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1.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124603, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442773

RESUMO

Environmental pollution is a risk factor for kidney dysfunction. However, the combined toxicity of air pollutants on kidney function is scarce. We estimated the relationship between combined toxicity of air pollutants and kidney function among adult women (n = 7071, 18-65 years old) in Mianyang City, Southwest China. We measured serum concentrations of uric acid, urea, creatinine, and cystatin C, and we calculated the individual estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using a cystatin C-based equation developed specifically for Chinese patients with CKD equation. Air pollution data were collected to calculate the individual average daily dose (ADD) of pollutants based on the air quality complex index (AQCI). Mean AQCI was higher in winter and lower in summer, and followed the monthly and seasonal trends of air pollutants. Concomitantly, individual ADD was also higher in winter and lower in summer, and the seasonal differences were reflected in the levels of kidney biomarkers (including uric acid, urea, creatinine, cystatin C, and eGFR). With an interquartile range (IQR: 1.04-1.50 m3/day/kg) increases of ADD, the serum concentrations of uric acid, urea, creatinine, and cystatin C increase [B (95%CI): 1.774 (0.318, 3.231) umol/L, 0.218 (0.1888, 0.247) mmol/L, 1.501 (1.016, 1.986) umol/L, and 0.006 (0.003, 0.009) mg/L, respectively], whereas eGFR decreases [B (95%CI): -0.776 (-1.106, -0.446) mL/min/1.73 m2]. Totally, the relationship between combined toxicity of air pollutants and kidney function in Chinese adult women suggests that the toxicity of combined air pollutants inversely affects kidney function, which might accelerate the risk of CKD.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775597

RESUMO

Tropane alkaloids (TAs) are important drugs for curing many diseases in the medical industry. To sustainably exploit TA resources in traditional endangered Tibetan herbs, the hairy root (HR) systems of Przewalskia tangutica Maxim. and Anisodus tanguticus Maxim. were compared under the same culture conditions. The results indicated that the Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains and explants both affected the HR induction frequency, MSU440, A4 and LBA9402 strains could induce hairy roots following infection of cotyledon and hypocotyl of A. tanguticus while LBA9402 could not induce HR on either explants of P. tangutica. The efficiency of LBA9402 was higher than A4 and MSU440 on A. tanguticus and A4 was better strain than MSU440 on P. tangutica. The hypocotyl explant was more suitable for P.tangutica and cotyledon explant was better for A.tangutica with a transformation frequency of 33.3% (P. tangutica) and 82.5% (A. tanguticus), respectively. In a flask reactor system, the growth curves of HR for two species both appeared to be "S" curve; however, the HR of P. tangutica grew more quickly than that of A. tanguticus, and the latter accumulated more biomass than the former. As the culture volume increased, the HR proliferation coefficient increased on both species. HPLC analysis results showed that the content of TAs in the HR of P. tangutica is 257.24mg/100g•DW, which is more than that of A. tanguticus HR (251.08mg/100g•DW), and the anisodamine in the Pt-HR is significantly higher than that of At-HR. Moreover, tropane alkaloids in the HR of the two species are all significantly higher than that of the roots in aseptic seedlings. Our results suggest that HR of P. tangutica and A. tanguticus both could provide a useful platform for sustainable utilization of two Tibetan medicinal plants on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in the future.

