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1.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(33): 39066-39075, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387079

RESUMO

A controlled release formulation based on silica microcapsules is an ideal selection to improve both the effective utilization and duration of pesticides to decrease ecological damage. Herein, a simple and green method for preparing double-shelled microcapsules was developed using a newly prepared quaternary ammonium ionic liquid (IL) as the functional additive to entrap avermectin (Ave) in mesoporous silica nanospheres (MSNs) and tannic acid-Cu (TA-Cu) complex as the sealing agent to form the core-shell structure (Ave-IL@MSN@TA-Cu). The obtained microcapsules with an average size of 538 nm had pH-responsive release property and good stability in soil. The half-life of microcapsules (34.66 days) was 3 times that of Ave emulsifiable concentrate (EC) (11.55 days) in a test soil, which illustrated that microcapsules could protect Ave from rapid degradation by microorganisms by releasing TA, copper, and quaternary ammonium in the soil. Ave-IL@MSN@TA-Cu microcapsules had better nematicidal activity and antibacterial activity than Ave EC due to the synergistic effect of Ave, IL, and copper incorporated in the microcapsules. Pot experiments showed that the control efficacy of microcapsules was 87.10% against Meloidogyne incognita, which is better than that of Ave EC (41.94%) at the concentration of 1.0 mg/plant by the root-irrigation method after 60 days of treatment owing to the extended duration of Ave in microcapsules. The simple and green method for the preparation of double-shelled microcapsules based on natural quaternary ammonium IL would have tremendous potential for the extensive development of controlled release pesticide formulations.


Assuntos
Cápsulas/química , Preparações de Ação Retardada/química , Controle de Pragas/métodos , Praguicidas/química , Dióxido de Silício/química , Tylenchoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Cobre/química , Preparações de Ação Retardada/farmacologia , Composição de Medicamentos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Química Verde , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Ivermectina/química , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Porosidade , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/química , Solubilidade , Taninos/química , Fatores de Tempo
2.
J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn ; 47(1): 87-98, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916831

RESUMO

It is well known that information from spoken language is integrated into reading processes, but the nature of these links and how they are acquired is less well understood. Recent evidence has suggested that predictions about the written form of newly learned spoken words are already generated prior to print exposure. We extend this work to morphologically complex words and ask whether the information that is available in spoken words goes beyond the mappings between phonology and orthography. Adults were taught the oral form of a set of novel morphologically complex words (e.g., "neshing", "neshed", "neshes"), with a 2nd set serving as untrained items. Following oral training, participants saw the printed form of the novel word stems for the first time (e.g., nesh), embedded in sentences, and their eye movements were monitored. Half of the stems were allocated a predictable and half an unpredictable spelling. Reading times were shorter for orally trained than untrained stems and for stems with predictable rather than unpredictable spellings. Crucially, there was an interaction between spelling predictability and training. This suggests that orthographic expectations of embedded stems are formed during spoken word learning. Reading aloud and spelling tests complemented the eye movement data, and findings are discussed in the context of theories of reading acquisition. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

3.
Sleep Med ; 75: 502-509, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022488

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: Night-shift workers are exposed to nocturnal light and are more prone to circadian rhythm disorders. Although night-shift work is thought to be associated with the decrease in melatonin secretion, studies have shown inconsistent results. METHODS: This systematic review and meta-analysis studied the association between night-shift work and melatonin levels. Pubmed and Embase databases were used for literature searching. The pooled standardized mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to compare the differences between night-shift workers and the controls. RESULTS: Thirty-three studies reported in 25 articles (1845 night-shift workers and 3414 controls, mean age 45.12 years) were included after a systematic literature review. Data of circulating melatonin levels and its metabolites, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) in urine were collected for meta-analysis. The results showed that the first morning-void aMT6s level in night-shift workers was significantly lower than in day workers (SMD = -0.101, 95% CI = -0.179 to -0.022, P = 0.012). The level of mean 24-h urinary aMT6s was lower in night-shift workers than day workers (SMD: -0.264, 95% CI: -0.473 to -0.056, P = 0.013). Among fixed night-shift workers, the level of circulating melatonin, as well as first morning-void aMT6s was lower than that of day workers. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that experience of night-shift work is associated with suppression of melatonin production, especially among fixed night-shift workers.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cronobiológicos , Melatonina , Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos , Ritmo Circadiano , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado
4.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 199: 104912, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726725

