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1.
Talanta ; 278: 126480, 2024 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38972275

RESUMO

The prevalence of metabolic disorders has been found to increase concomitantly with alternations in habitual diet and lifestyle, indicating the importance of metabolic health monitoring for early warning of high-risk status and suggesting effective intervention strategies. Hippuric acid (HA), as one of the most abundant metabolites from the gut microbiota, holds potential as a regulator of metabolic health. Accordingly, it is imperative to establish an efficient, sensitive, and affordable method for large-scale population monitoring, revealing the association between HA level and metabolic disorders. Upon systematic screening of macrocycle•dye reporter pair, a supramolecular architecture (guanidinomethyl-modified calix[5]arene, GMC5A) was employed to sense urinary HA by employing fluorescein (Fl), whose complexation behavior was demonstrated by theoretical calculations, accomplishing quantification of HA in urine from 249 volunteers in the range of 0.10 mM and 10.93 mM. Excitedly, by restricted cubic spline, urinary HA concentration was found to have a significantly negative correlation with the risk of metabolic disorders when it exceeded 0.76 mM, suggesting the importance of dietary habits, especially the consumption of fruits, coffee, and tea, which was unveiled from a simple questionnaire survey. In this study, we accomplished a high throughput and sensitive detection of urinary HA based on supramolecular sensing with the GMC5A•Fl reporter pair, which sheds light on the rapid quantification of urinary HA as an indicator of metabolic health status and early intervention by balancing the daily diet.

2.
J Clin Virol ; 173: 105696, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38823291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Measles, mumps, and rubella(MMR) vaccination is critical to measles outbreak responses. However, vaccine reactions and detection of measles vaccine RNA in recently immunized persons may complicate case classification especially in those presenting with another respiratory viral illness. We aim to characterize cases of measles vaccine shedding in recently vaccinated children presenting with respiratory viral symptoms. METHODS: Children who were tested with a multiplex respiratory panel <30 days after receiving MMR were identified. Remnant nasopharyngeal(NP) samples were tested for measles vaccine by PCR. Medical records were reviewed for demographics, presenting symptoms, and test results. RESULTS: From January 2022 to March 2023, 127 NP from children who received MMR were tested. Ninety-six NP were collected after the first dose, of which 33(34.4 %) were positive for vaccine RNA. The median interval between MMR and detection was 11.0 days. Thirty-one NP were collected after the second MMR and 1(3.2 %) was positive; time between the vaccination and detection was 18.9 days. Median cycle threshold(Ct) value of the measles PCR for vaccine shedding was significantly higher than median Ct in children with wild-type infection. CONCLUSION: Shedding of measles vaccine RNA is not uncommon and vaccine RNA can be detected up to 29 days post MMR; the amount of vaccine RNA shedding is low indicated by high Ct values. Clinicians and public health officials should consider performing measles vaccine testing on those testing positive for measles within one month of MMR vaccination, especially if the Ct value is high and definitive epidemiological links are absent.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola , RNA Viral , Vacinação , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Humanos , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola/administração & dosagem , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola/imunologia , Feminino , Masculino , RNA Viral/genética , Pré-Escolar , Lactente , Criança , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Sarampo/imunologia , Nasofaringe/virologia , Caxumba/prevenção & controle , Caxumba/imunologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/prevenção & controle , Adolescente
3.
ISME J ; 18(1)2024 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709871