4.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 19(1): 122, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Benign thyroid nodules (BTN) are frequently diagnosed as papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), leading to unnecessary treatment. We found that plasma lncRNA DLG1-AS1 was upregulated in PTC patients but not in BTN patients and healthy controls. METHODS: In this study DLG1-AS1 and miR-199a-3p in plasma of both PTC patients and BTN patients were detected by qPCR. ROC curve analysis was performed for diagnostic analysis. Overexpression experiments were performed to analyze the interaction between DLG1-AS1 and miR-199a-3p. CCK-8 assay was performed to analyze cell proliferation. RESULTS: In this study, upregulation of DLG1-AS1 distinguished PTC patients from BTN patients and healthy controls. Plasma miR-199a-3p was downregulated in PTC patients compared with healthy controls and BTN patients. Plasma levels of miR-199a-3p were inversely correlated in PTC patients, but not in BTN patients and healthy controls. miR-199a-3p overexpression failed to significantly affect DLG1-AS1, while DLG1-AS1 overexpression resulted in downregulated miR-199a-3p, In addition, DLG1-AS1 overexpression promoted the proliferation of PTC cells. miR-199a-3p overexpression played an opposite role and attenuated the effects of DLG1-AS1 overexpression. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, DLG1-AS1 may promote PTC by downregulating miR-199a-3p.

5.
Laryngoscope ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755990

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this meta-analysis was to discuss the efficacy and safety of bioabsorbable steroid-impregnated implants following endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients. METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane, EMBASE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were comprehensively searched for studies comparing the experimental group (bioabsorbable steroid-impregnated implants) with the control group (bioabsorbable nonsteroid-impregnated implants). Lund-Kennedy scores, Perioperative Sinus Endoscopy (POSE) scores, polyp change, significant adhesion, middle turbinate lateralization, and adverse events were extracted from the final eligible studies. RevMan 5.3 software was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Eight randomized controlled trials were included in our analysis. The experimental group showed no significant differences from the control group in Lund-Kennedy scores (weighted mean difference (WMD) -0.40; 95% confidence interval [confidence interval (CI)] -1.05 to -0.62; P = 0.23). The experimental group had lower POSE scores compared with the control group, and there was a significant difference (WMD -1.88; 95% CI -2.32 to -1.43, P < 0.00001). The pooled results also demonstrated significant differences in polyp change, significant adhesion, and middle turbinate lateralization between the two groups. In addition, there was no significant difference with respect to adverse events between the two groups (odds ratio (OR) 0.38; 95% CI: 0.07 to 2.03; P = 0.26). CONCLUSION: Bioabsorbable steroid-impregnated implants following ESS are effective in improving the endoscopic appearance of the healing process, and the safety profile appears to be favorable for the treatment of CRS patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 1A Laryngoscope, 2019.

6.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 148: 111834, 2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706175

RESUMO

Efficient platforms for detecting telomerase activity are essential for early tumor monitoring and diagnosis. Herein, an enzyme-free electroanalytical strategy was developed for reliable and highly sensitive telomerase activity assay based on the increased electrochemical signals of methylene blue (MB) catalyzed by well monodisperse Au nanorods (AuNRs). In the presence of dNTPs and telomerase extracts, the assistant DNA 1 in the double stranded DNA can be extended to telomere repeat units (TTAGGG)n, which could form a hairpin structure by telomerase-triggered extension. The assistant DNA 2 was ingeniously dissociated from the double stranded DNA to combine with capture DNA. As a result, a large amount of AuNRs could be anchored on the surface of these sequences and used for electrocatalytic oxidation of MB. The developed biosensor showed a low limit of detection of 8.20 HeLa cells mL-1 and a wide dynamic range from 30 to 1.04 × 107 HeLa cells mL-1 for the determination of telomerase activity, which can provide a new way for telomerase activity assays in early diagnosis for cancers.

