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1.
Nature ; 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380511

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases in China and has become a public health emergency of international concern1. Because angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the cell entry receptor of SARS-CoV5, we used transgenic mice bearing human ACE2 and infected with SARS-CoV-2 to study the pathogenicity of the virus. Weight loss and virus replication in lung were observed in hACE2 mice infected with SARS-CoV-2. The typical histopathology was interstitial pneumonia with infiltration of significant macrophages and lymphocytes into the alveolar interstitium, and accumulation of macrophages in alveolar cavities. Viral antigens were observed in the bronchial epithelial cells, macrophages and alveolar epithelia. The phenomenon was not found in wild-type mice with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Notably, we have confirmed the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 in hACE2 mice. The mouse model with SARS-CoV-2 infection will be valuable for evaluating antiviral therapeutics and vaccines as well as understanding the pathogenesis of COVID-19.

3.
Mol Med Rep ; 22(1): 297-309, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32319661

RESUMO

Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is the most common neonatal endocrine disorder with a genetic origin. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the mutation spectrum of CH patients in China. A targeted next­generation sequencing panel covering all exons of 29 CH­related causative genes was used in 43 Han Chinese patients with CH [11 dysgenesis and 32 glands in situ (GIS)]. The functional impact and pathogenicity of detected variants were analyzed using a comprehensive bioinformatics approach and co­segregation studies. A total of 47 rare non­polymorphic variants in 9 target genes associated with thyroid hormone synthesis (DUOX2, DUOXA2, TPO, TG, SLC26A4 and SLC5A5), thyroid stimulating hormone resistance (TSHR) and central hypothyroidism (PROP1 and TRHR) were identified in 31 patients (31/43, 72%). Of these variants, 8 were novel, including 3 in DUOX2, 2 in TPO, 3 in TSHR and 1 in SLC5A5. Variants were mostly affected by DUOX2, TG, TPO and TSHR. Approximately 44% of the patients (19/43) carried DUOX2 variants. The mutation detection rates in patients with GIS were higher compared with patients with dysgenesis [25/32 (78%) vs. 6/11 (54%)]. Oligogenic mutations were detected in 25.6% of the total cases and 35% of the mutated cases. Genetic basis was ascertained in 13 patients, reaching a diagnosis detection rate of 30%. In conclusion, genetic defects in dyshormonogenesis, mainly in DUOX2, were the main genetic cause of CH in the Chinese population. Oligogenicity is highly involved in CH pathogenesis and may thus be an important factor in common phenotypic variability observed in patients with CH.

4.
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 58(6): 332-342, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324132

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: PEGylation is commonly used to optimize pharmacological properties and improve the clinical response of drugs. Due to the inherent toxicity of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and pharmacological changes induced by PEGylation, the safety may be altered and required to be explored. This study explored the adverse events (AEs) associated with PEGylation by comparing pharmacovigilance data of PEGylated and parent drugs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a disproportionality analysis of spontaneous reports associated with PEGylated and corresponding parent medications from the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System database recorded between the 1st quarter of 2004 and the 4th quarter of 2018 at the level of preferred terms (PTs) and standard MedDRA queries (SMQs), respectively. The AEs probably different in risk due to changed pharmacological effects and inherent toxicity of PEG were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 259,428 cases associated to six drug pairs (filgrastim, asparaginase, interferon α-2a, interferon α-2b,interferon ß-1a, and liposomal doxorubicin) were collected. Although 95% of PTs were comparable between the two groups, PTs of deep vein thrombosis, pancreatitis acute, diabetes mellitus, liver disorder, disorientation, aphasia and infection, and SMQ of embolic and thrombotic events were significantly alleviated by PEGylation. No PT was significantly enhanced by PEGylation. CONCLUSION: The pharmacovigilance profiles of PEGylated and non-PEGylated agents were similar. Further clinical assessment is required to validate the pharmacovigilance data.

5.
Nanoscale ; 12(17): 9824-9832, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32338669

RESUMO

Ternary PtFeCo alloys as alternatives to conventional Pt electrocatalysts are highly important in the field of the methanol oxidation reaction. In this study, we demonstrate a one-pot two-step reduction method for the synthesis of graphene supported PtFeCo alloy nanocomposites as an integrated binder-free catalyst. The synergistic effect of alloying with Fe and Co as well as graphene decorating contributes to an increase in the utilization of the noble metal, namely, reducing the amount of Pt in the nanocomposites to 7%. After tailoring the elemental composition of the alloys, Pt52Fe29Co19@G-7% exhibits a mass activity/specific activity of 1758.2 mA mg-1Pt/3.42 mA cm-2 that is 3.13/3.45 times that of commercial Pt/C in an acidic medium. Impressively, it showed a superior mass current density of 9356.1 mA mg-1Pt at 60 °C which is close to the operating temperature of direct methanol fuel cells. Moreover, the as-obtained Pt52Fe29Co19@G-7% also exhibited excellent CO tolerance and reliable stability compared to commercial Pt/C. The structural characterization further verifies that the surface strain and electronic effect play a critical role in determining the electrocatalytic properties of PtFeCo@G nanocomposites for the methanol oxidation reaction.