RESUMO

Chirality, a fundamental property of matter, is often overlooked in the studies of marine organic matter cycles. Dihydroxypropanesulfonate (DHPS), a globally abundant organosulfur compound, serves as an ecologically important currency for nutrient and energy transfer from phytoplankton to bacteria in the ocean. However, the chirality of DHPS in nature and its transformation remain unclear. Here, we developed a novel approach using chiral phosphorus-reagent labeling to separate DHPS enantiomers. Our findings demonstrated that at least one enantiomer of DHPS is present in marine diatoms and coccolithophores, and that both enantiomers are widespread in marine environments. A novel chiral-selective DHPS catabolic pathway was identified in marine Roseobacteraceae strains, where HpsO and HpsP dehydrogenases at the gateway to DHPS catabolism act specifically on R-DHPS and S-DHPS, respectively. R-DHPS is also a substrate for the dehydrogenase HpsN. All three dehydrogenases generate stable hydrogen bonds between the chirality-center hydroxyls of DHPS and highly conserved residues, and HpsP also form coordinate-covalent bonds between the chirality-center hydroxyls and Zn2+, which determines the mechanistic basis of strict stereoselectivity. We further illustrated the role of enzymatic promiscuity in the evolution of DHPS metabolism in Roseobacteraceae and SAR11. This study provides the first evidence of chirality's involvement in phytoplankton-bacteria metabolic currencies, opening a new avenue for understanding the ocean organosulfur cycle.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Fitoplâncton , Rhodobacteraceae , Fitoplâncton/metabolismo , Estereoisomerismo , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Rhodobacteraceae/metabolismo , Rhodobacteraceae/genética , Haptófitas/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/genética , Biotransformação , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Alcanossulfonatos
5.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 13(1): 2337677, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578315

RESUMO

Previously, we reported a cohort of Japanese encephalitis (JE) patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome. However, the evidence linking Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection and peripheral nerve injury (PNI) remains limited, especially the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome significantly differ from traditional JE. We performed a retrospective and multicenter study of 1626 patients with JE recorded in the surveillance system of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, spanning the years 2016-2020. Cases were classified into type 1 and type 2 JE based on whether the JE was combined with PNI or not. A comparative analysis was conducted on demographic characteristics, clinical manifestations, imaging findings, electromyography data, laboratory results, and treatment outcomes. Among 1626 laboratory confirmed JE patients, 230 (14%) were type 2 mainly located along the Yellow River in northwest China. In addition to fever, headache, and disturbance of consciousness, type 2 patients experienced acute flaccid paralysis of the limbs, as well as severe respiratory muscle paralysis. These patients presented a greater mean length of stay in hospital (children, 22 years [range, 1-34]; adults, 25 years [range, 0-183]) and intensive care unit (children, 16 years [range, 1-30]; adults, 17 years [range, 0-102]). The mortality rate was higher in type 2 patients (36/230 [16%]) compared to type 1 (67/1396 [5%]). The clinical classification of the diagnosis of JE may play a crucial role in developing a rational treatment strategy, thereby mitigating the severity of the disease and potentially reducing disability and mortality rates among patients.

6.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1327780, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38505291

RESUMO

Tibet orbivirus (TIBOV) was first isolated from Anopheles maculatus mosquitoes in Xizang, China, in 2009. In recent years, more TIBOV strains have been isolated in several provinces across China, Japan, East Asia, and Nepal, South Asia. Furthermore, TIBOVs have also been isolated from Culex mosquitoes, and several midge species. Additionally, TIBOV neutralizing antibodies have been detected in serum specimens from several mammals, including cattle, sheep, and pigs. All of the evidence suggests that the geographical distribution of TIBOVs has significantly expanded in recent years, with an increased number of vector species involved in its transmission. Moreover, the virus demonstrated infectivity towards a variety of animals. Although TIBOV is considered an emerging orbivirus, detailed reports on its genome and molecular evolution are currently lacking. Thus, this study performed the whole-genome nucleotide sequencing of three TIBOV isolates from mosquitoes and midges collected in China in 2009, 2011, and 2019. Furthermore, the genome and molecular genetic evolution of TIBOVs isolated from different countries, periods, and hosts (mosquitoes, midges, and cattle) was systematically analyzed. The results revealed no molecular specificity among TIBOVs isolated from different countries, periods, and vectors. Meanwhile, the time-scaled phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of TIBOV appeared approximately 797 years ago (95% HPD: 16-2347) and subsequently differentiated at least three times, resulting in three distinct genotypes. The evolutionary rate of TIBOVs was about 2.12 × 10-3 nucleotide substitutions per site per year (s/s/y) (95% HPD: 3.07 × 10-5, 9.63 × 10-3), which is similar to that of the bluetongue virus (BTV), also in the Orbivirus genus. Structural analyses of the viral proteins revealed that the three-dimensional structures of the outer capsid proteins of TIBOV and BTV were similar. These results suggest that TIBOV is a newly discovered and rapidly evolving virus transmitted by various blood-sucking insects. Given the potential public health burden of this virus and its high infectious rate in a wide range of animals, it is significant to strengthen research on the genetic variation of TIBOVs in blood-feeding insects and mammals in the natural environment and the infection status in animals.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Orbivirus , Infecções por Reoviridae , Bovinos , Animais , Ovinos/genética , Suínos , Orbivirus/genética , Tibet , Filogenia , Mosquitos Vetores , Mamíferos/genética , Nucleotídeos , Genoma Viral , Infecções por Reoviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Reoviridae/genética
7.
J Med Virol ; 96(4): e29567, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38546093

