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1.
Eur J Med Chem ; 226: 113864, 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626877

RESUMO

Pathogenic bacteria use an intercellular chemical communication system called quorum sensing (QS) to control the expression of cellular functions such as virulence factors, biofilm formation, toxin production, and antibiotic resistance in a manner that is highly dependent on population density. Hence, since the emergence of QS, there has been a great interest in exploiting the QS mechanism as a new drug target. Therefore, blocking the QS mechanism can be an effective strategy to control infection and solve the problem of drug resistance. So far, there is no clinically approved anti-QS drug that can disable the circuits of QS systems. This review discusses the quorum-sensing network systems and novel anti-QS inhibitors in some Gram-negative bacteria.

2.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1184: 339017, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625257

RESUMO

Penicillamine (Pen) is a common chiral drug that is obtained from penicillin. Between the two enantiomers of Pen, only D-Pen can be used to treat cystinuria and rheumatoid arthritis while L-Pen is toxic. Therefore, it requires great efforts for the research of the rigorous analysis and distinction of the two enantiomers. The non-covalent combination of chiral molecules and chiral selectors (CSs) has been proved as a unique strategy for chiral distinction by ion mobility spectrometry in coupling with -mss spectrometry (IM-MS). Here, we developed a simple method to distinguish D, L-Pen by using special CSs for IM-MS separation. The CSs utilized here include cyclodextrins (CD) and linear chain oligosaccharides plus metal ions. We found that non-covalent complexes [Pen+ß-CD + Li]+ could be easily formed by electrospray ionization of the mixture of the solution, and the chirality of Pen could be effectively recognized by measuring their mobilities due to the different collision cross collision sections of [D-Pen+ß-CD + Li]+ and [L-Pen+ß-CD + Li]+. A detailed analysis of [Pen+ß-CD + Li]+ was then conducted by the optical rotation measurements and NMR experiments to reveal their structural differences. Furthermore, DFT calculation showed the differences of molecular conformation between the complexes. The results provide a new powerful method for fast analysis and recognition of chirality of Pen compounds by IM-MS.


Assuntos
Ciclodextrinas , Espectrometria de Mobilidade Iônica , Íons , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas , Penicilamina
3.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487050

RESUMO

Chronic periodontitis caused by Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) infection generally lasts for a lifetime. The long-term existence and development of P. gingivalis infection gradually aggravate the accumulation of inflammatory signals and toxic substances in the body. Recent evidence has revealed that P. gingivalis infection may be relevant to some central nervous system (CNS) diseases. The current work collects information and tries to explore the possible relationship between P. gingivalis infection and CNS diseases, including the interaction or pathways between peripheral infection and CNS injury, and the underlying neurotoxic mechanisms.

4.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 508, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prognostic significance of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in elderly patients with OSA complicated with type 2 diabetes compared to patients with OSA without type 2 diabetes. METHODS: From January 2015 to October 2017, 1113 eligible elderly patients with OSA, no history of cardiovascular, ≥60 years of age, and complete follow-up records were enrolled in this consecutive multicentre prospective cohort study. All patients had completed polysomnography (PSG) examinations. An apnoea-hypopnoea index of ≥5 events per hour recorded by polysomnography was defined as the diagnostic criterion for OSA. We collected baseline demographics, clinical characteristics, sleep parameters and follow-up outcomes. The primary aim of this study was to identify the risk of incident major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality, components of MACE and a composite of all events. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate whether type 2 diabetes was associated with incident events. RESULTS: A total of 266 (23.9%) patients had OSA complicated with type 2 diabetes. MACE occurred in 97 patients during the median 42-month follow-up. Kaplan-Meier survival curves indicated a significant relationship between type 2 diabetes and MACE (log-rank P = 0.003). Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that type 2 diabetes increased the risk of MACE (HR = 1.64, 95% CI:1.08-2.47, P = 0.019), hospitalisation for unstable angina (HR = 2.11, 95% CI:1.23-3.64, P = 0.007) and a composite of all events in elderly patients with OSA (HR = 1.70, 95% CI:1.17-2.49, P = 0.007). However, there were no significant differences in the incidence of cardiovascular death, all-cause mortality, MI and hospitalisation for heart failure between patients with and without diabetes (P > 0.05). The subgroup analysis demonstrated that females (AHR = 2.46, 95% CI:1.17-5.19, P = 0.018), ≥ 70 years (AHR = 1.95, 95% CI:1.08-3.52, P = 0.027), overweight and obese (AHR = 2.04, 95% CI:1.29-3.33, P = 0.002) with mild OSA (AHR = 2.42, 95% CI: 1.03-5.71, P = 0.044) were at a higher risk for MACE by diabetes. CONCLUSION: OSA and type 2 diabetes are interrelated and synergistic with MACE, hospitalisation for unstable angina and a composite of all events development. Overweight and obese females, ≥ 70 years with mild OSA combined with type 2 diabetes presented a significantly high MACE risk.