7.
Pathol Res Pract ; : 152735, 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740231

RESUMO

CYP24A1, an essential gene in regulation of vitamin D, has been reported to play an important role in enhancing immune activity and inhibiting tumorigenesis. Previous studies proposed that rs2585428, rs4809960, rs6022999 and rs6068816 in CYP24A1 gene might be greatly associated with cancer risk. To validate the findings, we here investigated the associations of these four polymorphisms and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in a central Chinese population (426 colon cancer patients, 361 rectal cancer patients and 800 healthy controls). The genotyping was conducted by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and confirmed by sequencing. Our results revealed that the rs4809960 and rs6022999 were strongly associated with the CRC risk, especially with the colon cancer risk. Moreover, the analysis of haplotypes consisting of rs2585428(G > A), rs4809960(T > C), rs6022999(A > G) and rs6068816(C > T) indicated that haplotype ATGC significantly decreased the CRC risk, especially the colon cancer risk. Haplotype GCAT significantly increased the CRC risk, especially the rectal cancer risk. However, haplotype ACAC was only found to be associated with increased risk of CRC. To improve the statistical strength, an updated meta-analysis was further performed. The results showed that rs2585428 was associated with cancer risk in Caucasian population, rs4809960 was associated with breast cancer risk in Caucasian population, and rs6022999 was associated with cancer risk in Asian population. Collectively, the rs4809960 and rs6022999 may be the genetic biomarkers for prediction of colon cancer risk in Chinese population, the rs2585428 and rs6022999 may link to cancer susceptibility in Caucasian population and in Asian population respectly.

8.
Arch Toxicol ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712840

RESUMO

The main purpose of this study was to verify the hypothesis that cognitive dysfunctions induced by arsenic exposure were related to the changes of D-serine metabolism in the hippocampus of offspring mice. Mother mice and their offsprings were exposed to 0, 15, 30 or 60 mg/L sodium arsenite (NaAsO2) through drinking water from the first day of gestation until the end of lactation. D-serine levels in the hippocampus of mice of postnatal day (PND) 10, 20 and 40 were examined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Expressions of serine racemase (SR), D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO), alanine-serine-cysteine transporter-1 (asc-1) and subunits of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in the hippocampus of mice were measured by Western blot and Real-time RT-PCR. Results showed that arsenic exposure significantly decreased D-serine levels of mice exposed to 60 mg/L NaAsO2. Exposure to 60 mg/L NaAsO2 could inhibit both mRNA and protein expression of SR, whereas increase in the protein expression of DAAO, only enhances the mRNA levels of DAAO of PND 20 mice. In addition, arsenic exposure could upregulate protein expression of asc-1. The mRNA and protein levels of NR1, NR2A and NR2B in the hippocampus of mice were down-regulated by arsenic. Findings from this study suggested that SR might play an important role in the reduction of D-serine levels caused by arsenic exposure, which might further influence the levels of NMDAR subunits especially on PND20, and then might disturb the function of NMDARs and cause the deficits of learning and memory ability of offspring mice.

9.
Mol Cancer Res ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694931

RESUMO

Metastasis accounts for 90% of deaths caused by solid tumors. But the multitude of mecha-nisms underlying tumor metastasis remains poorly understood. CARMIL1 and 2 proteins are capping protein (CP) interactants and multidomain regulators of actin-based mobility. However, CARMIL3's function has not been explored. Through bioinformatic metadata analysis we find that high CARMIL3 expression correlates with poor survival of breast and prostate cancer patients. Functional studies in murine and xenograft tumor models by targeted diminution of CARMIL3 expression or forced expression demonstrate that CARMIL3 is vitally important for tumor metastasis, especially for metastatic colonization. Consistent with a predominantly cell-intrinsic mode of action, CARMIL3 is also crucial for tumor cell migration and invasion in vitro. Co-immunoprecipitation coupled with mass spectrometric analyses identifies a group of CARMIL3-interacting proteins, including capping protein, that are involved in actin cytoskeletal organization, which is required for cell polarization and focal adhesion formation. Moreover, molecular pathway enrichment analysis reveals that lack of CARMIL3 leads to loss of cell adhesions and low CARMIL3 expression in breast cancer patient specimens is implicated in epithelial mesenchymal transition. We also find that CARMIL3 sustains adherens junction between tumor cells. This is accomplished by CARMIL3 maintaining E-cadherin transcription downstream of HDACs through inhibiting ZEB2 protein level, also via protecting ß-catenin from ubiquitination-mediated degradation initiated by the destruction complex. Implications: The study uncovers CARMIL3 as a novel and critical regulator of metastatic progression of cancers and suggests therapeutic potentials to target CARMIL3.

