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1.
Neuro Oncol ; 2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32328646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma is associated with poor prognosis and high mortality. Although the use of first-line temozolomide can reduce tumor growth, therapy-induced stress drives stem cells out of quiescence, leading to chemo-resistance and glioblastoma recurrence. The Sp1 transcription factor is known to protect glioblastoma cells against temozolomide; however, how tumor cells hijack this factor to gain resistance to therapy is not known. METHODS: Sp1 acetylation in temozolomide-resistant cells and stem-like tumorspheres was analyzed by immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting experiments. Effects of the HDAC/Sp1 axis on malignant growth were examined using cell proliferation-related assays and in vivo experiments. Furthermore, integrative analysis of gene expression with ChIP-seq and the recurrent glioblastoma omics data were also used to further determine the target genes of the HDAC/Sp1 axis. RESULTS: We identified Sp1 as a novel substrate of HDAC6, and observed that the HDAC1/2/6/Sp1 pathway promotes self-renewal of malignancy by upregulating BMI1 and hTERT, as well as by regulating G2/M progression and DNA repair via alteration of the transcription of various genes. Importantly, HDAC1/2/6/Sp1 activation is associated with poor clinical outcome in both glioblastoma and low-grade gliomas. However, treatment with azaindolylsulfonamide, a potent HDAC6 inhibitor with partial efficacy against HDAC1/2, induced G2/M arrest and senescence in both temozolomide-resistant cells and stem-like tumorspheres. CONCLUSIONS: Our study uncovers a previously unknown regulatory mechanism in which the HDAC6-Sp1 axis induces cell division and maintains the stem cell population to fuel tumor growth and therapeutic resistance.

3.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 288, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32264854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The family of NAC proteins (NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2) represent a class of large plant-specific transcription factors. However, identification and functional surveys of NAC genes of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) remain unstudied, despite the tomato genome being decoded for several years. This study aims to identify the NAC gene family and investigate their potential roles in responding to Al stress. RESULTS: Ninety-three NAC genes were identified and named in accordance with their chromosome location. Phylogenetic analysis found SlNACs are broadly distributed in 5 groups. Gene expression analysis showed that SlNACs had different expression levels in various tissues and at different fruit development stages. Cycloheximide treatment and qRT-PCR analysis indicated that SlNACs may aid regulation of tomato in response to Al stress, 19 of which were significantly up- or down-regulated in roots of tomato following Al stress. CONCLUSION: This work establishes a knowledge base for further studies on biological functions of SlNACs in tomato and will aid in improving agricultural traits of tomato in the future.

4.
Exp Neurol ; 324: 113135, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778663

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most common causes of death and disability worldwide. We investigated whether inhibition of p53 using pifithrin (PFT)-α or PFT-µ provides neuroprotective effects via p53 transcriptional dependent or -independent mechanisms, respectively. Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to controlled cortical impact TBI followed by the administration of PFTα or PFT-µ (2 mg/kg, i.v.) at 5 h after TBI. Brain contusion volume, as well as sensory and motor functions were evaluated at 24 h after TBI. TBI-induced impairments were mitigated by both PFT-α and PFT-µ. Fluoro-Jade C staining was used to label degenerating neurons within the TBI-induced cortical contusion region that, together with Annexin V positive neurons, were reduced by PFT-µ. Double immunofluorescence staining similarly demonstrated that PFT-µ significantly increased HO-1 positive neurons and mRNA expression in the cortical contusion region as well as decreased numbers of 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE)-positive cells. Levels of mRNA encoding for p53, autophagy, mitophagy, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory related genes and proteins were measured by RT-qPCR and immunohistochemical staining, respectively. PFT-α, but not PFT-µ, significantly lowered p53 mRNA expression. Both PFT-α and PFT-µ lowered TBI-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß and IL-6) mRNA levels as well as TBI-induced autophagic marker localization (LC3 and p62). Finally, treatment with PFT-µ mitigated TBI-induced declines in mRNA levels of PINK-1 and SOD2. Our data suggest that both PFT-µ and PFT-α provide neuroprotective actions through regulation of oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, autophagy, and mitophagy mechanisms, and that PFT-µ, in particular, holds promise as a TBI treatment strategy.

