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1.
Hortic Res ; 2022 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35043208

RESUMO

Allopolyploids contain two or more sets of subgenomes. To establish a compatible relationship between subgenomes, a series of gene expression changes occurred in allopolyploids. What evolutionary changes of transcripts have taken place in Brassica napus during the early establishment and subsequent evolution was a fascinating scientific question. Here, we study this issue using a set of materials (natural, resynthesized B. napus and their progenitors/parents) by long-read RNA sequencing technology. The results showed that more genes were up-regulated in resynthesized B. napus compared with its two parents, and more up-regulated expressed genes were observed in natural B. napus compared with resynthesized B. napus. The presence of up-regulation genes in organism may help it adapt to the influence of "genomic shock" and cope with natural environment. Isoforms are produced from precursor mRNAs by alternative splicing (AS) events, and more than 60% of novel isoforms were identified in all materials, which could improve the reference genome information of B. napus. We found that the isoform numbers, the number of genes potentially involved in AS and alternative polyadenylation increased in B. napus after evolution, which may involve in the adaptation of plants to natural environment. In addition, all identified isoforms were functional annotated by searching 7 databases. In general, this study could improve our overall understanding of the full-length transcriptome of B. napus, and help us recognize the significant gene expression changes and isoform abundance changes occurred in allopolyploid B. napus during evolution.

2.
J Dermatol ; 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35014096

RESUMO

Palmoplantar keratoderma Bothnia type (PPKB) is caused by AQP5 pathogenic variants. The mechanisms of this disease and the genotype-phenotype correlation are still not fully understood. We report two pedigrees with PPKB caused by a recurrent variant c.367A>T and a novel variant c.530T>A in the AQP5 gene, respectively. We also summarize the cases with AQP5 variants identified, and found that there seemed to be no significant genotype-phenotype correlation of this disease. Moreover, we noticed that the epidermis of the patient had strong proliferation and immature differentiation potential as well as recognizing the possible important role of TRPV4 in the pathogenesis of PPKB.

3.
Chemosphere ; : 133501, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34995625

RESUMO

Understanding the cellular mechanisms mediating invasive plant adaptation to excessive cadmium (Cd) in environments is crucial for designing phytoremediation strategies for Cd-contaminated soils. Here we performed RNA sequencing on the root and leaf tissues of Solidago canadensis stressed by Cd for 0, 12, 24, and 48 h. Tissue-specific gene expression was notably significant, i.e., 76% (1667) of differentially expressed unigenes in the root and 78% (1856) in the leaf were exclusive to each tissue. Distinctive enrichment of gene functions was further observed in each tissue's response. In detail, adaptation of the root to Cd stress involved the up-regulation of genes encoding molecular chaperones (mainly heat shock proteins) and induction of some antioxidants, which may help cells scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS). In comparison, leaf exposure to Cd ramped up the expression of genes associated with secondary metabolism, comprised mainly of cytochrome P450, but slowed down its photosynthetic functions, which seems to conserve energy for survival. Moreover, we highlighted candidate gene modules that are highly linked to physiological traits. Collectively, these observations suggest that S. canadensis may adopt a multipronged approach to actively cope with Cd stress, with both management of ROS accumulation and metabolic adjustment to optimize energy metabolism.

4.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 58(3): 399-402, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34908049

RESUMO

A palladium-catalyzed stereoselective synthesis of alkenyl boronates from N-methyliminodiacetyl boronate (BMIDA)-substituted N-tosylhydrazone and benzyl bromides is developed. A range of trans-alkenyl MIDA boronates as single stereoisomers were obtained in moderate yields with good functional group compatibility. The resultant boronate products may be transformed to other boron-containing compounds and may also be directly used in cross-coupling reactions.

5.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 611: 71-81, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34933192

RESUMO

The flaky carbon nitride containing nitrogen defects (NDCN) could effectively perform the photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) due to its abundant active sites. Reducing the recombination of electrons and holes was also a method of semiconductor photocatalyst design. A nanosphere ball-flower Indium sulfide (In2S3) was synthesized via a simple hydrothermal approach, and then calcined to obtain the ß-In2S3/NDCN heterojunction photocatalyst and applied for CO2 photocatalytic reduction. The best total yield (carbon monoxide, CO: 20.32 µmol·g-1·h-1; methane, CH4: 2.12 µmol·g-1·h-1) could be obtained at the optimized 20% ß-In2S3/NDCN under near room temperature and pressure and without using any sacrificial agents or promoters, almost 1.7 times higher compared with NDCN. The composite catalyst still exhibited excellent stability after four cycles. The improvement of excellent performance was due to not only the enhancement of fine CO2 adsorption/activation and the light absorption ability, but also attributed to the formation of heterojunction, which accelerated the effective separation of electrons and holes. This work might provide a novel approach to design carbon nitride heterojunction photocatalysts with nitrogen defects for CO2 utilization.