RESUMO

Emerging pathogenic tick-borne viruses (TBVs) have attracted a great deal of attention due to their significant impact on human and animal health. A novel orthonairovirus named Dadong virus (DDV) was isolated from Haemaphysalis concinna ticks in the Changbai Mountain region on the China-North Korea border. DDV can induce cytopathic effects in mammalian and human cell lines. Phylogenetic analysis showed that it belongs to the genus Orthonairovirus, family Nairoviridae, exhibiting 72.4%-81.3% nucleic acid identity to Tofla orthonairovirus, known to cause lethal infection in IFNAR KO mice. The first serological evidence of DDV circulating in cattle and mice was also obtained, with 4.0% (1/25) of cattle and 2.27% (1/44) of mice seropositive for DDV. Further investigations, including serological surveys using human samples, are required to assess the public health risk posed by DDV.


Assuntos
Vírus de RNA , Carrapatos , Vírus , Animais , Humanos , Bovinos , Camundongos , República Democrática Popular da Coreia , Filogenia , Mamíferos
8.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1302314, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38343888

RESUMO

Background: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a notifiable infectious disease in China. Information on every case of JE is reported to the superior health administration department. However, reported cases include both laboratory-confirmed and clinically diagnosed cases. This study aimed to differentiate between clinical and laboratory-confirmed cases of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection, and improve the accuracy of reported JE cases by analyzing the acute-phase serum and cerebrospinal fluid of all reported JE cases in the Sichuan province from 2012 to 2022. Methods: All acute-phase serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid samples of the reported JE cases were screened for IgM(ImmunoglobulinM)to JEV using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the detection of the viral genes of JEV and 9 other pathogens including enterovirus (EV), using reverse transcription PCR was attempted. Epidemiological analyses of JE and non-JE cases based on sex, age, onset time, and geographical distribution were also performed. Results: From 2012 to 2022, 1558 JE cases were reported in the Sichuan province. The results of serological (JEV-specific IgM) and genetic testing for JEV showed that 81% (1262/1558) of the reported cases were confirmed as JEV infection cases (laboratory-confirmed cases). Among the 296 cases of non-JEV infection, 6 viruses were detected in the cerebrospinal fluid in 62 cases, including EV and the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), constituting 21% (62/296) of all non-JE cases. Among the 62 non-JEV infection cases with confirmed pathogens, infections with EV and EBV included 17 cases each, herpes simplex virus (HSV-1/2) included 14 cases, varicella- zoster virus included 6 cases, mumps virus included 2 cases, and human herpes viruses-6 included 1 case. Additionally, there were five cases involving mixed infections (two cases of EV/EBV, one case of HSV-1/HSV-2, one case of EBV/HSV-1, and one case of EV/herpes viruses-6). The remaining 234 cases were classified as unknown viral encephalitis cases. Our analysis indicated that those aged 0-15 y were the majority of the patients among the 1558 reported JE cases. However, the incidence of laboratory-confirmed JE cases in the >40 y age group has increased in recent years. The temporal distribution of laboratory-confirmed cases of JE revealed that the majority of cases occurred from May to September each year, with the highest incidence in August. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that there is a certain discrepancy between clinically diagnosed and laboratory-confirmed cases of JE. Each reported case should be based on laboratory detection results, which is of great importance in improving the accuracy of case diagnosis and reducing misreporting. Our results are not only important for addressing JE endemic to the Sichuan province, but also provide a valuable reference for the laboratory detection of various notifiable infectious diseases in China and other regions outside China.