RESUMO

Literate children can generate expectations about the spellings of newly learned words that they have not yet seen in print. These initial spelling expectations, or orthographic skeletons, have previously been observed at the first orthographic exposure to known spoken words. Here, we asked what happens to the orthographic skeleton over repeated visual exposures. Children in Grade 4 (N = 38) were taught the pronunciations and meanings of one set of 16 novel words, whereas another set were untrained. Spellings of half the items were predictable from their phonology (e.g., nesh), whereas the other half were less predictable (e.g., koyb). Trained and untrained items were subsequently shown in print, embedded in sentences, and eye movements were monitored as children silently read all items over three exposures. A larger effect of spelling predictability for orally trained items compared with untrained items was observed at the first and second orthographic exposures, consistent with the notion that oral vocabulary knowledge had facilitated the formation of spelling expectations. By the third orthographic exposure, this interaction was no longer significant, suggesting that visual experience had begun to update children's spelling expectations. Delayed follow-up testing revealed that when visual exposure was equated, oral training provided a strong persisting benefit to children's written word recognition. Findings suggest that visual exposure can alter children's developing orthographic representations and that this process can be captured dynamically as children read novel words over repeated visual exposures.


Assuntos
Leitura , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia , Vocabulário , Sucesso Acadêmico , Austrália , Criança , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fonética
5.
Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch ; 50(1): 99-112, 2019 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30383206

RESUMO

Purpose The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between orthographic learning and language, reading, and cognitive skills in 9-year-old children who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) and to compare their performance to age-matched typically hearing (TH) controls. Method Eighteen children diagnosed with moderate-to-profound hearing loss who use hearing aids and/or cochlear implants participated. Their performance was compared with 35 age-matched controls with typical hearing. Orthographic learning was evaluated using a spelling task and a recognition task. The children were assessed on measures of reading ability, language, working memory, and paired-associate learning. Results On average, the DHH group performed more poorly than the TH controls on the spelling measure of orthographic learning, but not on the recognition measure. For both groups of children, there were significant correlations between orthographic learning and phonological decoding and between visual-verbal paired-associate learning and orthographic learning. Conclusions Although the children who are DHH had lower scores in the spelling test of orthographic learning than their TH peers, measures of their reading ability revealed that they acquired orthographic representations successfully. The results are consistent with the self-teaching hypothesis in suggesting that phonological decoding is important for orthographic learning.


Assuntos
Implantes Cocleares , Perda Auditiva/reabilitação , Aprendizagem , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva/reabilitação , Leitura , Aptidão , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Implante Coclear , Feminino , Audição , Auxiliares de Audição , Humanos , Idioma , Linguística , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo
6.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 72(3): 616-633, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29451079

RESUMO

It is well-established that poor readers exhibit deficits in paired associate learning (PAL), and there is increasing evidence for a phonological locus of these deficits. However, it remains unclear whether poor performance stems from difficulties specific to the phonological output system or difficulties that affect both phonological input and output processes. Understanding these deficits is important not only in the context of PAL but also for informing broader theories of typical and atypical reading development. We developed a novel paradigm that allowed us to assess PAL in the presence and absence of phonological output demands. In total, 14 poor readers and 14 age-matched controls were first trained to criterion in verbal-visual PAL before being tested in the visual-verbal direction. The results showed that poor readers learned at the same rate as controls in verbal-visual PAL, even when the nonword stimuli were phonologically confusable. Yet, despite having reached the same criterion as controls in verbal-visual PAL, poor readers exhibited robust impairments for those same paired associates in visual-verbal PAL. The overall pattern of results is most consistent with the conclusion that PAL deficits reflect impairments to the phonological output system; however, results that may challenge this interpretation are also discussed.