5.
Virus Res ; 276: 197808, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712122

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is associated with the development of gastric cancer (GC). Forkhead box class O (FOXO) transcription factors play important roles in tumor suppression. This study aims to investigate the interplay between EBV and FOXOs in EBV-associated GC (EBVaGC). The results showed that EBV infection of GC cells led to the downregulation of FOXO1 by the inhibition of its mRNA and protein expression. FOXO3 protein is repressed by EBV infection. FOXO4 mRNA is upregulated in EBV-positive cell lines, while its protein expression is downregulated. FOXO1, FOXO3 and FOXO4 proteins are upregulated following PI3K inhibition in GT39 cells, confirming that they are partially suppressed by the PI3K/AKT pathway. However, the upregulation of FOXO1 and FOXO3 by single transfection with LMP1 or LMP2A implies that the dysregulation of FOXOs in EBVaGC is affected by various EBV latent genes and that PI3K/AKT signaling is not the only mechanism of FOXO regulation.

6.
New Phytol ; 225(4): 1732-1745, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608986

RESUMO

The mechanisms involved in the regulation of gene expression in response to phosphate (Pi) deficiency have been extensively studied, but their chromatin-level regulation remains poorly understood. We examined the role of histone acetylation in response to Pi deficiency by using the histone deacetylase complex1 (hdc1) mutant. Genes involved in root system architecture (RSA) remodeling were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and chromatin immunoprecipitation qPCR. We demonstrate that histone H3 acetylation increased under Pi deficiency, and the hdc1 mutant was hypersensitive to Pi deficiency, with primary root growth inhibition and increases in root hair number. Concomitantly, Pi deficiency repressed HDC1 protein abundances. Under Pi deficiency, hdc1 accumulated higher concentrations of Fe3+ in the root tips and had higher expression of genes involved in RSA remodeling, such as ALUMINUM-ACTIVATED MALATE TRANSPORTER1 (ALMT1), LOW PHOSPHATE ROOT1 (LPR1), and LPR2 compared with wild-type plants. Furthermore, Pi deficiency enriched the histone H3 acetylation of ALMT1 and LPR1. Finally, genetic evidence showed that LPR1/2 was epistatic to HDC1 in regulating RSA remodeling. Our results suggest a chromatin-level control of Pi starvation responses in which HDC1-mediated histone H3 deacetylation represses the transcriptional activation of genes involved in RSA remodeling in Arabidopsis.

7.
J Org Chem ; 85(4): 2716-2724, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31886664

RESUMO

Copper-catalyzed multicomponent borylacylation of imines with acid chlorides and bis(pinacolato)diboron was developed for the preparation of synthetically useful and pharmacologically relevant α-amino boronic acid derivatives. Starting from a range of acid chlorides and imines with aryl, heteroaryl, and alkyl substituents, most of these ligand-free reactions proceeded smoothly at room temperature in moderate to good yields. Furthermore, a facile and convenient one-pot, multistep access to the direct synthesis of α-amino boronic acid derivatives from available aldehydes and amines was also developed.

8.
J Clin Med ; 8(9)2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547418

RESUMO

Radiotherapy is commonly used to treat patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), but a subpopulation of OSCC patients shows a poor response to irradiation treatment. Therefore, identifying a biomarker to predict the effectiveness of radiotherapy in OSCC patients is urgently needed. In silico analysis of public databases revealed that upregulation of CHRNA5, the gene encoding nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-5, is extensively detected in primary tumors compared to normal tissues and predicts poor prognosis in OSCC patients. Moreover, CHRNA5 transcript level was causally associated with the effective dose of irradiation in a panel of OSCC cell lines. Artificial silencing of CHRNA5 expression enhanced, but nicotine reduced, the radiosensitivity of OSCC cells. Gene set enrichment analysis demonstrated that the E2F signaling pathway is highly activated in OSCC tissues with high levels of CHRNA5 and in those derived from patients with cancer recurrence after radiotherapy. CHRNA5 knockdown predominantly suppressed E2F activity and decreased the phosphorylation of the Rb protein; however, nicotine treatment dramatically promoted E2F activity and increased Rb phosphorylation, which was mitigated after CHRNA5 knockdown in OSCC cells. Notably, the signature combining increased mRNA levels of CHRNA5 and the E2F signaling gene set was associated with worse recurrence-free survival probability in OSCC patients recorded to be receiving radiotherapy. Our findings suggest that CHRNA5 is not only a useful biomarker for predicting the effectiveness of radiotherapy but also a druggable target to enhance the cancericidal effect of irradiation on OSCC.