Assuntos
Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie) , Encefalite Japonesa , Infecções por Enterovirus , Enterovirus , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr , Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Anticorpos Antivirais , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie)/genética , Encefalite Japonesa/diagnóstico , Encefalite Japonesa/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enterovirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Enterovirus/epidemiologia , Herpesvirus Humano 2 , Herpesvirus Humano 4 , Imunoglobulina M , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente
9.
J Virol ; 98(1): e0078923, 2024 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38168677

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) infection caused neurological complications and male infertility, leading to the accumulation of antigen-specific immune cells in immune-privileged organs (IPOs). Thus, it is important to understand the immunological responses to ZIKV in IPOs. We extensively investigated the ZIKV-specific T cell immunity in IPOs in Ifnar1-/- mice, based on an immunodominant epitope E294-302 tetramer. The distinct kinetics and functions of virus-specific CD8+ T cells infiltrated into different IPOs were characterized, with late elevation in the brain and spinal cord. Single epitope E294-302-specific T cells can account for 20-60% of the total CD8+ T cells in the brain, spinal cord, and testicle and persist for at least 90 days in the brain and spinal cord. The E294-302-specific TCRαßs within the IPOs are featured with the majority of clonotypes utilizing TRAV9N-3 paired with diverse TRBV chains, but with distinct αß paired clonotypes in 7 and 30 days post-infection. Specific chemokine receptors, Ccr2 and Ccr5, were selectively expressed in the E294-302-specific CD8+ T cells within the brain and testicle, indicating an IPO-oriented migration of virus-specific CD8+ T cells after infection. Overall, this study adds to the understanding of virus-specific CD8+ T cell responses for controlling and clearing ZIKV infection in IPOs.IMPORTANCEThe immune-privileged organs (IPOs), such as the central nervous system and testicles, presented pathogenicity and inflammation after Zika virus (ZIKV) infection with infiltrated CD8+ T cells. Our data show that CD8+ T cells keep up with virus increases and decreases in immune-privileged organs. Furthermore, our study provides the first ex vivo comparative analyses of the composition and diversity related to TCRα/ß clonotypes across anatomical sites and ZIKV infection phases. We show that the vast majority of TCRα/ß clonotypes in tissues utilize TRAV9N-3 with conservation. Specific chemokine expression, including Ccr2 and Ccr5, was found to be selectively expressed in the E294-302-specific CD8+ T cells within the brain and testicle, indicating an IPO-oriented migration of the virus-specific CD8+ T cells after the infection. Our study adds insights into the anti-viral immunological characterization and chemotaxis mechanism of virus-specific CD8+ T cells after ZIKV infection in different IPOs.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Privilégio Imunológico , Infecção por Zika virus , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Encéfalo/imunologia , Encéfalo/virologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/genética , Zika virus , Infecção por Zika virus/imunologia , Camundongos Knockout , Testículo/imunologia , Testículo/virologia
10.
Cancer Imaging ; 24(1): 13, 2024 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38245789

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To develop a nomogram using pretreatment ultrasound (US) and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) to predict the clinical response of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in patients with borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC) or locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). METHODS: A total of 111 patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) treated with NAC between October 2017 and February 2022 were retrospectively enrolled. The patients were randomly divided (7:3) into training and validation cohorts. The pretreatment US and CEUS features were reviewed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to determine the independent predictors of clinical response in the training cohort. Then a prediction nomogram model based on the independent predictors was constructed. The area under the curve (AUC), calibration plot, C-index and decision curve analysis (DCA) were used to assess the nomogram's performance, calibration, discrimination and clinical benefit. RESULTS: The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the taller-than-wide shape in the longitudinal plane (odds ratio [OR]:0.20, p = 0.01), time from injection of contrast agent to peak enhancement (OR:3.64; p = 0.05) and Peaktumor/ Peaknormal (OR:1.51; p = 0.03) were independent predictors of clinical response to NAC. The predictive nomogram developed based on the above imaging features showed AUCs were 0.852 and 0.854 in the primary and validation cohorts, respectively. Good calibration was achieved in the training datasets, with C-index of 0.852. DCA verified the clinical usefulness of the nomogram. CONCLUSIONS: The nomogram based on pretreatment US and CEUS can effectively predict the clinical response of NAC in patients with BRPC and LAPC; it may help guide personalized treatment.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Humanos , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Nomogramas , Pâncreas , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Viruses ; 16(1)2024 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38257803