Assuntos
Dislexia/fisiopatologia , Aprendizagem por Associação de Pares/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Psicolinguística , Leitura , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos
7.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 11: CD009115, 2018 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30480759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The reading skills of 16% of children fall below the mean range for their age, and 5% of children have significant and severe reading problems. Phonics training is one of the most common reading treatments used with poor readers, particularly children. OBJECTIVES: To measure the effect of phonics training and explore the impact of various factors, such as training duration and training group size, that might moderate the effect of phonics training on literacy-related skills in English-speaking poor readers. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, 12 other databases, and three trials registers up to May 2018. We also searched reference lists of included studies and contacted experts in the field to identify additional studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included studies that used randomisation, quasi-randomisation, or minimisation to allocate participants to a phonics intervention group (phonics training only or phonics training plus one other literacy-related skill) or a control group (no training or non-literacy training). Participants were English-speaking poor readers with word reading one standard deviation below the appropriate level for their age (children, adolescents, and adults) or one grade or year below the appropriate level (children only), for no known reason. Participants had no known comorbid developmental disorder, or physical, neurological, or emotional problem. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. MAIN RESULTS: We included 14 studies with 923 participants in this review. Studies took place in Australia, Canada, the UK, and the USA. Six of the 14 included studies were funded by government agencies and one was funded by a university grant. The rest were funded by charitable foundations or trusts. Each study compared phonics training alone, or in conjunction with one other reading-related skill, to either no training (i.e. treatment as usual) or alterative training (e.g. maths). Participants were English-speaking children or adolescents, of low and middle socioeconomic status, whose reading was one year, one grade, or one standard deviation below the level expected for their age or grade for no known reason. Phonics training varied between studies in intensity (up to four hours per week), duration (up to seven months), training group size (individual and small groups), and delivery (human and computer). We measured the effect of phonics training on seven primary outcomes (mixed/regular word reading accuracy, non-word reading accuracy, irregular word reading accuracy, mixed/regular word reading fluency, non-word reading fluency, reading comprehension, and spelling). We judged all studies to be at low risk of bias for most risk criteria, and used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of the evidence.There was low-quality evidence that phonics training may have improved poor readers' accuracy for reading real and novel words that follow the letter-sound rules (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.13 to 0.90; 11 studies, 701 participants), and their accuracy for reading words that did not follow these rules (SMD 0.67, 95% CI 0.26 to 1.07; 10 studies, 682 participants). There was moderate-quality evidence that phonics training probably improved English-speaking poor readers' fluency for reading words that followed the letter-sounds rules (SMD 0.45, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.72; 4 studies, 224 participants), and non-word reading fluency (SMD 0.39, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.68; 3 studies, 188 participants), as well as their accuracy for reading words that did not follow these rules (SMD 0.84, 95% CI 0.30 to 1.39; 4 studies, 294 participants). In addition, there was low-quality evidence that phonics training may have improved poor readers' spelling (SMD 0.47, 95% CI -0.07 to 1.01; 3 studies, 158 participants), but only slightly improve their reading comprehension (SMD 0.28, 95% CI -0.07 to 0.62; 5 studies, 343 participants). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Phonics training appears to be effective for improving literacy-related skills, particularly reading fluency of words and non-words, and accuracy of reading irregular words. More studies are needed to improve the precision of outcomes, including word and non-word reading accuracy, reading comprehension, spelling, letter-sound knowledge, and phonological output. More data are also needed to determine if phonics training in English-speaking poor readers is moderated by factors such as training type, intensity, duration, group size, or administrator.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Dislexia/reabilitação , Fonação/fisiologia , Fonética , Leitura , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália , Canadá , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
8.
Acta Diabetol ; 55(11): 1113-1120, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29992461