9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(14)2019 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330904

RESUMO

Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) is an emerging technique for sensitively monitoring morphological changes of adherent cells in tissue culture. In this study, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were exposed to different concentrations of carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP) for 20 h and their subsequent concentration-dependent responses in micromotion and wound healing migration were measured by ECIS. FCCP disrupts ATP synthesis and results in a decrease in cell migration rates. To detect the change of cell micromotion in response to FCCP challenge, time-series resistances of cell-covered electrodes were monitored and the values of variance were calculated to verify the difference. While Seahorse XF-24 extracellular flux analyzer can detect the effect of FCCP at 3 µM concentration, the variance calculation of the time-series resistances measured at 4 kHz can detect the effect of FCCP at concentrations as low as 1 µM. For wound healing migration, the recovery resistance curves were fitted by sigmoid curve and the hill slope showed a concentration-dependent decline from 0.3 µM to 3 µM, indicating a decrease in cell migration rate. Moreover, dose dependent incline of the inflection points from 0.3 µM to 3 µM FCCP implied the increase of the half time for wound recovery migration. Together, our results demonstrate that partial uncoupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation reduces micromotion and wound healing migration of hMSCs. The ECIS method used in this study offers a simple and sensitive approach to investigate stem cell migration and its regulation by mitochondrial dynamics.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Impedância Elétrica , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Carbonil Cianeto p-Trifluormetoxifenil Hidrazona/farmacologia , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Cell Transplant ; 28(9-10): 1183-1196, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177840

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI), a major cause of mortality and morbidity, affects 10 million people worldwide, with limited treatment options. We have previously shown that (-)-phenserine (Phen), an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor originally designed and tested in clinical phase III trials for Alzheimer's disease, can reduce neurodegeneration after TBI and reduce cognitive impairments induced by mild TBI. In this study, we used a mouse model of moderate to severe TBI by controlled cortical impact to assess the effects of Phen on post-trauma histochemical and behavioral changes. Animals were treated with Phen (2.5 mg/kg, IP, BID) for 5 days started on the day of injury and the effects were evaluated by behavioral and histological examinations at 1 and 2 weeks after injury. Phen significantly attenuated TBI-induced contusion volume, enlargement of the lateral ventricle, and behavioral impairments in motor asymmetry, sensorimotor functions, motor coordination, and balance functions. The morphology of microglia was shifted to an active from a resting form after TBI, and Phen dramatically reduced the ratio of activated to resting microglia, suggesting that Phen also mitigates neuroinflammation after TBI. While Phen has potent anti-acetylcholinesterase activity, its (+) isomer Posiphen shares many neuroprotective properties but is almost completely devoid of anti-acetylcholinesterase activity. We evaluated Posiphen at a similar dose to Phen and found similar mitigation in lateral ventricular size increase, motor asymmetry, motor coordination, and balance function, suggesting the improvement of these histological and behavioral tests by Phen treatment occur via pathways other than anti-acetylcholinesterase inhibition. However, the reduction of lesion size and improvement of sensorimotor function by Posiphen were much smaller than with equivalent doses of Phen. Taken together, these results show that post-injury treatment with Phen over 5 days significantly ameliorates severity of TBI. These data suggest a potential development of this compound for clinical use in TBI therapy.