5.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(33): 5566-5574, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral intake is dependent on the gastric ability to accommodate the food bolus. Comparatively, neonates have a smaller gastric capacity than adults and this may limit the volume of their milk intake. Yet, we previously reported that the newborn rat gastric milk volume is greatest after birth and, when normalized to body weight, decreases with postnatal age. Such age-dependent changes are not the result of intake differences, but greater gastric accommodation and reduced emptying rate. AIM: Hypothesizing that breastmilk-derived adiponectin is the factor regulating gastric accommodation in neonates, we comparatively evaluated its effects on the rat fundic muscle tone at different postnatal ages. METHODS: In freshly dispersed smooth muscle cells (SMC), we measured the adiponectin effect on the carbachol-induced length changes. RESULTS: Adiponectin significantly reduced the carbachol-stimulated SMC shortening independently of age. In the presence of the inhibitor iberiotoxin, the adiponectin effect on SMC shortening was suppressed, suggesting that it is mediated via large-conductance Ca2+ sensitive K+ channel activation. Lastly, we comparatively measured the newborn rat gastric milk curd adiponectin content in one- and two-week-old rats and found a 50% lower value in the latter. CONCLUSION: Adiponectin, a major component of breastmilk, downregulates fundic smooth muscle contraction potential, thus facilitating gastric volume accommodation. This rodent's adaptive response maximizes breastmilk intake volume after birth.


Assuntos
Adiponectina , Músculo Liso , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Carbacol/farmacologia , Esvaziamento Gástrico , Contração Muscular , Ratos
6.
Pharmacol Res ; 173: 105866, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474103

RESUMO

A variety of systemic chemotherapy regimens have been used for recurrent/metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (R/M HNSCC). However, most guidelines have been derived from a single clinical trial, and no studies have comprehensively compared their efficacy and safety. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases. Eligible studies reported overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR), and ≥ 3 adverse events rate (AEs). Eighteen eligible trials involving 4930 patients and 15 treatment regimens were included. The results suggest that patients with R/M HNSCC exhibit better tumor response with the cetuximab/platinum/5-FU, pembrolizumab/platinum/5-FU or pembrolizumab alone, accompanied by a low AE rate. Nivolumab also showed better efficacy than other single agents. Immunotherapy has achieved better efficacy.

7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 224: 112678, 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419641

RESUMO

PM2.5 exposure is considered harmful to central nerve system, while the specific biochemical mechanism underlying is still unrevealed. Neuronal apoptosis is believed the crucial event in pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, but evidence supporting neuronal apoptosis as the mechanism for PM2.5 exposure induced neuronal injury is insufficient. S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase 1 (AMD1) and its related spermidine synthesis have been shown to associate with cellular apoptosis, but its role in PM2.5 exposure induced neuronal apoptosis was rarely reported. The current study was aimed to better understand contribution of AMD1 activity and spermidine in PM2.5 exposure induced neuronal apoptosis. Sixteen C57BL/6 male mice were randomly divided and kept into ambient PM2.5 chamber or filtered air chamber for 6 months to establish the mouse model of whole-body ambient PM2.5 chronic exposure. In parallel, PC12 cells and primary hippocampal neurons were applied for various concentrations of PM2.5 treatment (0, 25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 µg/mL) to explore the possible cellular and molecular mechanism which may be critically involved in the process. Results showed that PM2.5 exposure triggered neuronal apoptosis with increased expression of Bax/Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase-3. PM2.5 exposure reduced AMD1 expression and spermidine synthesis. AMD1 inhibition could mimic PM2.5 exposure induced neuronal apoptosis. Spermidine supplementation rescued against neurotoxicity and inhibited PM2.5 induced apoptosis via impaired depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and reduced mitochondrial apoptosis related proteins. In summary, our work demonstrated that exposure to PM2.5 led to neuronal apoptosis, which may be the key event in the process of air pollution induced neurodegenerative diseases. AMD1 and spermidine associated with neuronal apoptosis induced by PM2.5 exposure, which was at least partially dependent on mitochondria mediated pathway.