10.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol ; 47(1): 4234-4239, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722576

RESUMO

Bronchial epithelial mitochondrial dysfunction including impaired mitochondrial biogenesis has been linked with the initiation and development of bronchial asthma. Montelukast, a robust antagonist of cysteinyl leukotriene receptors, has been widely applied for the therapies of bronchial asthma. However, the effects of montelukast in airway epithelial mitochondrial dysfunction are less reported. In the present study, we report that montelukast treatment in human bronchial epithelial cells of Beas-2b increased the expressions of PGC-1α, NRF-1 and TFAM. As expected, montelukast promoted mitochondrial biogenesis in Beas-2b cells through increasing mitochondrial mass, mtDNA/nDNA and the expression of cytochrome B. Importantly, we found that montelukast caused a functional gain in mitochondria of Beas-2b cells. Mechanistically, we found that montelukast treatment increased intracellular cAMP levels and activation of CREB. Blockage of CREB with H89 abolished montelukast-induced expression of PGC-1α. These findings report a novel pharmacological function of montelukast in stimulating mitochondrial biogenesis in Beas-2b cells, mediating by the CREB/PGC-1α pathway.

11.
Mol Cancer ; 18(1): 151, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672157

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circular RNA (circRNA) is a type of circular endogenous RNA produced by special selective splicing and participates in progression of diverse diseases. However, the role of circRNA in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is still rarely reported. METHODS: We detected lower circ-AKT3 expression in ccRCC using the circular RNA microarray. Then, qPCR array was applied to verify the expression of circ-AKT3 in between 60 ccRCC tissues and adjacent normal tissues, as well as ccRCC cell lines and human normal kidney cell (HK-2). We investigated the function of circ-AKT3 in ccRCC in vitro and in vivo and detected underlying mechanisms by Western blotting, bioinformatic analysis, RNA pull-down assay and luciferase reporter assay. RESULTS: Circ-AKT3 was verified significantly downregulated in ccRCC. Knockdown of circ-AKT3 promoted ccRCC migration and invasion, while overexpression of circ-AKT3 suppressed ccRCC metastasis. Further, circ-AKT3/miR-296-3p/E-cadherin axis was shown responsible for circ-AKT3 inhibiting ccRCC metastasis. CONCLUSION: Circ-AKT3 suppresses ccRCC metastasis by enforcing E-cadherin expression through competitively binding miR-296-3p. Circ-AKT3 may therefore serve as a novel therapeutic to better suppress ccRCC metastasis.

12.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 8389-8402, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Worldwide, head and neck cancers are the eighth most common malignancy. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with susceptibility to cancer and sensitivity to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The inflammatory cytokine, transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1), is involved in the progression of malignancy. This study aimed to systematically review the literature and undertake a meta-analysis of case-control studies on the association between 869T/C, 509C/T, and 915G/C polymorphisms of the TGF-ß1 gene and head and neck cancers. MATERIAL AND METHODS The published literature in the English and Chinese languages were searched to identify relevant studies reporting TGF-ß1 gene polymorphisms and head and neck cancer. The PubMed, Embase, Wanfang Data, and CNKI databases were searched. Data were extracted from eligible studies, and meta-analysis was performed using Stata version 12.0 software. RESULTS Ten case-control studies were identified. There was a significant association between the 869T/C polymorphism of the TGF-ß1 gene and susceptibility to head and neck cancer. Subgroup analysis showed that the 869T/C polymorphism was not significantly associated with the histological type of head and neck cancer, but was significantly associated with susceptibility to head and neck cancer in the Asian population. The 509C/T polymorphism of the TGF-ß1 gene was not significantly associated with susceptibility to nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC), but the 915G/C polymorphism was associated with susceptibility to oral cancer. CONCLUSIONS Data from this meta-analysis showed that the 869T/C and 915G/C polymorphisms of the TGF-ß1 gene might be associated with susceptibility to head and neck cancer.