6.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(7): 5733-5750, 2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240105

RESUMO

Thyroid cancer (THCA) is a heterogeneous disease with multiple clinical outcomes Immune cells regulate its progression. Three immunomolecular subtypes (C1, C2, C3) were identified in gene expression data sets from TCGA and GEO databases. Among them, subtype C3 had highest frequency of BRAF mutations, lowest frequency of RAS mutations, highest mutation load and shorter progression-free survival. Functional enrichment analysis for the genes revealed that C1 was up-regulated in the ERK cascade pathway, C2 was up-regulated in cell migration and proliferation pathways, while C3 was enriched in body fluid, protein regulation and response to steroid hormones functions. Notably, the three molecular subtypes exhibit differences in immune microenvironments as shown by timer database and analysis of immune expression signatures. The abundance of B_cell, CD4_Tcell, Neutrophil, Macrophage and Dendritic cells in C2 subtype were lower than in C1 and C3 subtypes Leukocyte fraction, proliferation macrophage regulation, lymphocyte infiltration, IFN gamma response and TGF beta response scores were significantly higher in C3 compared with C1 and C2 subtypes. Unlike C3 subtype, it was observed that C1 and C2 subtypes were significantly negatively correlated with most immune checkpoint genes in two different cohorts. The characteristic genes were differentially expressed between cancer cells, adjacent tissues, and metastatic tissues in different cohorts. In summary, THCA can be subclassified into three molecular subtypes with distinct histological types, genetic and transcriptional phenotypes, all of which have potential clinical implications.

8.
Carbohydr Polym ; 235: 115967, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122501

RESUMO

To obtain chitosan (CTS) with narrower molecular weight distribution, CTS with weight-average molecular weight (MW) of 197.30 kDa was first metal complexed and then degraded into five CTSs with MW of 107.90, 56.48, 10.40, 5.67 (CTS-4) and 3.66 kDa. Decrease of MW did not cause a significant change in chemical structure of the residue CTS, but the crystal structure was transformed significantly. The moisture retention increased firstly and then decreased as the MW of CTS decreased. CTS-4 was superior to CTSs with other MW and propylene glycol in terms of the moisture retention. The lower water activity and increase of net isosteric heat were observed in CTS-4, which was due to the migration of immobilized water to a bound-state caused by mounting newly formed chain-end hydrophilic groups per unit weight. CTS-4 could effectively improve moisture retention, showing a potential to substitute commonly used humectant such as propylene glycol.

9.
Front Oncol ; 10: 217, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219060

RESUMO

Background: Patients with metastatic radioiodine-refractory papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) have limited treatment options and a poor prognosis. There is an urgent need to develop new drugs targeting PTC for clinical application. Apatinib, a novel small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), is highly selective for vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2) and exhibits antitumor effects in a variety of solid tumors. Although apatinib has been shown to be safe and efficacious in radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer, the mechanism underlying its antitumor effect is unclear. In this report, we explored the effects of apatinib on PTC in vitro and in vivo. Methods: VEGFR2 expression levels were evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC), qPCR, and western blotting (WB). The effects of apatinib on cell viability, colony formation, and migration in the Transwell assay were assessed in vitro, and its effect on tumor growth rate was assessed in vivo. In addition, the levels of proteins in signaling pathways were determined by WB. Finally, the autophagy level was assessed by WB, immunofluorescence (IF), and transmission electron microscopy. Results: We found that high VEGFR2 expression is associated with tumor size, T stage, and lymph node metastasis in patients with PTC and that apatinib inhibits PTC cell growth, promotes apoptosis, and induces cell cycle arrest through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Moreover, apatinib induces autophagy, and pharmacological inhibition of autophagy or small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated targeting of autophagy-associated gene 5 (ATG5) can further increase PTC cell apoptosis. Conclusion: Our data suggest that apatinib can induce apoptosis and autophagy via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway for the treatment of PTC and that autophagy is a potential novel target for future therapy in resistant PTC.