6.
Dev Biol ; 482: 91-100, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34929174

RESUMO

Ciliogenic components, such as the family of intraflagellar transport (IFT) proteins, are recognized to play key roles in endochondral ossification, a critical process to form most bones. However, the unique functions and roles of each IFT during endochondral ossification remain unclear. Here, we show that IFT20 is required for endochondral ossification in mice. Utilizing osteo-chondrocyte lineage-specific Cre mice (Prx1-Cre and Col2-Cre), we deleted Ift20 to examine its function. Although chondrocyte-specific Ift20 deletion with Col2-Cre mice did not cause any overt skeletal defects, mesoderm-specific Ift20 deletion using Prx1-Cre (Ift20:Prx1-Cre) mice resulted in shortened limb outgrowth. Primary cilia were absent on chondrocytes of Ift20:Prx1-Cre mice, and ciliary-mediated Hedgehog signaling was attenuated in Ift20:Prx1-Cre mice. Interestingly, loss of Ift20 also increased Fgf18 expression in the perichondrium that sustained Sox9 expression, thus preventing endochondral ossification. Inhibition of enhanced phospho-ERK1/2 activation partially rescued defective chondrogenesis in Ift20 mutant cells, supporting an important role for FGF signaling. Our findings demonstrate that IFT20 is a critical regulator of temporospatial FGF signaling that is required for endochondral ossification.

7.
Plant Mol Biol ; 2021 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34855066

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Flag leaf heterosis of inter-subspecific hybrid rice is suggested to be related to leaf area, gene expression pattern and allele-specific expression, putatively related to DNA methylation differences between the hybrid and its parents. Inter-subspecific hybrid rice combinations of indica × japonica have great potential to broaden genetic diversity and enhance the heterosis. The genetic and epigenetic molecular mechanism of its heterosis is not completely understood. Here, the dissection of gene expression and epigenetic regulation of an elite inter-subspecific hybrid rice were reported. In the hybrid, plant height, flag leaf area and Pn showed significant heterosis at the heading stage. Chloroplast-related differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 530 allele-specific expression genes in hybrid were identified. Analysis of the genome-wide distribution of DNA methylation (5-methylcytosine, 5mC) and its association with transcription showed that there were variant DNA methylation maps and that the regulation of gene expression levels was negatively regulated by DNA methylation in the inter-subspecific hybrid rice. Differentially methylated DEGs were significantly enriched in photosynthetic functions. Moreover, distinct 5mC sequence contexts and distinct functional elements (promoter/gene body) may have different influences on heterosis related genes. The data identified heterosis related molecular mechanisms in inter-subspecific hybrid rice and suggested that epigenetic changes could extensively influence the flag leaf gene expression and heterosis.

8.
Neurooncol Adv ; 3(Suppl 5): v43-v51, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34859232

RESUMO

Brain metastases from solid tumors are increasing in incidence, especially as outcomes of systemic therapies continue to extend patients' overall survival. The long-held notion that the brain is an immune sanctuary has now been largely refuted with increasing evidence that immunotherapy can induce durable responses in brain metastases. Single agent immune checkpoint inhibition with anti-CTLA4 and anti-PD1 antibodies induces durable responses in 15%-20% in melanoma brain metastases as long as patients are asymptomatic and do not require corticosteroids. The combination of anti-CTLA4 with anti-PD-1 antibodies induces an intracranial response in over 50% of asymptomatic melanoma patients, and much lower rate of otherwise durable responses (20%) in symptomatic patients or those on steroids. Data in other cancers, such as renal cell carcinoma, are accumulating indicating a role for immunotherapy. Emerging immunotherapy approaches will have to focus on increasing response rates, decreasing toxicity, and decreasing steroid dependency. The path to those advances will have to include a better understanding of the mechanisms of response and resistance to immunotherapy in brain metastases, the use of novel agents such as anti-LAG3 checkpoint inhibitors, targeted therapy (oncogene directed or TKIs), and possibly surgery and SRS to improve the outcomes of patients with brain metastases.