RESUMO

Wuxiang virus (WUXV) is the first sandfly-borne Phlebovirus isolated from Phlebotomus chinensis collected in China and has been established as a consistent viral presence in the local sandfly populations of both Wuxiang County and Yangquan City. However, its distribution in the Shanxi Province remains unclear. In this study, three novel WUXV strains were isolated from sandflies collected from Jiexiu City, Shanxi Province, China, in 2022. Subsequently, whole-genome sequences of these novel strains were generated using next-generation sequencing. The open reading frame (ORF) sequences of the WUXV strains from the three locations were subjected to gene analysis. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that WUXV belongs to two distinct clades with geographical differences. Strains from Wuxiang County and Yangquan City belonged to clade 1, whereas strains from Jiexiu City belonged to clade 2. Reassortment and recombination analyses indicated no gene reassortment or recombination between the two clades. However, four reassortments or recombination events could be detected in clade 1 strains. By aligning the amino acid sequences, eighty-seven mutation sites were identified between the two clades, with seventeen, sixty, nine, and one site(s) in the proteins RdRp, M, NSs, and N, respectively. Additionally, selection pressure analysis identified 17 positively selected sites across the entire genome of WUXV, with two, thirteen, one, and one site(s) in the proteins RdRp, M, NSs, and N, respectively. Notably, sites M-312 and M-340 in the M segment not only represented mutation sites but also showed positive selective pressure effects. These findings highlight the need for continuous nationwide surveillance of WUXV.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Psychodidae , Animais , Filogenia , China/epidemiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA
12.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 23: 406-416, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38235362

RESUMO

Members of the phylum Bacteroidetes play a key role in the marine carbon cycle through their degradation of polysaccharides via carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) and polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs). The discovery of novel CAZymes and PULs is important for our understanding of the marine carbon cycle. In this study, we isolated and identified a potential new genus of the family Catalimonadaceae, in the phylum Bacteroidetes, from the southwest Indian Ocean. Strain TK19036, the type strain of the new genus, is predicted to encode CAZymes that are relatively abundant in marine Bacteroidetes genomes. Tunicatimonas pelagia NBRC 107804T, Porifericola rhodea NBRC 107748T and Catalinimonas niigatensis NBRC 109829T, which exhibit 16 S rRNA similarities exceeding 90% with strain TK19036, and belong to the same family, were selected as reference strains. These organisms possess a highly diverse repertoire of CAZymes and PULs, which may enable them to degrade a wide range of polysaccharides, especially pectin and alginate. In addition, some secretory CAZymes in strain TK19036 and its relatives were predicted to be transported by type IX secretion system (T9SS). Further, to the best of our knowledge, we propose the first reported "hybrid" PUL targeting alginates in T. pelagia NBRC 107804T. Our findings provide new insights into the polysaccharide degradation capacity of marine Bacteroidetes, and suggest that T9SS may play a more important role in this process than previously believed.

13.
Food Chem ; 438: 137993, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37992603

RESUMO

Aroma is one of the decisive factors affecting the quality and consumer acceptance of edible mushrooms. This review summarized the key components and formation pathways of edible mushroom aroma. It also elaborated on the affecting factors and emerging analytical strategies of edible mushroom aroma. A total of 1308 volatile organic compounds identified in edible mushrooms, 61 were key components. The formation of these compounds is closely related to fatty acid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, lentinic acid metabolism, and terpenoid metabolism. The aroma profiles of edible mushrooms were affected by genetic background, preharvest factors, and preservation methods. Molecular sensory science and omics techniques are emerging analytical strategies to reveal aroma information of edible mushrooms. This review would provide valuable data and insights for future research on edible mushroom aroma.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Agaricales/química , Odorantes , Vias Biossintéticas , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos
14.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 170: 115586, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38042113