13.
J Control Release ; 316: 381-392, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730912

RESUMO

Liposomes with peptide motifs have been successfully used in glioma-targeted delivery of various general chemotherapy agents. However, their use for the encapsulation of low-toxicity molecularly targeted anticancer agents has been limited. In the present study, we aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of a novel low-toxicity mTORC1/mTORC2 inhibitor (MTI-31) as a treatment for glioma when encapsulated in appropriate liposomes. Since some of the peptide-modified liposomes have been determined to be immunogenic and may have life-threatening consequences in mice, an immunogenicity-based investigation with candidate liposomal carriers was conducted. Following this study, DVAP (DPDADVDRDTDNDS) modified liposomes (DVAP-liposomes) were identified as an immunologically safe carrier and therefore utilized for MTI-31 encapsulation. DVAP is a tumor homing peptide exhibiting high binding affinity to glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78) overexpressed in glioma, glioma stem cells, vasculogenic mimicry and neovasculature. Modification of liposomes with DVAP imparts a glioma-directing property. In vitro, the developed DVAP-liposomes/MTI-31 were efficiently internalized by U87 cells and consequently showed a potent antiproliferation effect. In vivo, the safety and anti-glioma efficiency of DVAP-liposomes/MTI-31 were validated in intracranial glioma bearing BALB/c nude mice. While showing both systemic and immunological safety, DVAP-liposome/MTI-31 treatment resulted in a significant improvement in the median survival time (24.5 days for saline, 26 days for free MTI-31, 25 days for liposomes/MTI-31 and 36 days for DVAP-liposome/MTI-31). The results highlight MTI-31 as an effective anti-glioma agent when encapsulated in non-immunogenic glioma-targeted liposomes, which may contribute to the development of better anti-glioma treatment.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726099

RESUMO

Galectins are a family of ß-galactoside-binding lectins that play key roles in the invertebrate innate immunity system, but no galectin genes have been identified in the mud crab (Scylla paramamosain) so far. The present study is the first to clone a galectin gene (SpGal) from S. paramamosain, by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends technique based on expressed sequence tags. The full-length cDNA of SpGal was 3142 bp. Its open reading frame encoded a polypeptide of 280 amino acids containing a GLECT/Gal-bind lectin domain and a potential N-glycosylation site. The deduced amino acid sequence and multi-domain organization of SpGal were highly similar to those of invertebrate galectins, and phylogenetic analysis showed that SpGal was closely related to galectin isolated from Portunus trituberculatus. The mRNA transcripts of SpGal were found to be constitutively expressed in a wide range of tissues, with its expression level being higher in the hepatopancreas, gill, and hemocytes. The mRNA expression level of SpGal increased rapidly after the crabs were stimulated by Vibrio alginolyticus, and the maximum expression appeared at 6 h after the challenge. The lipopolysaccharide-binding ability of SpGal was dependent on its concentration, and it also exhibited agglutination activity with three Gram-negative (Aeromonas hydrophila, Chryseobacterium indologenes and Vibrio alginolyticus) and three Gram-positive (Bacillus aquimaris, Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus lysodeik) bacterial strains. In addition, hemagglutination activity with rabbit erythrocytes was observed in the absence of d-galactose. These results indicate that SpGal in S. paramamosain acts as a pattern recognition receptor to recognize a broad spectrum of microbes. The findings together indicate that SpGal plays an important role in the innate immune mechanisms of S. paramamosain against pathogenic infection.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762198

