrometer-scaled texture of the Si substrate has a limited contribution. The results of this work provide important information for optimized growth of textured and well-faceted ZnO grown on wafer-based silicon solar cells and can be utilized for efficiency enhancement and optimization of device materials and structures, such as heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT) solar cells.

8.
Int J Cancer ; 141(10): 1987-1996, 2017 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28758200

RESUMO

Esophageal squamous-cell neoplasia (ESCN) is a common second primary neoplasia found in patients with head-and-neck squamous-cell carcinoma (HNSCC). This study sought to identify the risk factors for synchronous ESCN and how they influence survival in HNSCC patient. Eight hundred and fifteen incident HNSCC patients were prospectively recruited for endoscopy screening for ESCN using white-light imaging, narrow-band imaging, Lugol chromoendoscopy, and pathological confirmation. Associated lifestyle and clinicopathological data were collected. The interquartile follow-up period cutoffs were 11.3, 20.5 and 34.9 months. 124 patients (15.2%) were diagnosed as having synchronous ESCN (66 low-grade dysplasia, 29 high-grade dysplasia, and 29 esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma). Consumption of alcohol, but not betel nut or cigarette, was significantly associated with the presence of synchronous ESCN (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 7.1 and 10.9 for former and current drinkers, respectively). There was an interaction between cumulative dose of alcohol consumption and alcohol flushing response on the development of ESCN. High-dose drinkers with flush response were 16.9 times more likely to have esophageal high-grade dysplasia/SCC than non-drinkers. Compared with oral cavity cancer patients, those with hypopharyngeal, laryngeal and oropharyngeal cancer were 6.8, 4.6 and 2.8 times more likely to have esophageal high-grade dysplasia/SCC. HNSCC patients with synchronous ESCN had lower overall survival than those without (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, surveillance of ESCN is strongly recommended for the high-risk subpopulation of HNSCC patients, especially drinkers who have a flush response to alcohol, and those with distant metastasis of index cancer and cancers in hypopharynx, oropharynx and larynx.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Endoscopia/métodos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/diagnóstico , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/etiologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/complicações , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/etiologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/etiologia , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Taiwan/epidemiologia
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 17(5)2017 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28481265

RESUMO

Analysis of cancerous cells allows us to provide useful information for the early diagnosis of cancer and to monitor treatment progress. An approach based on electrical principles has recently become an attractive technique. This study presents a microdevice that utilizes a dielectrophoretic impedance measurement method for the identification of cancerous cells. The proposed biochip consists of circle-on-line microelectrodes that are patterned using a standard microfabrication processes. A sample of various cell concentrations was introduced in an open-top microchamber. The target cells were collectively concentrated between the microelectrodes using dielectrophoresis manipulation, and their electrical impedance properties were also measured. Different stages of human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma lines could be distinguished. This result is consistent with findings using hyperspectral imaging technology. Moreover, it was observed that the distinguishing characteristics change in response to the progression of cancer cell invasiveness by Raman spectroscopy. The device enables highly efficient cell collection and provides rapid, sensitive, and label-free electrical measurements of cancerous cells.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Contagem de Células , Impedância Elétrica , Humanos , Análise em Microsséries , Microeletrodos , Microtecnologia
10.
Opt Express ; 25(7): 7689-7706, 2017 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28380888

RESUMO

The p-n heterojunction photoelectrochemical biosensor, which comprises a p-type Cu2O film formed by electrochemical deposition and n-type ZnO nanorods formed by the hydrothermal method, is prone to photoelectrochemical reactions and self-powered. Four types of human esophageal cancer cells (ECCs) were detected by this biosensor without requiring an extra bias voltage. The measured photocurrent values of high invasion capacity cancer cells was consistently 2 times higher than those measured by a slight invasion capacity cancer cells. The response time, which was about 0.5 s, allowed repeated measurement.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Cobre/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Nanoestruturas/química , Nanotubos/química , Processos Fotoquímicos , Óxido de Zinco/química , Neoplasias Esofágicas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Análise Espectral Raman
11.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 52(87): 12853-12856, 2016 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27731434

RESUMO

In this study p-type ZnO nanorod (NR) arrays were grown using a low-temperature hydrothermal method in the presence of various concentrations of Sb in the doping solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the atomic percentages and chemical states of the Sb dopant atoms in the p-type ZnO NR arrays. Photoluminescence and electrical measurements confirmed the p-type characteristics of the Sb-doped ZnO NR arrays. Sequential growth of n- and p-ZnO was then implemented to form p-n ZnO nanojunction arrays. The photovoltaic properties of the p-n ZnO nanojunction devices were investigated under 365 nm UV light; the short-circuit current densities and open-circuit voltages exhibited linear and logarithmic dependence, respectively, on the power density of the UV light. In addition, the p-n ZnO nanojunction devices displayed a rapid response to UV light at zero bias, with a linear correlation between the responsivity and the incident light power. Such low-temperature growth of p-n ZnO nanojunctions appears to be a facile strategy for fabricating junctioned nanostructures with applications in energy-harvesting and self-driven photodetecting optoelectronics.