10.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 30(9): 127087, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160978

RESUMO

The first example of Ca(OH)2-activated p-regioselective synthesis of chrysin-fused chromene was reported through a cascade Michael/cyclization of chrysin and arylidenemalononitrile. The newly synthesized structurally diverse 2-amino 3-cyano chromene-chrysin hybrids 3 were evaluated for their in vitro anticancer activity, and some of the compounds showed stronger anti-proliferative activity against K562, PC-3, A549 and NCI-H1299 than parent compound chrysin, and demonstrated equipotent potency compared with the reference drug of cisplatin. In particular, compound 3h had the highest cytotoxicity towards K562 cells (IC50 = 6.41 µM). Furthermore, compound 3h induced apoptosis of K562 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, as well as induced the apoptosis possibly through promoting the formation of apoptotic DNA of cancer cell via the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Thus, our results provide in vitro evidence that compound 3h may be a potential candidate for the development of new anti-tumour drugs.

11.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176485

RESUMO

Selective and efficient catalytic conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) into value-added fuels and feedstocks provides an ideal avenue to high-density renewable energy storage. An impediment to enabling deep CO2 reduction to oxygenates and hydrocarbons (e.g., C2+ compounds) is the difficulty of coupling carbon-carbon bonds efficiently. Copper in the +1 oxidation state has been thought to be active for catalyzing C2+ formation, whereas it is prone to being reduced to Cu0 at cathodic potentials. Here we report that catalysts with nanocavities can confine carbon intermediates formed in situ, which in turn covers the local catalyst surface and thereby stabilizes Cu+ species. Experimental measurements on multihollow cuprous oxide catalyst exhibit a C2+ Faradaic efficiency of 75.2 ± 2.7% at a C2+ partial current density of 267 ± 13 mA cm-2 and a large C2+-to-C1 ratio of ∼7.2. Operando Raman spectra, in conjunction with X-ray absorption studies, confirm that Cu+ species in the as-designed catalyst are well retained during CO2 reduction, which leads to the marked C2+ selectivity at a large conversion rate.

12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 155, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a life-threatening situation, and it can be rendered more severe by coagulopathy. We here examine a novel plasma biomarker for sepsis-induced coagulopathy. METHODS: A total of 116 patients diagnosed with sepsis were recruited and divided into two groups by whether they also had coagulopathy. Plasma samples were collected on arrival at the intensive care unit. Fifteen sepsis-alone and 15 sepsis-induced coagulopathy plasma samples were mixed and sent for microRNA sequencing. Differently expressed microRNAs were then validated by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in 52 sepsis-alone and 34 sepsis-induced coagulopathy patients; plasma lipocalin-2 was measured as well. RESULTS: Four microRNAs were selected from microRNA sequencing. Only hsa-mir-92a-3p was differently expressed in the validation set. Its level of expression was significantly lower in sepsis-induced coagulopathy group. Hsa-mir-92a-3p had an area under a receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.660 (95% confidence interval, 0.537, 0.782). The plasma Hsa-mir-92a-3p level was related to activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin activity, and plasma lipocalin-2 level. A binary logistic model showed an association between hsa-mir-92a-3p and fibrinogen with SIC. CONCLUSIONS: The utility of hsa-mir-92a-3p as a biomarker for sepsis-induced coagulopathy needs more verification, and the regulatory mechanism of hsa-mir-92a-3p in coagulation disorder and its potency as a therapeutic target must be confirmed.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/etiologia , Lipocalina-2/sangue , MicroRNAs/sangue , Sepse/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Sepse/sangue , Sepse/diagnóstico
13.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 9641284, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32104711

RESUMO

The chemical constituents and the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activities of fresh rhizome essential oil (FR-EO) and dry rhizome essential oil (DR-EO) of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith obtained from Southwest China were compared. Zerumbone was the predominant component in both FR-EO and DR-EO (75.0% and 41.9%, respectively). FR-EO, DR-EO, and zerumbone were all demonstrated to have significant antimicrobial capacity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Proteus vulgaris, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from 31.25 to 156.25 µg/mL and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranging from 62.50 to 625.00 µg/mL. Zerumbone showed the strongest antimicrobial potential against all tested microorganisms compared with the fresh and dry rhizome essential oils. FR-EO was found to be more active than DR-EO against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Proteus vulgaris. FR-EO, DR-EO, and zerumbone all showed significant cytotoxic activity against K562, PC-3, and A549 human tumor cell lines in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Zerumbone exhibited the strongest antiproliferative activity against all tested human tumor cell lines with an IC50 of 4.21-11.09 µg/mL for 72 h incubation, as compared with the fresh and dry rhizome oils. The cytotoxic activity of FR-EO (IC50: 10.48-14.51 µg/mL for 72 h) was found to be significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that of DR-EO (IC50: 13.83-33.24 µg/mL for 72 h). FR-EO, DR-EO, and zerumbone exhibited selective cytotoxic activity to tumor cells, with a significantly low cytotoxicity to normal cells (MRC-5, IC50: 56.98-147.29 µg/mL). However, FR-EO, DR-EO, and zerumbone all exhibited weak free-radical-scavenging activity according to DPPH and ABTS analysis. The findings highlighted in this study show that FR-EO provides appreciably higher content of the bioactive compound, zerumbone, and has higher antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties than DR-EO. Thus, fresh Z. zerumbet rhizome should be preferred in cosmetic, food, and pharmaceutical applications.