9.
J Dermatol ; 2021 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34862657

RESUMO

Netherton syndrome (NS) is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disease caused by SPINK5 gene mutation without specific effective therapies available. We report a case of NS confirmed by whole exome sequencing of DNA using peripheral blood, and Sanger sequencing found two new mutations associated with her clinical presentation located at SPINK5 gene c.1220+5G>A from her father and c.1870delA from her mother. The patient was treated with dupilumab (600 mg at week 0, then 300 mg every 2 weeks, s.c.). The clinical manifestation and dermoscopic images of the patient's hair showed remarkable improvement after dupilumab treatment with no adverse effects. We also reviewed previous reports to learn more about the therapeutic effect and adverse reactions of NS treated with dupilumab.

10.
Comput Biol Med ; 140: 105063, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34864584

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Since Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) was introduced into the field of deep learning in 2014, it has received extensive attention from academia and industry, and a lot of high-quality papers have been published. GAN effectively improves the accuracy of medical image segmentation because of its good generating ability and capability to capture data distribution. This paper introduces the origin, working principle, and extended variant of GAN, and it reviews the latest development of GAN-based medical image segmentation methods. METHOD: To find the papers, we searched on Google Scholar and PubMed with the keywords like "segmentation", "medical image", and "GAN (or generative adversarial network)". Also, additional searches were performed on Semantic Scholar, Springer, arXiv, and the top conferences in computer science with the above keywords related to GAN. RESULTS: We reviewed more than 120 GAN-based architectures for medical image segmentation that were published before September 2021. We categorized and summarized these papers according to the segmentation regions, imaging modality, and classification methods. Besides, we discussed the advantages, challenges, and future research directions of GAN in medical image segmentation. CONCLUSIONS: We discussed in detail the recent papers on medical image segmentation using GAN. The application of GAN and its extended variants has effectively improved the accuracy of medical image segmentation. Obtaining the recognition of clinicians and patients and overcoming the instability, low repeatability, and uninterpretability of GAN will be an important research direction in the future.

11.
Small ; : e2106341, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34908232

RESUMO

Germanium, the prime applied semiconductor, is widely used in solid-state electronics and photoelectronics. Unfortunately, since the 3D diamond-like structure with strong covalent bonds impedes the 2D anisotropic growth, only the examples of ultrathin Ge along the (111) plane have been investigated, much less to the controllable synthesis along another crystal surface. Meanwhile, Ge(111) flakes are limited in semiconductor applications because of their gapless property. Here, ultrathin Ge(110) single crystal is synthesized with semiconductive property via gallium-associated self-limiting growth. The obtained ultrathin Ge(110) single crystal exhibits anisotropic honeycomb structure, uniformly incremental lattice, wide tunable direct-bandgap, blue-shifted photoluminescence emission, and unique phonon modes, which are consistent with the previous theoretical predictions. It also confirms excellent second harmonic generation and high hole mobility of 724 cm2 V-1 s-1 . The realization of ultrathin Ge(110) single crystal will provide an excellent candidate for application in electronics and optoelectronics.

12.
ACS Nano ; 15(12): 20607-20618, 2021 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34910449

RESUMO

Intricate hollow carbon structures possess vital function for anchoring polysulfides and enhancing the utilization of sulfur in room-temperature sodium-sulfur batteries. However, their synthesis is extremely challenging due to the complex structure. Here, a facile and efficient strategy is developed for the controllable synthesis of N/O-doped multichambered carbon nanoboxes (MCCBs) by selective etching and stepwise carbonization of ZIF-8 nanocubes. The MCCBs consist of porous carbon shells on the outside and connected carbon grids with a hollow structure on the inside, bringing about a MCCBs structure. As a sulfur host, the multichambered structure has better spatial encapsulation and integrated conductivity via the inner interconnected carbon grids, which combines the characteristics of short charge transfer path and superb physicochemical adsorption along with mechanical strength. As expected, the S@MCCBs cathode realizes decent cycle stability (0.045% capacity decay per cycle over 800 cycles at 5 A g-1) and enhanced rate performance (328 mA h g-1 at 10 A g-1). Furthermore, in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation confirms the good structural stability of the S@MCCBs during the (de)sodiation process. Our work demonstrates an effective strategy for the rational design and accurate construction of intricate hollow materials for high-performance energy storage systems.

13.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(12)2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34946800

RESUMO

SUV (the Suppressor of variegation [Su(var)] homologs and related) gene family is a subgroup of the SET gene family. According to the SRA domain and WIYLD domain distributions, it can be divided into two categories, namely SUVH (the Suppressor of variegation [Su(var)] homologs) and SUVR (the Suppressor of variegation [Su(var)] related). In this study, 139 SUV genes were identified in allopolyploid Brassica napus and its diploid ancestors, and their evolutionary relationships, protein properties, gene structures, motif distributions, transposable elements, cis-acting elements and gene expression patterns were analyzed. Our results showed that the SUV gene family of B. napus was amplified during allopolyploidization, in which the segmental duplication and TRD played critical roles. After the separation of Brassica and Arabidopsis lineages, orthologous gene analysis showed that many SUV genes were lost during the evolutionary process in B. rapa, B. oleracea and B. napus. The analysis of the gene and protein structures and expression patterns of 30 orthologous gene pairs which may have evolutionary relationships showed that most of them were conserved in gene structures and protein motifs, but only four gene pairs had the same expression patterns.