11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(10)2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100944

RESUMO

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor in adults. In recent studies, the efficacy of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) has been investigated for GBM. We explored the effects of two exploratory compounds, the histone deacetylase SAHA and the natural product andrographolide, on Uppsala 87 Malignant Glioma (U-87 MG) cell migration and viability in comparison with the clinically used therapeutic agent temozolomide (TMZ). We used the electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) system to monitor the migration of U-87 MG cells after treatment with various concentrations of these compounds. Moreover, we used the Alamar blue assay and western blotting to observe the concentration-dependent changes in the viability and apoptosis of U-87 MG cells. Our results demonstrated that both SAHA and andrographolide (10-300 µM) significantly inhibited GBM cell migration in a concentration-dependent manner, and 10 µM SAHA and 56 µM andrographolide demonstrated remarkable inhibitory effects on U-87 MG migration. Western blotting indicated that compared with TMZ, both SAHA and andrographolide induced higher expression levels of apoptosis-related proteins, such as caspase-3, BAX, and PARP in U-87 MG cells. Furthermore, all three drugs downregulated the expression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. In conclusion, SAHA and andrographolide showed exceptional results in inhibiting cell migration and motility. The ECIS wound healing assay is a powerful technique to identify and screen potential therapeutic agents that can inhibit cancer cell migration.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Impedância Elétrica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Temozolomida/farmacologia , Vorinostat/farmacologia
12.
Behav Neurol ; 2019: 4364592, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31110595

RESUMO

Introduction. Over 1 million mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) cases are reported annually worldwide and may result in cognitive, physical, and emotional deterioration; depression; anxiety; and sleep problems. However, studies on long-term mTBI effects are limited. This study included 440 patients, and regular follow-ups of psychological assessments were performed for 2 years. Four questionnaires, including the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), Beck's anxiety inventory (BAI), and Beck's depression inventory (BDI), were used to evaluate sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, anxiety, and depression, respectively. Results show that BAI and BDI scores considerably improved at the 6th-week, 1st-year, and 2nd-year follow-ups compared to baseline, yet these remained significantly different. In addition, anxiety and depression were prominent symptoms in a select subgroup of patients with poor initial evaluations, which improved over the 2 years. However, the ESS and PSQI scores fluctuated only mildly over the same time span. In conclusion, the mTBI patients showed a gradual improvement of anxiety and depression over the 2 years following injury. While anxiety and depression levels for mTBI patients in general did not return to premorbid status, improvements were observed. Sleep disorders persisted and were consistent with initial levels of distress.


Assuntos
Concussão Encefálica/complicações , Concussão Encefálica/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psicometria/métodos , Sono , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 2694, 2019 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804406

RESUMO

It remains unclear how different uses of angiotensin-converting inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) influence the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study explored CKD progression in a multicentre, longitudinal cohort study that included 2639 patients with CKD stage 1-5 and hypertension. Patients treated with ACEI or ARB for ≥90 days during a 6-mo period comprised the study group, or no treatment, comprised the control group. The study group was subdivided on the basis of treatment: ACEI monotherapy or ARB monotherapy. Progression of renal deterioration was defined by an average eGFR decline of more than 5 mL/min/1.73 m2/yr or the commencement of dialysis. With at least 1-year follow up, a progression of renal deterioration was demonstrated in 29.70% of the control group and 25.09% of the study group. Patients in the study group had significantly reduced progression of CKD with adjusted odds ratio 0.79 (95% confidence interval: 0.63-0.99). However, when ACEI monotherapy and ARB monotherapy were analyzed separately, none of their associations with CKD progression was statistically significant. In conclusion, ACEI or ARB monotherapy may retard the deterioration of renal function among patients with CKD and hypertension.

14.
Waste Manag ; 85: 295-303, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30803583

RESUMO

Solid alcohols based on waste cooking oil (WCO) and other edible oils (butter or soybean oil) were synthesized by a simple one-step method. The effects of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) dosage and type of oil on the combustion performances were explored. IR spectroscopy and micro-morphologies of the oil based solid alcohols were also studied. Results showed that, for oil based solid alcohol, use of an appropriate excess of NaOH and an oil with lower iodine value produced the solid alcohol with better combustion performance. Centrifugation produced the bottom waste cooking oil (B-WCO) with lower iodine value and the supernatant waste cooking oil (S-WCO) with higher iodine value. The B-WCO afforded solid alcohol with longer combustion time, higher melting temperature and relatively low combustion residue rate, whereas the S-WCO could be used for synthesizing biodiesel.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Óleos Vegetais , Culinária , Etanol , Alimentos
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(3)2019 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30682785