14.
BMJ Open ; 10(2): e030738, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051297

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cetuximab plus leucovorin, fluorouracil and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX-4) is superior to FOLFOX-4 alone as a first-line treatment for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer with RAS wild-type (RAS wt mCRC), with significantly improved survival benefit by TAILOR, an open-label, randomised, multicentre, phase III trial. Nevertheless, the cost-effectiveness of these two regimens remains uncertain. The following study aims to determine whether cetuximab combined with FOLFOX-4 is a cost-effective regimen for patients with specific RAS wt mCRC in China. DESIGN: A cost-effectiveness model combined decision tree and Markov model was built to simulate pateints with RAS wt mCRC based on health states of dead, progressive and stable. The health outcomes from the TAILOR trial and utilities from published data were used respectively. Costs were calculated with reference to the Chinese societal perspective. The robustness of the results was evaluated by univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. PARTICIPANTS: The included patients were newly diagnosed Chinese patients with fully RAS wt mCRC. INTERVENTIONS: First-line treatment with either cetuximab plus FOLFOX-4 or FOLFOX-4. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcomes are costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). RESULTS: Baseline analysis disclosed that the QALYs was increased by 0.383 caused by additional cetuximab, while an increase of US$62 947 was observed in relation to FOLFOX-4 chemotherapy. The ICER was US$164 044 per QALY, which exceeded the willingness-to-pay threshold of US$28 106 per QALY. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the survival benefit, cetuximab combined with FOLFOX-4 is not a cost-effective treatment for the first-line regime of patients with RAS wt mCRC in China. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: TAILOR trial (NCT01228734); Post-results.

15.
Arch Oral Biol ; 111: 104638, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901573

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Lemon essential oil (LEO) and Limonene (LIM) in the progress of early caries. DESIGN: LEO and LIM were selected as experimental medicine, while sodium fluoride (NaF) and deionized water (DW) were positive and blank controls, respectively. Bovine incisors were used to establish enamel and dentin early caries models by demineralization method in vitro. Then specimens were subjected to pH cycling. Calcium and phosphate release of demineralizing solution were measured by an automatic biochemical analyzer; Surface microhardness tester and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer were used to detect the surface microhardness recovery and calcium- phosphate ratio on tooth surface; Degraded collagen matrix by collagenase was investigated by assaying hydroxyproline. RESULTS: Calcium release of dentin demineralizing solution of LEO group was lower than DW group's and higher than NaF group's. Both of LEO and LIM groups, the surface microhardness recovery were significantly lower than those of NaF group, which were similar to DW group. Dentin surface calcium- phosphate ratio of LEO and LIM groups were lower than those of NaF group and higher than those of DW group. Hydroxyproline concentration in the remineralizing solution of LEO and LIM groups were lower than DW groups' and higher than NaF groups'. CONCLUSIONS: LEO and LIM have influence on the progress of dentin early caries, which can stabilize its structure by inhibiting collagen degradation. Meanwhile, these medicines may provide a new drug choice for the prevention and treatment of early root caries.


Assuntos
Cariostáticos/farmacologia , Cárie Dentária , Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Limoneno/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Bovinos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Fluoreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Desmineralização do Dente , Remineralização Dentária
16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 147: 667-674, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931061

RESUMO

The moisture stability of tobacco shred, a typical porous carbohydrate material, is very important during its processing, storage and smoking, moreover, it is sensitive to environmental conditions. Therefore, effect of sucrose esters (SEs) and sucrose ester/Polygonatum sibiricum polysaccharide mixture (SPMs) on the moisture retention and moisture resistance of tobacco shred was assessed. When SEs were added to tobacco shred, moisture resistance was significantly enhanced, whereas moisture holding capacity was attenuated. Contrarily, the addition of SPMs made moisture retention index (MRI) and moisture proof index (MPI) increase from 1.8910 to 2.1612 and from 1.9489 to 2.0665, respectively, revealing that SPMs improved the moisture retention and moisture proof ability of tobacco shred simultaneously. The monolayer moisture content (M0) was decreased by SEs and increased by SPMs. Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) analysis showed that during adsorption, SPMs reduced the interaction between tobacco shred and water via hydrophobic property of SEs; during desorption, SPMs promoted the interaction between tobacco shred and water through hydrophilic binding of polysaccharide, leading to the migration of immobilized water to bound state. The modeling of the isotherms and LF-NMR analysis clarified the mechanism why SPMs could improve moisture stability of tobacco.