14.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; : e202115098, 2021 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34939732

RESUMO

Introduction of the trifluoromethyl group (CF3 ) into organic molecules in an enantioselective manner has attracted significant attention, but still remains a challenging problem. We herein report a catalytic asymmetric trifluoromethylation of cyclic ketones via a ScIII /chiral bisoxazoline-catalyzed homologation reaction by employing 2,2,2-trifluorodiazoethane (CF3 CHN2 ) as the CF3 source. This desymmetrization process is highly efficient and generates two chiral centers with excellent diastereoselectivity and enantioselectivity, affording chiral α-trifluoromethyl cyclic ketones in a straightforward manner.

15.
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther ; : 1-8, 2021 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumor-stroma ratio (TSR) and tumor budding (TB) play important roles in muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). We developed a rating system (TSR-TB type) based on the morphological evaluation of TSR and TB for predicting patient outcome and using individualized care. METHODS: TSR and TB were assessed in publicly accessible MIBC tumor slides from the TCGA database. MIBC patients were classified as low stromal or high stromal type based on TSR, and high stromal type was further classified as compartmentalized or mixed stromal type based on TB. RESULTS: TSR-TB type was an independent adverse prognostic factor for OS (P < 0.001). Low stromal type had a greater prognosis (P < 0.001) and were enriched for FGFR3 mutations (P = 0.001). The mixed stromal type was distinguished by increased M2 macrophage penetration (P < 0.001), anti-tumor immune activity, DNA repair pathway mutations, and poor survival. GSEA showed that certain cancer-related pathways, such as mitotic spindle, PI3K-AKT-MTOR signalingwere hyperactivated in high stromal type (all FDR<0.05). Furthermore, mixed stromal type demonstrated enhanced activation of epithelial mesenchymal transformation (EMT), inflammatory response (all FDR<0.05). CONCLUSION: TSR and TB-based MIBC classification coincides with patient survival and molecular alterations. The identified subtypes may have important implications for individualized MIBC therapy.

16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(47): 56064-56072, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787391

RESUMO

The development of electrocatalysts for efficient water splitting is a pivotal and challenging task. Transition-metal phosphides (TMPs) have been known as one of the most promising candidates for the efficient hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) due to their favorable intrinsic reactivity. However, structural engineering related to the gas bubbles evolution and tiny regulation of components concerned with the electronic structure remained as a significant challenge that requires further optimization. Herein, the nanoarrays (NAs) composed of ultrasmall Co2P and CoP nanoparticle-embedded N-doped carbon matrix (Co2P&CoP@N-C) are prepared and demonstrated an overpotential of 62.8 ± 4.7 mV at 10 mA cm-2 in 1.0 M KOH. The nanoarray-structured electrocatalyst revealed the superaerophobicity and facilitates the detachment of the in situ formed hydrogen gas bubbles, ensuring abundant catalytic sites and electrode-electrolyte interface for the mass transfer process. The amount of P doping modulated the local electron density around Co and P atoms, which attains a favorable compromise to afford sufficient electrons for the electrocatalysis and inhibit the negative influence of H2 desorption. Significantly, the lowered overpotential induced by the electrocatalyst surface architecture is much stronger than that of the component content and promotes the electrocatalytic activity.

17.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 738947, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746256