RESUMO

AIMS: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a medical complication of any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. Although visfatin is commonly considered to be related to GDM, studies revealed inconsistent results. This study aimed to clarify the relationship between visfatin and GDM. METHODS: The protocol for this study was registered in PROSPERO (No. CRD42018086204) in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). PubMed and Embase databases were used to search for relevant studies published up to September 30, 2017. The difference of visfatin levels between women with GDM and the controls was measured by standardised mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Twenty-six studies that were published in 24 articles met the inclusion criteria, in which 2305 participants (1033 with GDM, mean age 31.39 years and 1272 controls, and mean age 29.99 years) were included. The quantitative meta-analysis revealed no significant difference in circulating visfatin levels between women with GDM and the controls (SMD = 0.249, 95% CI = - 0.079 to 0.576, P = 0.137). Subgroup analyses were performed referring to body mass index (BMI) where inconsistent results have been observed between cases and controls groups. For the ten studies, in which the level of BMI in women with GDM was higher than that in the control group, the pooled result showed that circulating visfatin was significantly higher among women with GDM than the controls (SMD = 0.367, 95% CI = 0.06 to 0.728, P = 0.046). Of other 16 studies BMI-matched, the pooled SMD illustrated no difference of visfatin. CONCLUSIONS: Our study elucidates that visfatin is not independently associated with GDM. Visfatin is linked to GDM through maternal overweight/obesity, which is one of the major factors leading to the development of GDM.


Assuntos
Citocinas/sangue , Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase/sangue , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Gravidez
9.
Cognition ; 176: 184-194, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29573645

RESUMO

According to the self-teaching hypothesis (Share, 1995), phonological decoding is fundamental to acquiring orthographic representations of novel written words. However, phonological decoding is not straightforward in non-alphabetic scripts such as Chinese, where words are presented as characters. Here, we present the first study investigating the role of phonological decoding in orthographic learning in Chinese. We examined two possible types of phonological decoding: the use of phonetic radicals, an internal phonological aid, andthe use of Zhuyin, an external phonological coding system. Seventy-three Grade 2 children were taught the pronunciations and meanings of twelve novel compound characters over four days. They were then exposed to the written characters in short stories, and were assessed on their reading accuracy and on their subsequent orthographic learning via orthographic choice and spelling tasks. The novel characters were assigned three different types of pronunciation in relation to its phonetic radical - (1) a pronunciation that is identical to the phonetic radical in isolation; (2) a common alternative pronunciation associated with the phonetic radical when it appears in other characters; and (3) a pronunciation that is unrelated to the phonetic radical. The presence of Zhuyin was also manipulated. The children read the novel characters more accurately when phonological cues from the phonetic radicals were available and in the presence of Zhuyin. However, only the phonetic radicals facilitated orthographic learning. The findings provide the first empirical evidence of orthographic learning via self-teaching in Chinese, and reveal how phonological decoding functions to support learning in non-alphabetic writing systems.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Fonética , Leitura , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Semântica , Vocabulário
10.
Dev Sci ; 21(3): e12577, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28701027

RESUMO

There is an established association between children's oral vocabulary and their word reading but its basis is not well understood. Here, we present evidence from eye movements for a novel mechanism underlying this association. Two groups of 18 Grade 4 children received oral vocabulary training on one set of 16 novel words (e.g., 'nesh', 'coib'), but no training on another set. The words were assigned spellings that were either predictable from phonology (e.g., nesh) or unpredictable (e.g., koyb). These were subsequently shown in print, embedded in sentences. Reading times were shorter for orally familiar than unfamiliar items, and for words with predictable than unpredictable spellings but, importantly, there was an interaction between the two: children demonstrated a larger benefit of oral familiarity for predictable than for unpredictable items. These findings indicate that children form initial orthographic expectations about spoken words before first seeing them in print. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://youtu.be/jvpJwpKMM3E.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares , Leitura , Vocabulário , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reconhecimento Psicológico
11.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 24(4): 1186-1193, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27785682

RESUMO

Lexical competition processes are widely viewed as the hallmark of visual word recognition, but little is known about the factors that promote their emergence. This study examined for the first time whether sleep may play a role in inducing these effects. A group of 27 participants learned novel written words, such as banara, at 8 am and were tested on their learning at 8 pm the same day (AM group), while 29 participants learned the words at 8 pm and were tested at 8 am the following day (PM group). Both groups were retested after 24 hours. Using a semantic categorization task, we showed that lexical competition effects, as indexed by slowed responses to existing neighbor words such as banana, emerged 12 h later in the PM group who had slept after learning but not in the AM group. After 24 h the competition effects were evident in both groups. These findings have important implications for theories of orthographic learning and broader neurobiological models of memory consolidation.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Leitura , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Sono , Percepção Visual , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Semântica , Adulto Jovem
12.
Cogn Neuropsychol ; 32(2): 58-79, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25639641