8.
Andrologia ; : e14216, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396564

RESUMO

Runjing Decoction (RJD) is a prescription of traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of oligoasthenospermia. However, the molecular mechanism of RJD on oligoasthenospermia still remains unknown. A model of oligoasthenospermia was induced in 30 Sprague Dawley rats by intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide at 35 mg/kg per day for 5 days and treated by intragastric RJD (13.5 g/kg) or L-carnitine (100 mg/kg) for 14 days. The body weight, testis and epididymis weight, grade A spermatozoa, grade B spermatozoa, the percentage of sperm forward motility (PR%), the sperm activity rate and the sperm density of rats were evaluated before and after RJD treatment. The testis apoptosis was determined by TUNEL staining. The expressions of RXFP1, FoxO1, PI3K, Akt, Bax and Bcl-2 were determined by qRT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. After RJD treatment, the grade A spermatozoa, sperm PR%, sperm activity and sperm density were significantly increased relative to those in model rats. Cell apoptosis of testis tissue was reversed by RJD. RJD suppressed cell apoptosis, inhibited the expression of RXFP1, FOXO1, PI3K, AKT and Bax, and promoted the expression levels of Bcl-2 in testicular tissue of oligoasthenospermia rats. RJD could alleviate sperm quality and testis damage in oligoasthenospermia rats by inhibiting RXFP1/AKT/FOXO1 pathway.

9.
Sci Total Environ ; 791: 148138, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412410

RESUMO

Although pollutant sources are often assumed to be spatially uniform, traffic in real cities may vary significantly in space. Consequently the local air quality within a street may not be determined solely by the traffic volume of the street. Using building-resolving large-eddy simulation, the relationship between traffic volume and air quality is investigated in the context of two idealised problems: (i) the influence of pollutants emitted from a main road on the surrounding side streets and (ii) the pedestrianisation of a central thoroughfare. It is shown that the spatial variation of traffic volume is of crucial importance within a near-field region defined by a radius of homogenisation (RAD). Furthermore, the actual impact depends strongly on the wind direction. Hence the benefits of pedestrianisation may be limited: for example, after removing 100% of the traffic along a street in a central business district, the annual-averaged local concentration decreases by ~30% when the urban background is neglected. The impact may be significantly lower when the background concentration is considered. This work is relevant to the formulation of effective traffic control policy and the improved understanding of spatially inhomogeneous pollutant sources.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Cidades , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Vento
10.
Environ Pollut ; 289: 117903, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391049

RESUMO

Effects of source inhomogeneity on pollutant dispersion from a cubic building array are investigated as a function of the external wind direction. Using building-resolving large-eddy simulation, it is found that the results depend strongly on the source location and source uniformity inside a near-field region defined by a radius of homogenisation (RAD) based on the spatial autocorrelation of the pollutant concentration. The sensitivity of the RAD to the source location changes abruptly around 30° and is greatly reduced for wind angles between 30 and 45°, in agreement with velocity statistics and the mean horizontal streamlines. The optimal source allocation, which is a proxy for emissions from time-dependent traffic, also changes around 30°. This work clarifies the relationship between inhomogeneous velocity and pollutant statistics and may be applied to the formulation of traffic control policy.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Simulação por Computador , Monitoramento Ambiental , Modelos Teóricos , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Vento
11.
Front Immunol ; 12: 652054, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34305889