12.
Opt Express ; 24(5): 4411-4420, 2016 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29092270

RESUMO

Red, green, and blue (RGB) light-emitting diode (LED) is a narrow-band light source that can improve visual contrast, and thus, can be used for special illumination. In this study, three RGB LEDs, each provided with two reflective mirrors, are used to design an all-reflective color temperature-adjustable LED flashlight. The LED flashlight features an adjustable color temperature ranging from 2000 K to 6500 K, a uniformity of illuminance of 0.68, an average difference of uniformity of approximately 25%, and a color uniformity of 0.0042.

13.
Nanoscale ; 7(19): 9033-9, 2015 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25921320

RESUMO

A multispectral imaging method for the rapid and accurate identification of few-layered graphene using optical images is proposed. Commonly rapid identification relies on optical interference effects which limits the choice of substrates and light sources. Our method is based on the comparison of spectral characteristics with principle components from a database which is populated by correlation of micro-Raman registration, spectral characteristics, and optical microscopy. Using this approach the thickness and extent of different graphene layers can be distinguished without the contribution of the optical interference effects and allows characterization of graphene on glass substrates. The high achievable resolution, easy implementation and large scale make this approach suitable for the in-line metrology of industrial graphene production.

14.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 9(1): 334, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25024692

RESUMO

Indium gallium nitride (InGaN) samples with single heterojunction (SH) and double heterojunction (DH) were prepared using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. SH has a layer of InGaN thin film (thicknesses, 25, 50, 100, and 200 nm) grown on an uGaN film (thickness, 2 µm). The DH samples are distinguished by DH uGaN film (thickness, 120 nm) grown on the InGaN layer. Reciprocal space mapping measurements reveal that the DH samples are fully strained with different thicknesses, whereas the strain in the SH samples are significantly relaxed with the increasing thickness of the InGaN film. Scanning electron microscopy results show that the surface roughness of the sample increases when the sample is relaxed. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images of the structure of indium droplets in the DH sample indicate that the thickness of the InGaN layer decreases with the density of indium droplets. The formation of these droplets is attributed to the insufficient kinetic energy of indium atom to react with the elements of group V, resulting to aggregation. The gallium atoms in the GaN thin film will not be uniformly replaced by indium atoms; the InGaN thin film has an uneven distribution of indium atoms and the quality of the epitaxial layer is degraded.

15.
Opt Express ; 22(5): 5183-95, 2014 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24663858

RESUMO

We introduce a type of LED light-gauge steel frame lamp with an adjustable illumination light field that does not require a diffusion plate. Base on the Monte Carlo ray tracing method, this lamp has a good glare rating (GR) of 17.5 at 3050 lm. Compared with the traditional LED light-gauge steel frame lamp (without diffusion plate), the new type has low GR. The adjustability of the illumination light field could improve the zebra effect caused by the inadequate illumination light field of the lamp. Meanwhile, we adopt the retinal image analysis to discuss the influence of GR on vision. High GR could reflect stray light on the retinal image, which will reduce vision clarity and hasten the feeling of eye fatigue.

16.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 15(8): 2654-9, 2013 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23340577

RESUMO

The influence of the catalyst materials on the electron transport behaviors of InAs nanowires (NWs) grown by a conventional vapor transport technique is investigated. Utilizing the NW field-effect transistor (FET) device structure, ~20% and ~80% of Au-catalyzed InAs NWs exhibit strong and weak gate dependence characteristics, respectively. In contrast, ~98% of Ni-catalyzed InAs NWs demonstrate a uniform n-type behavior with strong gate dependence, resulting in an average OFF current of ~10(-10) A and a high I(ON)/I(OFF) ratio of >10(4). The non-uniform device performance of Au-catalyzed NWs is mainly attributed to the non-stoichiometric composition of the NWs grown from a different segregation behavior as compared to the Ni case, which is further supported by the in situ TEM studies. These distinct electrical characteristics associated with different catalysts were further investigated by the first principles calculation. Moreover, top-gated and large-scale parallel-array FETs were fabricated with Ni-catalyzed NWs by contact printing and channel metallization techniques, which yield excellent electrical performance. The results shed light on the direct correlation of the device performance with the catalyst choice.