RESUMO

Phonological decoding skill has been proposed to be key to successful sight word learning (orthographic learning). However, little is known about how children with phonological dyslexia, who have impaired phonological decoding, acquire sight words, or why children with surface dyslexia can have normal phonological decoding skill yet impaired sight word acquisition. This study addressed this issue by investigating orthographic learning in two 10-year-old children: S.D., with a reading profile of surface dyslexia, and P.D., with a reading profile of phonological dyslexia. They participated in two experiments exploring the role of phonological decoding and paired-associate learning in orthographic learning. The results showed that, first, P.D.'s orthographic learning ability was better than S.D.'s, despite her phonological decoding skills being poorer. Second, S.D. showed impaired paired-associate learning abilities while P.D. did not. Overall, the results indicate that phonological decoding ability does not translate directly to orthographic learning ability, and that paired-associate learning ability may also be associated with success in orthographic learning.


Assuntos
Dislexia/fisiopatologia , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Aprendizagem por Associação de Pares/fisiologia , Fonética , Leitura
13.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 8: 468, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25071504

RESUMO

Previous studies have found that children with reading difficulties need more exposures to acquire the representations needed to support fluent reading than typically developing readers (e.g., Ehri and Saltmarsh, 1995). Building on existing orthographic learning paradigms, we report on an investigation of orthographic learning in poor readers using a new learning task tracking both the accuracy (untimed exposure duration) and fluency (200 ms exposure duration) of learning novel words over trials. In study 1, we used the paradigm to examine orthographic learning in children with specific poor reader profiles (nine with a surface profile, nine a phonological profile) and nine age-matched controls. Both profiles showed improvement over the learning cycles, but the children with surface profile showed impaired orthographic learning in spelling and orthographic choice tasks. Study 2 explored predictors of orthographic learning in a group of 91 poor readers using the same outcome measures as in Study 1. Consistent with earlier findings in typically developing readers, phonological decoding skill predicted orthographic learning. Moreover, orthographic knowledge significantly predicted orthographic learning over and beyond phonological decoding. The two studies provide insights into how poor readers learn novel words, and how their learning process may be compromised by less proficient orthographic and/or phonological skills.