RESUMO

Head and neck cancer (HNC) is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide; head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) account for the most cases of HNC. Past smoking and alcohol consumption are common risk factors of HNSCC; however, an increasing number of cases associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection have been reported in recent years. The treatment of HNSCC is integrated and multimodal including traditional surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy. Since pembrolizumab was approved in 2016, an increasing number of studies have focused on immunotherapy. However, not all of HNSCC patients have a better outcome on immunotherapy. Immunotherapy has been reported to be more effective in HPV-positive patients, but its molecular mechanism is still unclear. Some researchers have proposed that the high proportion of infiltrating immune cells in HPV-positive tumors and the difference in immune checkpoint expression level may be the reasons for their better response. As a result, a series of individualized immunotherapy trials have also been conducted in HPV-positive patients. This paper summarizes the current status of HNSCC immunotherapy, individualized immunotherapy in HPV-positive patients, and immune differences in HPV-positive tumors to provide new insights into HNSCC immunotherapy and try to identify patients who may benefit from immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/terapia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Alphapapillomavirus/imunologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Quimiorradioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/imunologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/virologia , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/imunologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/virologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Infecções por Papillomavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/virologia
12.
Langmuir ; 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210130

RESUMO

In this work, self-lubricating boron nitride nanosheets (BNNs) were decorated with flame-retardant zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4), followed by stearic acid modification to obtain magnetic and hydrophobic properties. Under the external magnetic field, the obtained ZnFe2O4-BNNs can be well ordered into one-dimensional orientation in the epoxy resin (EP) matrix-enabling improved flame retardant properties. Compared to a randomly oriented ZnFe2O4-BNN equivalent, the well-orientated ZnFe2O4-BNNs (at 10% mass fraction) reduce the peak heat release rate and CO production by 47 and 51%, respectively. Furthermore, the ZnFe2O4-BNN/EP composite monoliths demonstrate excellent durability, displaying continued superhydrophobicity under Taber abrasion, high external pressure, knife scratch, long-term exposure to acids/bases, and harsh UV irradiation. In addition, the result shows that the well-oriented ZnFe2O4-BNN/EP composite demonstrates better tribological performance and the friction coefficient is reduced by 76.9%.

13.
J Hazard Mater ; 417: 125997, 2021 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229406

RESUMO

Arsenic is the leading toxicant of hazardous environmental chemicals, which is linked with neurotoxicity including cognitive dysfunction, neurodevelopmental alterations and neurodegenerative disorders. It has been suggested that sustained pro-inflammatory response is one of the triggering factors of arsenic-induced neurotoxicity. Microglia, the immune cells in the central nervous system, response to physiological and pathological stress, and release a large array of pro-inflammatory cytokines if activated excessively. Several studies indicated that arsenic was capable of inducing microglia activation, however, the role of the subsequently released pro-inflammatory cytokines in arsenic-induced neurotoxicity remains to be elucidated. Our findings demonstrated that arsenic-induced cognitive dysfunction, microglia activation, up-regulation and release of IL-1ß and ER stress-mediated apoptosis could be attenuated by minocycline, a recognized inhibitor of microglia activation. In addition, the IL-1 receptor antagonist IL-1ra diminished arsenic-induced activation of ER stress-mediated apoptotic pathway PERK/eIF2α/ATF4/CHOP and neuronal apoptosis. Our findings provided evidences that arsenic-induced microglia activation also contributed to neuronal apoptosis through pro-inflammatory cytokine. Microglia-derived IL-1ß promoted hippocampal neuronal apoptosis through ER stress-mediated PERK/eIF2α/ATF4/CHOP apoptotic pathway. Neuronal apoptosis induced by prolonged activation of microglia was partially involved in the arsenic-induced cognitive dysfunction.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Fator de Iniciação 2 em Eucariotos , Fator 4 Ativador da Transcrição/genética , Fator 4 Ativador da Transcrição/metabolismo , Apoptose , Arsênio/toxicidade , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Fator de Iniciação 2 em Eucariotos/genética , Fator de Iniciação 2 em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Microglia/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Transcrição CHOP/genética , Fator de Transcrição CHOP/metabolismo
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34254770