RESUMO

Metabolic diseases, featured with dysregulated energy homeostasis, have become major global health challenges. Patients with metabolic diseases have high probability to manifest multiple complications in lipid metabolism, e.g. obesity, insulin resistance and fatty liver. Therefore, targeting the hub genes in lipid metabolism may systemically ameliorate the metabolic diseases, along with the complications. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1(SCD1) is a key enzyme that desaturates the saturated fatty acids (SFAs) derived from de novo lipogenesis or diet to generate monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs). SCD1 maintains the metabolic and tissue homeostasis by responding to, and integrating the multiple layers of endogenous stimuli, which is mediated by the synthesized MUFAs. It critically regulates a myriad of physiological processes, including energy homeostasis, development, autophagy, tumorigenesis and inflammation. Aberrant transcriptional and epigenetic activation of SCD1 regulates AMPK/ACC, SIRT1/PGC1α, NcDase/Wnt, etc, and causes aberrant lipid accumulation, thereby promoting the progression of obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver, diabetes and cancer. This review critically assesses the integrative mechanisms of the (patho)physiological functions of SCD1 in metabolic homeostasis, inflammation and autophagy. For translational perspective, potent SCD1 inhibitors have been developed to treat various types of cancer. We thus discuss the multidisciplinary advances that greatly accelerate the development of SCD1 new inhibitors. In conclusion, besides cancer treatment, SCD1 may serve as the promising target to combat multiple metabolic complications simultaneously.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso , Resistência à Insulina , Humanos , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/metabolismo , Inflamação , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/genética , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/metabolismo
15.
J Hazard Mater ; 464: 133015, 2024 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37988942

RESUMO

In the face of diversified analytes, it is a great challenge and infeasible task to design and synthesize corresponding macrocyclic hosts to realize the ideal supramolecular sensing. Herein, we proposed a novel supramolecular sensing strategy, guest adaptative assay (GAA), in which analyte was quantitatively transformed under mild conditions to perfectly adapt to macrocyclic host. As a health-threatening "landmine" in cereals, aflatoxins were converted by the aid of alkali hydrolysis to satisfactorily obtain aflatoxins transformants in ionic state, resulting in sensitive response by the guanidinocalix[5]arene•fluorescein reporter pair. Surprisingly, the established strategy not only exhibited effective practicality in screening out high-risk cereals contaminated with aflatoxins, but also relieved the laborious task of macrocycle design and screening in supramolecular sensing.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas , Aflatoxinas/análise , Grão Comestível/química
16.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 13: 1292693, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38076463

RESUMO

The Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is classified into five distinct genotypes, with genotypes 1 and 3 historically showing higher activity. These genotypes are the primary agents of viral encephalitis in the Asian continent. Genotypes 4 and 5 have remained silent in low-latitude tropical regions since their discovery. From 2009, the hidden genotype 5 suddenly emerged simultaneously in mosquitoes from the Tibetan region of China and those from South Korea in East Asia. The detection of genotype 5 of JEV in these mosquitoes was associated with cases of viral encephalitis in the local population. Similarly, in 2022, the long-silent genotype 4 of JEV emerged in Australia, resulting in a local outbreak of viral encephalitis that primarily affected adults and caused fatalities. The emergence and outbreaks of genotypes 4 and 5 of JEV present new challenges for the prevention and control of Japanese encephalitis (JE). This study not only analyzes the recent emergence of these new genotypes but also discusses their implications in the development of JE vaccines and laboratory tests for newly emerging JEV infections.


Assuntos
Culicidae , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie) , Encefalite Japonesa , Adulto , Animais , Humanos , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie)/genética , Genótipo , Surtos de Doenças
17.
Microorganisms ; 11(12)2023 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38137966

RESUMO

Bacteriophages, or phages, can be used as natural biological control agents to eliminate pathogenic bacteria during aquatic product cultivation. Samples were collected from seafood aquaculture water and aquaculture environmental sewage, and phage VA5 was isolated using the double-layer agar plate method, with Vibrio alginolyticus as the host bacteria. The purified phage strain was subjected to genome sequencing analysis and morphological observation. The optimal multiplicity of infection (MOI), the one-step growth curve, temperature stability, and pH stability were analyzed. Phage VA5 was observed to have a long tail. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that the genome was circular dsDNA, with 35,866 bp length and 46% G+C content. The optimal MOI was 1, the incubation period was 20 min, the outbreak period was 30 min, and the cleavage amount was 92.26 PFU/cell. The phage showed good activity at -20 °C, 70 °C, and pH 2-10. Moreover, the phage VA5 exhibited significant inhibitory effects on V. alginolyticus-infected shrimp culture. The isolated phage VA5 has a wide range of host bacteria and is a good candidate for biological control of pathogenic bacteria.