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of mortality and disability worldwide. Long-term deficits after TBI arise not only from the direct effects of the injury but also from ongoing processes such as neuronal excitotoxicity, inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is known to contribute to these processes. We have previously shown that 3,6'-dithiothalidomide (3,6'-DT), a thalidomide analog that is more potent than thalidomide with similar brain penetration, selectively inhibits the synthesis of TNF-α in cultured cells and reverses behavioral impairments induced by mild TBI in mice. In the present study, we further explored the therapeutic potential of 3,6'-DT in an animal model of moderate TBI using Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to controlled cortical impact. A single dose of 3,6'-DT (28 mg/kg, i.p.) at 5 h after TBI significantly reduced contusion volume, neuronal degeneration, neuronal apoptosis and neurological deficits at 24 h post-injury. Expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the contusion regions were also suppressed at the transcription and translation level by 3,6'-DT. Notably, neuronal oxidative stress was also suppressed by 3,6'-DT. We conclude that 3,6'-DT may represent a potential therapy to ameliorate TBI-induced functional deficits.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Talidomida/análogos & derivados , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Masculino , Camundongos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Talidomida/farmacologia , Talidomida/uso terapêutico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
16.
Cereb Cortex ; 29(10): 4035-4049, 2019 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30462186

RESUMO

Adolescence is marked by increased vulnerability to mental disorders and maladaptive behaviors, including anorexia nervosa. Food-restriction (FR) stress evokes foraging, which translates to increased wheel running exercise (EX) for caged rodents, a maladaptive behavior, since it does not improve food access and exacerbates weight loss. While almost all adolescent rodents increase EX following FR, some then become resilient by suppressing EX by the second-fourth FR day, which minimizes weight loss. We asked whether GABAergic plasticity in the hippocampus may underlie this gain in resilience. In vitro slice physiology revealed doubling of pyramidal neurons' GABA response in the dorsal hippocampus of food-restricted animals with wheel access (FR + EX for 4 days), but without increase of mIPSC amplitudes. mIPSC frequency increased by 46%, but electron microscopy revealed no increase in axosomatic GABAergic synapse number onto pyramidal cells and only a modest increase (26%) of GABAergic synapse lengths. These changes suggest increase of vesicular release probability and extrasynaptic GABAA receptors and unsilencing of GABAergic synapses. GABAergic synapse lengths correlated with individual's suppression of wheel running and weight loss. These analyses indicate that EX can have dual roles-exacerbate weight loss but also promote resilience to some by dampening hippocampal excitability.

17.
Neural Plast ; 2019: 4252943, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949429

RESUMO

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive technique for modulating neural plasticity and is considered to have therapeutic potential in neurological disorders. For the purpose of translational neuroscience research, a suitable animal model can be ideal for providing a stable condition for identifying mechanisms that can help to explore therapeutic strategies. Here, we developed a tDCS protocol for modulating motor excitability in anesthetized rats. To examine the responses of tDCS-elicited plasticity, the motor evoked potential (MEP) and MEP input-output (IO) curve elicited by epidural motor cortical electrical stimulus were evaluated at baseline and after 30 min of anodal tDCS or cathodal tDCS. Furthermore, a paired-pulse cortical electrical stimulus was applied to assess changes in the inhibitory network by measuring long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI) before and after tDCS. In the results, analogous to those observed in humans, the present study demonstrates long-term potentiation- (LTP-) and long-term depression- (LTD-) like plasticity can be induced by tDCS protocol in anesthetized rats. We found that the MEPs were significantly enhanced immediately after anodal tDCS at 0.1 mA and 0.8 mA and remained enhanced for 30 min. Similarly, MEPs were suppressed immediately after cathodal tDCS at 0.8 mA and lasted for 30 min. No effect was noted on the MEP magnitude under sham tDCS stimulation. Furthermore, the IO curve slope was elevated following anodal tDCS and presented a trend toward diminished slope after cathodal tDCS. No significant differences in the LICI ratio of pre- to post-tDCS were observed. These results indicated that developed tDCS schemes can produce consistent, rapid, and controllable electrophysiological changes in corticomotor excitability in rats. This newly developed tDCS animal model could be useful to further explore mechanical insights and may serve as a translational platform bridging human and animal studies, establishing new therapeutic strategies for neurological disorders.