RESUMO

Organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite materials have been widely studied as the light absorber for efficient photovoltaics. However, perovskite layers with defective nature are typically prepared with an uncontrollable crystallization process, intrinsically limiting further advance in device performance, and thus require delicate manipulation of crystallization processes and defect density. Here, we demonstrate an ammonium-assisted crystallization of perovskite absorbers during a two-step deposition to fabricate efficient solar cells. Addition of ammonium iodide (NH4I) is devised to manipulate the nucleation and crystal growth of perovskite, wherein the formation and transition of intermediate x[NH4+]•[PbI3]x- enables high-quality perovskite layers with an enlarged grain and reduced defect density. As a result, the perovskite solar cells (PSCs) achieve an average efficiency of 21.36% with a champion efficiency of 22.15% and improved environmental stability over 30 days in ambient conditions with varied relative humidity. These results with addition of NH4I provide an available and ingenious way to construct high-quality perovskite layers for efficient solar cells and will advance the commercial application of perovskite-based photovoltaics.

15.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 56(10): 3250-3257, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288596

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The management of neonates with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) has changed over time. METHODS: We conducted a single-city, retrospective review of neonates who underwent PDA ligation over a 10-year time period and compared infants from the first 5 years to the second 5 years to evaluate how clinical characteristics changed over this time. RESULTS: Infants from the second 5-year epoch were older at time of ligation (38 vs. 30 days), had a higher ligation weight (1432 vs. 1121 g) and a lower incidence of postligation cardiac syndrome (1.9% vs. 11.5%). No differences in mortality, length of hospital-stay or major morbidities were seen. Compared to neonates who underwent PDA ligation at ≤28 days of life, those with a ligation age >28 days had a higher ligation weight (1421 vs. 1039 g), a higher proportion of COX inhibitor use (92.5% vs. 83.8%), and a higher incidence of moderate-severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) (60.4% vs. 44.4%). Only 10.7% (25/233) patients were evaluated by laryngoscopy, in which the incidence of vocal cord paralysis (VCP) was 36.0%; 2 patients were clinically diagnosed with VCP for a total 4.7% incidence of VCP (11/233). CONCLUSIONS: Over the 10 years examined, neonates underwent PDA ligation at an older age in the second 5-year time period; this change was not associated with a change in the incidence of major morbidities. Ligation age >28 days was associated with an increase incidence of moderate-severe BPD. The overall incidence of documented VCP post-PDA ligation was relatively low but was seen in over 1/3 who were evaluated by laryngoscopy.

16.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0243108, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242224

RESUMO

In recent years, many studies have found that mechanical tension can activiate NF-kB signal pathway and NF-kB plays an important role in the process of osteogenesis. However, it is still unclear whether this process exists in the anterior palatal suture expansion. In this paper, we mainly studied the effect of intraperitoneal injection of PDTC on the NF-kB signaling pathway and osteogenesis index of the anterior palatal suture expansion model in young adult rats. The expansion model is grouped and established: 45 male 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups, an expansion only (EO) group, an expansion plus PDTC (PE) group, and a control group. The results revealed that PDTC inhibited the activity of NF-kB signaling pathway and promote one morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2), steocalatin (OCN) expression. Compared with the control group, the optical density (OD) value of BMP in the EO group and PE group rats increased significantly from the first day to the seventh day, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). After 6.0Gy irradiation, PDTC administration group could slightly increase the total SOD level in the liver and serum of rats, and reduce the MDA level in the liver and serum, especially the effect of 60mg/kg and 90mg/kg was the most obvious.

17.
J Interv Cardiol ; 2021: 2629393, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34113221

RESUMO

Objectives: To assess the impact of different guidewires on stent coating integrity in jailed wire technique (JWT) for bifurcation treatment. Background: JWT is commonly adopted to protect side branch in provisional one-stent strategy for coronary bifurcation lesions. However, this technique may cause defects in stent coatings. The degree of coating damage caused by different types of jailed wires remains unknown. Methods: A fluid model with a bifurcation was established to mimic the condition in vivo. One-stent strategy was performed with three types of guidewire (nonpolymer-jacketed wire, intermediate polymer-jacketed wire, and full polymer-jacketed wire) tested for JWT. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to evaluate stent coating integrity and wire structure. The degrees of coating defects were recorded as no, slight, moderate, and severe defects. Results: A total of 27 samples were tested. Analyses of SEM images showed a significant difference in the degree of coating damage among the three types of wire after the procedure of JWT (P < 0.001). Nonpolymer-jacketed wire could inevitably cause a severe defect in stent coatings, while full polymer-jacketed wire caused the least coating damages. Besides, there were varying degrees of coil deformation in nonpolymer-jacketed wires, while no surface damage or jacket shearing was observed in full polymer-jacketed wires. Conclusions: Although nonpolymer-jacketed wire has long been recommended for JWT, our bench-side study suggests that full polymer-jacketed wire may be a better choice. Further clinical studies are needed to confirm our findings.