RESUMO

Objective: We aimed to: (1) explore the risk factors that affect the prognosis of cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CS-AKI) in patients undergoing renal replacement therapy (RRT) and (2) investigate the predictive value of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) III score, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, and Vasoactive-Inotropic Score (VIS) for mortality risk in patients undergoing RRT. Methods: Data from patients who underwent cardiac surgery from January 2015 through February 2021 were retrospectively reviewed to calculate the APACHE III score, SOFA score, and VIS on the first postoperative day and at the start of RRT. Various risk factors influencing the prognosis of the patients during treatment were evaluated; the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUCROC) was used to measure the predictive ability of the three scores. Independent risk factors influencing mortality were analyzed using multivariable binary logistic regression. Results: A total of 90 patients were included in the study, using 90-day survival as the end point. Of those patients, 36 patients survived, and 54 patients died; the mortality rate reached 60%. At the start of RRT, the AUCROC of the APACHE III score was 0.866 (95% CI: 0.795-0.937), the VIS was 0.796 (95% CI: 0.700-0.892), and the SOFA score was 0.732 (95% CI: 0.623-0.842). The AUCROC-value of the APACHE III score on the first postoperative day was 0.790 (95% CI: 0.694-0.885). After analyzing multiple factors, we obtained the final logistic regression model with five independent risk factors at the start of RRT: a high APACHE III score (OR: 1.228, 95% CI: 1.079-1.397), high VIS (OR: 1.147, 95% CI: 1.021-1.290), low mean arterial pressure (MAP) (OR: 1.170, 95% CI: 1.050-1.303), high lactate value (OR: 1.552, 95% CI: 1.032-2.333), and long time from AKI to initiation of RRT (OR: 1.014, 95% CI: 1.002-1.027). Conclusion: In this study, we showed that at the start of RRT, the APACHE III score and the VIS can accurately predict the risk of death in patients undergoing continuous RRT for CS-AKI. The APACHE III score on the first postoperative day allows early prediction of patient mortality risk. Predictors influencing patient mortality at the initiation of RRT were high APACHE III score, high VIS, low MAP, high lactate value, and long time from AKI to the start of RRT.

18.
Inorg Chem ; 60(23): 18199-18204, 2021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775746

RESUMO

Applying in situ transmission electron microscopy, the phase instability in potassium tungsten bronze (KxWO3, 0.18 < x < 0.57) induced by heating was investigated. The atomistic phase transition pathway of monoclinic K0.20WO3 → hexagonal KmWO3 (0.18 < m < 0.20) → cubic WO3 induced by cationic defects (K and W vacancies) was directly revealed. Unexpectedly, a K+-rich tetragonal KnWO3 (0.40 < n < 0.57) phase would nucleate as well, which may result from the blockage of K+ diffusion at the grain boundaries. Our results point out the critical role of the cationic defects in mediating the crystal structures in KxWO3, which provide reference to rational structural design for extensive high-temperature applications.

19.
Big Data ; 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34756115

RESUMO

With the widespread application of intelligent systems in major industries, the traditional equipment manufacturing industry has gradually shifted to advanced equipment manufacturing. The innovation network of an industry directly affects the innovation capability of the industry, so the research of innovation network has always been the focus of attention. However, there are few researches on the innovation network of advanced equipment manufacturing industry, so this article has launched an in-depth study on it. First, it analyzes the basic geometric characteristics of the innovation network. Then, based on the small-world network model, an evolution model of the advanced equipment manufacturing innovation network was created, and simulation experiments were performed on the evolution model. The experimental results show that the clustering coefficient and the average distance showed different changes in different stages, but in the end they all gradually stabilized. The clustering coefficient was 0.484, the average distance was 1.854, and the degree of small cosmos was 0.497. This shows that the innovation network evolution model established in this study can reveal the evolution process of the innovation network of advanced equipment manufacturing through simulation experiments.

20.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615724

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Hypoxia is a common characteristic of many tumor microenvironments, and it has been shown to promote suppression of anti-tumor immunity. Despite strong biological rationale, longitudinal correlation of hypoxia and response to immunotherapy has not been investigated. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In this study, we probed the tumor and its surrounding microenvironment with 18F-FMISO PET imaging to non-invasively quantify tumor hypoxia in vivo prior to and during PD-1 and CTLA-4 checkpoint blockade in preclinical models of breast and colon cancer. RESULTS: Longitudinal imaging identified hypoxia as an early predictive biomarker of therapeutic response (prior to anatomic changes in tumor volume) with a decreasing standard uptake value (SUV) ratio in tumors that effectively respond to therapy. PET signal correlated with ex vivo markers of tumor immune response including cytokines (Ifng, Gzmb, and Tnf), damage-associated molecular pattern receptors (Tlr2/4) and immune cell populations (macrophages, dendritic cells, and cytotoxic T cells). Responding tumors were marked by increased inflammation that were spatially distinct from hypoxic regions, providing a mechanistic understanding of the immune signaling pathways activated. To exploit image-guided combination therapy, hypoxia signal from PET imaging was used to guide the addition of a hypoxia targeted treatment to non-responsive tumors, which ultimately provided therapeutic synergy and rescued response as determined by longitudinal changes in tumor volume. CONCLUSIONS: The results generated from this work provide an immediately translatable paradigm for measuring and targeting hypoxia to increase response to immune checkpoint therapy and using hypoxia imaging to guide combinatory therapies.

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