14.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 12: CD009115, 2012 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23235670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Around 5% of English speakers have a significant problem with learning to read words. Poor word readers are often trained to use letter-sound rules to improve their reading skills. This training is commonly called phonics. Well over 100 studies have administered some form of phonics training to poor word readers. However, there are surprisingly few systematic reviews or meta-analyses of these studies. The most well-known review was done by the National Reading Panel (Ehri 2001) 12 years ago and needs updating. The most recent review (Suggate 2010) focused solely on children and did not include unpublished studies. OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this review was to measure the effect that phonics training has on the literacy skills of English-speaking children, adolescents, and adults whose reading was at least one standard deviation (SD), one year, or one grade below the expected level, despite no reported problems that could explain their impaired ability to learn to read. A secondary objective was to explore the impact of various factors, such as length of training or training group size, that might moderate the effect of phonics training on poor word reading skills. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases in July 2012: CENTRAL 2012 (Issue 6), MEDLINE 1948 to June week 3 2012, EMBASE 1980 to 2012 week 26, DARE 2013 (Issue 6), ERIC (1966 to current), PsycINFO (1806 to current), CINAHL (1938 to current), Science Citation Index (1970 to 29 June 2012), Social Science Citation Index (1970 to 29 June 2012), Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science (1990 to 29 June 2012), Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Social Science & Humanities (1990 to 29 June 2012), ZETOC, Index to Theses-UK and Ireland, ClinicalTrials.gov, ICTRP, the metaRegister of Controlled Trials, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, DART Europe E-theses Portal, Australasian Digital Theses Program, Education Research Theses, Electronic Theses Online System, Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations. Theses Canada portal, www.dissertation.com, and www.thesisabstracts.com. We also contacted experts and examined the reference lists of published studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included studies that use randomisation, quasi-randomisation, or minimisation to allocate participants to either a phonics intervention group (phonics alone, phonics and phoneme awareness training, or phonics and irregular word reading training) or a control group (no training or alternative training, such as maths). Participants were English-speaking children, adolescents, or adults whose word reading was below the level expected for their age for no known reason (that is, they had adequate attention and no known physical, neurological, or psychological problems). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected studies, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data. MAIN RESULTS: We found 11 studies that met the criteria for this review. They involved 736 participants. We measured the effect of phonics training on eight outcomes. The amount of evidence for each outcome varied considerably, ranging from 10 studies for word reading accuracy to one study for nonword reading fluency. The effect sizes for the outcomes were: word reading accuracy standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.47 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.06 to 0.88; 10 studies), nonword reading accuracy SMD 0.76 (95% CI 0.25 to 1.27; eight studies), word reading fluency SMD -0.51 (95% CI -1.14 to 0.13; two studies), reading comprehension SMD 0.14 (95% CI -0.46 to 0.74; three studies), spelling SMD 0.36 (95% CI -0.27 to 1.00; two studies), letter-sound knowledge SMD 0.35 (95% CI 0.04 to 0.65; three studies), and phonological output SMD 0.38 (95% -0.04 to 0.80; four studies). There was one result in a negative direction for nonword reading fluency SMD 0.38 (95% CI -0.55 to 1.32; one study), though this was not statistically significant.We did five subgroup analyses on two outcomes that had sufficient data (word reading accuracy and nonword reading accuracy). The efficacy of phonics training was not moderated significantly by training type (phonics alone versus phonics and phoneme awareness versus phonics and irregular word training), training intensity (less than two hours per week versus at least two hours per week), training duration (less than three months versus at least three months), training group size (one-on-one versus small group training), or training administrator (human administration versus computer administration). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Phonics training appears to be effective for improving some reading skills. Specifically, statistically significant effects were found for nonword reading accuracy (large effect), word reading accuracy (moderate effect), and letter-sound knowledge (small-to-moderate effect). For several other outcomes, there were small or moderate effect sizes that did not reach statistical significance but may be meaningful: word reading fluency, spelling, phonological output, and reading comprehension. The effect for nonword reading fluency, which was measured in only one study, was in a negative direction, but this was not statistically significant.Future studies of phonics training need to improve the reporting of procedures used for random sequence generation, allocation concealment, and blinding of participants, personnel, and outcome assessment.


Assuntos
Dislexia/reabilitação , Fonação/fisiologia , Leitura , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
15.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 65(5): 856-64, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22519676

RESUMO

Share's self-teaching hypothesis proposes that orthographic representations are acquired via phonological decoding. A key, yet untested, prediction of this theory is that there should be an effect of word regularity on the number and quality of word-specific orthographic representations that children acquire. Thirty-four Grade 2 children were exposed to the sound and meaning of eight novel words and were then presented with those words in written form in short stories. Half the words were assigned regular pronunciations and half irregular pronunciations. Lexical decision and spelling tasks conducted 10 days later revealed that the children's orthographic representations of the regular words appeared to be stronger and more extensive than those of the irregular words.


Assuntos
Idioma , Aprendizagem , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Semântica , Aprendizagem Verbal , Vocabulário , Criança , Humanos , Fonética , Leitura
16.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 109(1): 39-57, 2011 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21315372

RESUMO

The self-teaching hypothesis proposes that orthographic learning takes place via phonological decoding in meaningful texts, that is, in context. Context is proposed to be important in learning to read, especially when decoding is only partial. However, little research has directly explored this hypothesis. The current study looked at the effect of context on orthographic learning and examined whether there were different effects for novel words given regular and irregular pronunciations. Two experiments were conducted using regular and irregular novel words, respectively. Second-grade children were asked to learn eight novel words either in stories or in a list of words. The results revealed no significant effect of context for the regular items. However, in an orthographic decision task, there was a facilitatory effect of context on irregular novel word learning. The findings support the view that contextual information is important to orthographic learning, but only when the words to be learned contain irregular spelling-sound correspondences.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Leitura , Análise de Variância , Austrália , Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fonética , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Semântica , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Vocabulário
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