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the efficacy of transurethral resection (TUR) on relieving urinary symptoms in patients with keratinizing squamous metaplasia (KSM) of the urinary bladder. METHODS: Data were analyzed from a retrospective study of patients receiving transurethral bipolar plasma resection (bi-TUR) treatment for symptomatic KSM. Urinary symptoms were assessed by the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and a numeric rating scale pain score. Efficacy was assessed using the IPSS to determine changes from baseline in lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Self-reported quality of life (QoL) was assessed by the last question of the IPSS questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 92 female patients were included in the analysis. The median age was 42 years. LUTS, pain, and hematuria were the most common symptoms that affected patients. The median follow-up duration was 51 months. There were significant improvements in LUTS from baseline IPSS after TUR (P < .001). The percentage of the patients with moderate to severe LUTS went down from 52.2% to 18.5%. The median Numeric Rating Scale (NRS)-11 pain score reduced from 3 at baseline to 0 at the last visit. Twenty-one out of 40 patients reported that the pain symptoms disappeared completely. No patients reported hematuria symptoms at the final follow-up. Improvement of self-reported QoL was significant (P < .001). A total of 57.6% of patients reported an improvement, 26.1% of patients reported no improvement, and 16.3% reported deterioration. CONCLUSIONS: Bi-TUR therapy significantly relieved urinary symptoms in women with KSM. Improvement of QoL was acceptable with a success rate of 57.6%. Considering the very low complication rate, our study supported bi-TUR as an alternative treatment for patients who are resistant to medical therapy.

16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(12): 719, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691166

RESUMO

Phytoplankton species composition has long been recognized to be structured by environmental filtering, but our knowledge of patterns of spatial dissimilarity congruence between the phytoplankton community and environmental divers is rather limited. Specifically, a study on whether there are specific temporal properties that could be more related to spatial dissimilarity remains to be seen. We examined the extent to how spatial dissimilarity changed with seasonal succession by measuring ß-diversity in phytoplankton communities in Lake Erhai (from January 2012 to December 2014 at 15 sampling sites) as a function of different period conditions (high-density period and low-density period). We found that congruences of spatial dissimilarity in algal communities over time were neither stable in time nor showed a seasonal pattern. The spatial dissimilarity congruence between the phytoplankton community and dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) concentration followed exponential decay patterns, and this congruence was led by algal cell density. This result implies that species and functions of phytoplankton are specialized, and DIP concentration drastically increases in high-density periods than in low-density periods. This means that DIP enrichment is related to the loss of algal diversity and functions and the increase of algal biomass in eutrophic lakes.

17.
J Sch Health ; 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood malnutrition is commonplace among poor rural communities in China. In 2012, China launched its first nationwide school-feeding program (SFP) to address this problem. This study examines the prevalence of malnutrition before and after the SFP and identifies possible reasons for the trends observed. METHODS: Ordinary least squares regression and propensity score matching were used to analyze data from 2 cross-sectional surveys of 100 rural primary schools in northwestern China. Participants were fourth-and fifth-grade students. Outcome measures include anemia rates, hemoglobin levels, body mass index, and height for age Z scores. RESULTS: Three years after implementation of the SFP, malnutrition rates among sample students had not fallen. The SFP had no statistically significant effect on either anemia rates or BMI, but was linked to an increase in the proportion of students with below normal height for age Z scores. Meals provided to students fell far short of national recommendations that the SPF should provide 40% of the recommended daily allowance of micronutrients. CONCLUSIONS: Despite significant budgetary outlays between 2012 and 2015, China's SFP has not reduced the prevalence of malnutrition among sample students. To make the SFP more effective, funding and human resources both need to be increased.