18.
Cogn Neurodyn ; 12(6): 625-636, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30483370

RESUMO

Excessive synchronization of neurons in cerebral cortex is believed to play a crucial role in the emergence of neuropsychological disorders such as Parkinson's disease, epilepsy and essential tremor. This study, by constructing a modular neuronal network with modified Oja's learning rule, explores how to eliminate the pathological synchronized rhythm of interacted busting neurons numerically. When all neurons in the modular neuronal network are strongly synchronous within a specific range of coupling strength, the result reveals that synaptic plasticity with large learning rate can suppress bursting synchronization effectively. For the relative small learning rate not capable of suppressing synchronization, the technique of nonlinear delayed feedback control including differential feedback control and direct feedback control is further proposed to reduce the synchronized bursting state of coupled neurons. It is demonstrated that the two kinds of nonlinear feedback control can eliminate bursting synchronization significantly when the control parameters of feedback strength and feedback delay are appropriately tuned. For the former control technique, the control domain of effective synchronization suppression is similar to a semi-elliptical domain in the simulated parameter space of feedback strength and feedback delay, while for the latter one, the effective control domain is similar to a fan-shaped domain in the simulated parameter space.

19.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 2368, 2018 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29402897

RESUMO

Cortical and hippocampal neuronal damages caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI) are associated with motor and cognitive impairments; however, only little attention paid to the striatal damage. It is known that the p53 tumor-suppressor transcription factor participated in TBI-induced secondary brain damage. We investigated how the p53 inactivator pifithrin (PFT)-α affected TBI-induced striatal neuronal damage at 24 h post-injury. Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to a controlled cortical impact were used as TBI models. We observed that p53 mRNA significantly increased, whereas p53 protein expression was distributed predominantly in neurons but not in glia cells in striatum after TBI. PFT-α improved motor deficit following TBI. PFT-α suppressed TBI-induced striatal glial activation and expression of proinflammatory cytokines. PFT-α alleviated TBI-induced oxidative damage TBI induced autophagy was evidenced by increased protein expression of Beclin-1 and shift of microtubule-associated light chain (LC)3-I to LC3-II, and decreased p62. These effects were reduced by PFT-α. Post-injury PFT-α treatment reduced the number of degenerating (FJC-positive) and apoptotic neurons. Our results suggest that PFT-α may provide neuroprotective effects via p53-dependent or -independent mechanisms depending on the cell type and timing after the TBI and can possibly be developed into a novel therapy to ameliorate TBI-induced neuronal damage.


Assuntos
Benzotiazóis/administração & dosagem , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/patologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/prevenção & controle , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/administração & dosagem , Tolueno/análogos & derivados , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Estriado Ventral/patologia , Animais , Apoptose , Autofagia , Western Blotting , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Inflamação , Neuroglia/patologia , Neurônios/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Tolueno/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Neuroimmunol ; 318: 15-20, 2018 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29395321

RESUMO

Despite growing evidence that cytokines and chemokines are expressed in humans and rats after heat stress, the cellular mechanisms underlying the effects on the brain after heatstroke (HS) are not fully understood. In this study, we observed time course changes of chemokines in rat brain tissues and elucidated what kinds of cortical cells were affected after HS. Male SD rats were anesthetized and randomly separated into two groups as follows: (a) normothermic sham and (b) HS rats. Rats were sacrificed at different time points (0, 1, 3, 6, and 12h after heat exposure, n=5 in each group) to the end of the experiment in order to extract the mRNA/proteins of cortical tissues. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of sham and HS rats was also collected before sacrifice. In the HS group, an elevated body temperature (Tco>40°C) and abnormality of cortical cells (e.g., pyknotic nuclei) were observed. When compared to the sham group, expression levels of either mRNAs or proteins of chemokines and their receptors (including CXCL1, MIP2, MCP1, CXCR1, CXCR2, and CCR2) peaked at different time points after heat exposure. We also found that CXCR2 was expressed in the cortex of rat brain and was colocalized with neurons and microglia after HS. Hence, MCP1, MIP2, and CXCR2 might play important roles in the brain after HS, possibly indicating a new direction for treating HS.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Quimiocinas/biossíntese , Golpe de Calor/metabolismo , Receptores de Quimiocinas/biossíntese , Animais , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Quimiocinas/análise , Golpe de Calor/patologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de Quimiocinas/análise
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