17.
Adv Mater ; 32(8): e1904320, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31943439

RESUMO

Carbon-based materials have been considered as the most promising anode materials for both sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) and potassium-ion batteries (PIBs), owing to their good chemical stability, high electrical conductivity, and environmental benignity. However, due to the large sizes of sodium and potassium ions, it is a great challenge to realize a carbon anode with high reversible capacity, long cycle life, and high rate capability. Herein, by rational design, N-doped 3D mesoporous carbon nanosheets (N-CNS) are successfully synthesized, which can realize unprecedented electrochemical performance for both SIBs and PIBs. The N-CNS possess an ultrathin nanosheet structure with hierarchical pores, ultrahigh level of pyridinic N/pyrrolic N, and an expanded interlayer distance. The beneficial features that can enhance the Na-/K-ion intercalation/deintercalation kinetic process, shorten the diffusion length for both ions and electrons, and accommodate the volume change are demonstrated. Hence, the N-CNS-based electrode delivers a high capacity of 239 mAh g-1 at 5 A g-1 after 10 000 cycles for SIBs and 321 mAh g-1 at 5 A g-1 after 5000 cycles for PIBs. First-principles calculation shows that the ultrahigh doping level of pyridinic N/pyrrolic N contributes to the enhanced sodium and potassium storage performance by modulating the charge density distribution on the carbon surface.

18.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957770

RESUMO

Here we report a new method for controlling photo-deposited metal nanoparticle size by manipulating surface defect structures of TiO2 nanocrystals. Our results demonstrate that the isolated oxygen vacancy could serve as an electron trapper while the oxygen vacancy cluster could act as an electron-hole recombination site in the photo-deposition process.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927198

RESUMO

Nilaparvata lugens is a serious threat to rice growth. Glycogen metabolism is one of the important physiological processes of insects, which is mainly regulated by glycogen synthase (GS) and glycogen phosphorylase (GP). In the present study, trehalose content was significantly reduced at 72 h after NlGP and NlGS knockdown, whereas glucose content was significantly increased at both 48 h and 72 h after GS knockdown. RNAi combined with RNA-Seq was used to identify NlGP- and NlGS-related pathways and genes in N. lugens. A total of 593 genes were up-regulated and 5969 genes were down-regulated after NlGP and NlGS knockdown, respectively. Moreover, the NlGS-knockdown group was mapped to 10,967 pathways, whereas the NlGP-knockdown group was mapped to 7948 pathways, and the greatest differences between the groups were associated with carbohydrate, lipid, amino acid and energy metabolism. Meanwhile, 1800, 1217, and 1211 transcripts in the NlGP-knockdown group and 2511, 1666, and 1727 transcripts in the NlGS-knockdown group were involved in bioprocess, cellular ingredients and molecular function, respectively. Almost all these genes were down-regulated by either NlGP or NlGS knockdown, with significant down-regulation of the 6-trehalose phosphate synthase (TPS), trehalase (TRE), GS, GP, phosphoacetylglucosamine mutase (PGM, n = 2), Insulin receptors (InRs) and insulin-like peptides (Ilps) genes. These results have demonstrated that RNAi-mediated NlGP and NlGS knockdown could lead to content of trehalose and glucose out of balance, but have no obvious effect on glycogen content, and have suggested that GS plays more complex role in other metabolism pathway of N. lugens.

20.
Org Biomol Chem ; 18(5): 964-974, 2020 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930265

RESUMO

A facile one-step reaction of [60]fullerene with cinnamaldehydes and amines promoted by magnesium perchlorate/ferric perchlorate under air conditions afforded a series of rare amino-substituted cyclopentafullerenes in moderate to good yields. Stereoselectivity was readily achieved. Secondary amines exclusively produced N,N-disubstituted cyclopentafullerenes as cis isomers, while arylamines gave N-monosubstituted cyclopentafullerenes with a preference of cis isomers as major products. N-Monosubstituted cyclopentafullerenes could be further converted into other scarce cyclopentafullerenes in the presence of acid chloride or paraformaldehyde. A possible reaction pathway was proposed to elucidate the formation of amino-substituted cyclopentafullerenes.

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