18.
J Clin Virol ; 169: 105618, 2023 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37977074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enterovirus-D68 (EV-D68) has appeared biennially in the United States following the 2014 outbreak. It has gained epidemiologic and clinical relevance and was identified as an important pathogen associated with severe respiratory and central nervous system diseases. We aim to describe the clinical and molecular characteristics of the post-pandemic 2022 Enterovirus-D68 outbreak in children evaluated in a tertiary pediatric hospital in Columbus, Ohio. METHODS: EV-D68 RT-PCR was performed on nasopharyngeal specimens collected during Jun-Nov 2022 from children (<18 years), identified by 1) physician-order or 2) random selection of 10-15 specimens weekly that were Rhinovirus/Enterovirus-positive by physician-ordered respiratory virus panel. Patients who tested positive for EV-D68 were identified and clinical data and outcomes were analyzed. Partial viral VP1 region was sequenced and characterized. RESULTS: Forty-four children positive for EV-D68 were identified, among which 88.6 % of patients presented with respiratory symptoms and 61.4 % required PICU admission. Two patients presented with AFM that was attributed to EV-D68. EV-D68 sequences from 2022 clustered within the B3 subclade. CONCLUSIONS: A significant proportion of children identified with EV-D68 during the 2022 outbreak had respiratory compromise requiring PICU admission. As the virus continues evolving, it is important to monitor the activity of EV-D68, characterizing these strains clinically and genetically, which will help to understand the viral pathogenicity and virulence.


Assuntos
Enterovirus Humano D , Infecções por Enterovirus , Infecções Respiratórias , Criança , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Ohio/epidemiologia , Criança Hospitalizada , Enterovirus Humano D/genética , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças
19.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 13: 1193184, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38029255

RESUMO

In July 2018, a virus (JXLC1806-2) was isolated from Culicoides biting midges collected in Lichuan County, Jiangxi Province, China. The virus isolate showed significant cytopathic effects within 48 hours after inoculation with mammalian cells (BHK-21). JXLC1806-2 virus could form plaques in BHK-21 cells, and the virus titer was 1×105.6 pfu/mL. After inoculation with the virus, suckling mice developed disease and died. The nucleotide and amino sequence analysis showed that the JXLC1806-2 virus genome was composed of S, M and L segments. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the S, M and L genes of JXLC1806-2 virus belonged to the Tete serogroup, Orthobunyavirus, but formed an independent evolutionary branch from the other members of the Tete serogroup. The results showed that the JXLC1806-2 virus, which was named as Lichuan virus, is a new member of Tete serogroup, and this is the first time that a Tete serogroup virus has been isolated in China.


Assuntos
Ceratopogonidae , Orthobunyavirus , Animais , Camundongos , Orthobunyavirus/genética , Ceratopogonidae/genética , Filogenia , Genoma Viral , China , Mamíferos/genética
20.
iScience ; 26(10): 107626, 2023 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37731616

RESUMO

Massive expansion of immature and suppressive myeloid cells is a common feature of malignant solid tumors. Over-expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 20, also known as cell cycle-related kinase (CCRK), in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) correlates with reduced patient survival and low immunotherapy responsiveness. Beyond tumor-intrinsic oncogenicity, here we demonstrated that CCRK is upregulated in myeloid cells in tumor-bearing mice and in patients with HCC. Intratumoral injection of Ccrk-knockdown myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) increased tumor-infiltrating CD8+T cells and suppressed HCC tumorigenicity. Using an indel mutant transgenic model, we showed that Ccrk inactivation in myeloid cells conferred a mature phenotype with elevated IL-12 production, driving Th1 responses and CD8+T cell cytotoxicity to reduce orthotopic tumor growth and prolong survival. Mechanistically, CCRK activates STAT3/E4BP4 signaling in MDSCs to acquire immunosuppressive activity through transcriptional IL-10 induction and IL-12 suppression. Taken together, our findings unravel mechanistic insights into MDSC-mediated immunosuppression and offer a therapeutic kinase-target for cancer immunotherapy.

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