Assuntos
Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/instrumentação , Ajuste de Prótese , Stents/efeitos adversos , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose Coronária/cirurgia , Falha de Equipamento , Humanos , Teste de Materiais/métodos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/métodos , Modelos Anatômicos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Polímeros/farmacologia , Desenho de Prótese , Ajuste de Prótese/efeitos adversos , Ajuste de Prótese/métodos
18.
J Nutr Biochem ; 95: 108761, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965533

RESUMO

Inflammation in insulin-sensitive tissues (e.g., liver, visceral adipose tissue [VAT]) plays a major role in obesity and insulin resistance. Recruitment of innate immune cells drives the dysregulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. We aimed to seek the role of Toll like receptor 3 (TLR3), a pattern recognition receptor involved in innate immunity, obesity and the metabolic disorder. TLR3 expression in liver and VAT from diet induced obese mice and in VAT from overweight women was examined. Body weight, glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity were evaluated in TLR3 wild-type and knockout (KO) mice on a chow diet (CD) or high-fat diet for 15 weeks. At euthanasia, blood was collected, and plasma biochemical parameters and adipokines were determined with commercial kits. Flow cytometry was used to measure macrophage infiltration and activation in VAT. Standard western blot, immunohistochemistry and quantative PCR were used to assess molecules in pathways about lipid and glucose metabolism, insulin and inflammation in tissues of liver and VAT. Utilizing human and animal samples, we found that expression of TLR3 was upregulated in the liver and VAT in obese mice as well as VAT in overweight women. TLR3-deficiency protected against high-fat diet induced obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and lipid accumulation. Lipolysis was enhanced in VAT and hepatic lipogenesis was inhibited in TLR3 KO animals. Macrophages infiltration into adipose tissue was attenuated in TLR3 KO mice, accompanied with inhibition of NF-κB-dependent AMPK/Akt signaling pathway. These findings demonstrated that TLR3 ablation prevented obesity and metabolic disorders, thereby providing new mechanistic links between inflammation and obesity and associated metabolic abnormalities in lipid/glucose metabolism.


Assuntos
Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Receptor 3 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Adulto , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Intolerância à Glucose , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Obesidade , Receptor 3 Toll-Like/genética
19.
J Oleo Sci ; 70(5): 657-664, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952790

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a hyperglycemia-related multifactorial condition with an elevated risk of microvascular and microvascular complications associated with this disease. The current experimental study was to examine the antidiabetic activity of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced adropin against diabetic rats by altering the PI3K/Akt and insulin signaling pathways. STZ (60 mg/kg) was used for the induction of DM and rats were divided into different groups and received the adropin (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg) and glibenclamide (10 mg/kg) till 28 days. Body weight, plasma insulin, blood glucose and food intake were estimated, respectively. Biochemical enzymes, carbohydrate enzymes, lipid parameters, AMPK and insulin signalling pathway parameters were estimated. GLUT4 and PPARγ expression were also estimated. Oral administration of adropin significantly (p < 0.001) increased the glycogen, glucose-6-phosphatase dehydrogenase, insulin, hexokinase and belittled the blood glucose level, fructose 1-6-biphosphatase, glucose-6-phosphatase at dose dependent manner. Adropin significantly (p < 0.001) reduced the level of triglyceride, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein and increased the level of high density lipoprotein at dose dependent manner. Adropin significantly (p < 0.001) activated the Akt, IRS-2, IRS-1, IR, p-AKT and PI3k, which are the key modulator molecules of PI3K/Akt, AMPK and insulin signalling pathway in DM rats. The current experimental study confirms the anti-diabetic effect of adropin on DM rats induced by AMPK and insulin signalling pathway against STZ.

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