17.
Opt Express ; 20(9): 10186-99, 2012 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22535110

RESUMO

In this paper the optimal lighting for oral cavity detection is proposed. The illuminants consist of several LEDs with different intensity ratios and peak wavelengths, which can enhance the color difference between normal and abnormal regions in the oral cavity. An algorithm combined with multi-spectral imaging (MSI) and color reproduction technique is applied to find the best enhancement of this difference. The colored LEDs of the optimal lighting, the Color Rendering Index (CRI) of the illuminants, and comparison with traditional illuminants are discussed. The calculations show that color enhancement ability in the oral cavity is not entirely a function of the higher CRI of some illuminants, as the narrowband illuminants (LEDs) produce an image with greater contrast than the broadband spectra and higher CRI of traditional illuminants in the reddish oral environment. Accordingly, an illuminant with specific intensity ratio of red, green, and blue LEDs is proposed, which has optimal color enhancement for oral cavity detection. Compared with the fluorescent lighting commonly in the use now, the color difference between normal and inflamed tissues can be improved from 21.5732 to 30.5532, a 42% increase, thus making medical diagnosis more efficient, so helping patients receive early treatment.


Assuntos
Cor , Colorimetria/instrumentação , Iluminação/instrumentação , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Semicondutores , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Humanos
18.
Opt Express ; 19(20): 18893-902, 2011 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21996831

RESUMO

Temperature-dependent picosecond non-degenerate four-wave-mixing experiments were performed to explore the carrier dynamics in an InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well sample, in which light emission enhancement with surface plasmon (SP) coupling has been identified. In the time-resolved photoluminescence results, we can identify the faster carrier decay time of the sample with surface plasmon coupling. The faster decay time is due to this sample's ability to create additional channels for effective carrier recombination. In the four-wave-mixing results, a slower grating decay time of the sample with surface plasmon coupling was measured. The diffusion coefficients and surface recombination velocities of photo-created carriers were estimated by modeling the decay rate of transient grating signals. For the sample for which surface plasmon coupling exists, smaller diffusion coefficients and slower surface recombination velocities can be estimated when the temperatures are above 150 K. The carriers coupling with some SP modes is not the only mechanism contributing to emission enhancement. In the InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well sample, surface recombination suppressed by SP coupling is another factor for increased light emission efficiency.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Gálio/química , Luz , Luminescência , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Óptica e Fotônica , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Fourier , Imunossupressores , Teoria Quântica , Temperatura
19.
Opt Express ; 19(17): 16390-400, 2011 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21935002

RESUMO

This study demonstrates a non-degenerate pump-probe spectroscopy with a white light beam probe based on a regenerative, amplified, mode-locked, Ti:sapphire laser. This white light beam probe is produced by supercontinuum generation of sapphire crystal after ultra-short pulse excitation. To implement the pump-probe experimental operation, the ablation dynamics with and without fresh spot measurements in fused silica samples are demonstrated. Combining the time-resolved differential reflection profiles in the white light range and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra of fused silica, the following ablation dynamics processes can be observed: Without fresh spot measurements, once carriers are excited, first, the three absorption bands of the intrinsic defect sites are observed within 750 fs. Then, a fast recovery is observed. This recovery comes from defect-trapped carriers excited to conduction bands through hot-carrier-phonon interactions. In the final step, a rapidly rising signal is observed after 800 fs. This signal rise comes from the creation of free-electron plasma, the density of which increases with increasing excitation energy accumulation. With fresh spot measurements, time delay of carrier dynamics among the three bands can be identified clearly within 750 fs. The intrinsic defect sites of fused silica play the key role during the ultrafast laser ablation process.

20.
Opt Express ; 19(8): 7559-66, 2011 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21503064

RESUMO

This study demonstrates a new approach for evaluating the properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) conducting glass and identifying defects using optical coherence tomography (OCT). A swept-source OCT system was implemented to scan the ITO conducting glass to enable two-dimensional or three-dimensional imaging. With OCT scanning, the defects can be clearly identified at various depths. Several parameters in addition to morphological information can be estimated simultaneously, including the thickness of the glass substrate, the refractive index, reflection coefficient, and transmission coefficient, all of which can be used to evaluate the quality of ITO conducting glass. This study developed a modified method for evaluating the refractive index of glass substrates without having to perform multiple scans as well as a segmentation algorithm to separate the interfaces. The results show the potential of OCT as an imaging tool for the inspection of defects in ITO conducting glass.

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