18.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 829, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Scylla paramamosain is a commercially important mud crab. The microbiota is a community that inhabits the crab intestine, and is important for physiological functional and host health. RESULTS: Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Tenericutes, Spirochaetae and Fusobacteria were the dominant phyla of the 36 representative phyla. Eleven genera of the 820 representative genera were considered as core gut microbiota and were distributed in the five dominant phyla. The core genus of the Proteobacteria included Arcobacter, Photobacterium, Vibrio, Shewanella and Desulfovibrio. The other four phyla contained one or two genera. Male and female crab samples had two different core genera, (male samples: Psychrilyobacter & Lactococcus; female samples: Clostridium_sensu_stricto_11 and Candidatus_Bacilloplasma). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first time core intestinal microbiota have been identified in crab from nine coastal regions of southern China. This study provides sequencing data related to the gut microbiota of S. paramamosain, and may contribute to probiotic development for S. paramamosain aquaculture industries.

19.
Cytometry A ; 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691488

RESUMO

High-throughput single-cell cytometry technologies have significantly improved our understanding of cellular phenotypes to support translational research and the clinical diagnosis of hematological and immunological diseases. However, subjective and ad hoc manual gating analysis does not adequately handle the increasing volume and heterogeneity of cytometry data for optimal diagnosis. Prior work has shown that machine learning can be applied to classify cytometry samples effectively. However, many of the machine learning classification results are either difficult to interpret without using characteristics of cell populations to make the classification, or suboptimal due to the use of inaccurate cell population characteristics derived from gating boundaries. To date, little has been done to optimize both the gating boundaries and the diagnostic accuracy simultaneously. In this work, we describe a fully discriminative machine learning approach that can simultaneously learn feature representations (e.g., combinations of coordinates of gating boundaries) and classifier parameters for optimizing clinical diagnosis from cytometry measurements. The approach starts from an initial gating position and then refines the position of the gating boundaries by gradient descent until a set of globally-optimized gates across different samples are achieved. The learning procedure is constrained by regularization terms encoding domain knowledge that encourage the algorithm to seek interpretable results. We evaluate the proposed approach using both simulated and real data, producing classification results on par with those generated via human expertise, in terms of both the positions of the gating boundaries and the diagnostic accuracy. © 2019 The Authors. Cytometry Part A published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

20.
Hereditas ; 156: 34, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708719

RESUMO

Background: Cadmium (Cd) is a ubiquitous environmental toxicant for aquatic animals. The freshwater crab, Sinopotamon henanense (S. henanense), is a useful model for monitoring Cd exposure since it is widely distributed in sediments whereby it tends to accumulate several toxicants, including Cd. In the recent years, the toxic effects of Cd in the hepatopancreas of S. henanense have been demonstrated by a series of biochemical analysis and ultrastructural observations as well as the deep sequencing approaches and gene expression profile analysis. However, the post-transcriptional regulatory network underlying Cd toxicity in S.henanense is still largely unknown. Results: The miRNA transcriptional profile of the hepatopancreas of S. henanense was used to investigate the expression levels of miRNAs in response to Cd toxicity. In total, 464 known miRNAs and 191 novel miRNAs were identified. Among these 656 miRNAs, 126 known miRNAs could be matched with the miRNAs of Portunus trituberculatus, Eriocheir sinensis and Scylla paramamosain. Furthermore, a total of 24 conserved miRNAs were detected in these four crab species. Fifty-one differentially expressed miRNAs were identified in the Cd-exposed group, with 31 up-regulated and 20 down-regulated. Eight of the differentially expressed miRNAs were randomly selected and verified by the quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and there was a general consistency (87.25%) between the qRT-PCR and miRNA transcriptome data. A total of 5258 target genes were screened by bioinformatics prediction. GO term analysis showed that, 17 GO terms were significantly enriched, which were mainly related to the regulation of oxidoreductase activity. KEGG pathway analysis showed that 18 pathways were significantly enriched, which were mainly associated with the biosynthesis, modification and degradation of proteins. Conclusion: In response to Cd toxicity, in the hepatopancreas of S. henanense, the expressions of significant amount of miRNAs were altered, which may be an adaptation to resist the oxidative stress induced by Cd. These results provide a basis for further studies of miRNA-mediated functional adaptation of the animal to combat Cd toxicity.

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