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1.
Bioact Mater ; 20: 259-270, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35702611

RESUMO

Rationale: Hypoxia in tumor microenvironment (TME) represents an obstacle to the efficacy of immunotherapy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) through several aspects such as increasing the expression of immune checkpoints or promoting fibrosis. Reversing hypoxic TME is a potential strategy to improve the validity of immune checkpoint blockade (ICB). Methods: Here, we synthesized polydopamine-nanoparticle-stabilized oxygen microcapsules with excellent stabilization, bioavailability, and biocompatibility for direct oxygen delivery into tumor sites by interfacial polymerization. Results: We observed oxygen microcapsules enhanced the oxygen concentration in the hypoxia environment and maintained the oxygen concentration for a long period both in vitro and in vivo. We found that oxygen microcapsules could significantly improve the efficiency of ICB against PDAC in vivo. Mechanismly, combined treatments using oxygen microcapsules and ICB could reduce the infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and polarized pro-tumor M2 macrophages into anti-tumor M1 macrophages. In addition, combined treatments could elevate the proportion of T helper subtype 1 cells (Th1 cells) and cytotoxic T lymphocytes cells (CTLs) to mediate anti-tumor immune response in TME. Conclusion: In summary, this pre-clinical study indicated that reversing hypoxia in TME by using oxygen microcapsules was an effective strategy to improve the performances of ICB on PDAC, which holds great potential for treating PDAC in the future.

2.
Gut ; 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36113977

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Early detection of a tumour remains an unmet medical need, and approaches with high sensitivity and specificity are urgently required. Mass cytometry time-of-flight (CyTOF) is a powerful technique to profile immune cells and could be applied to tumour detection. We attempted to establish diagnostic models for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). DESIGN: We performed CyTOF analysis for 2348 participants from 15 centres, including 1131 participants with hepatic diseases, 584 participants with pancreatic diseases and 633 healthy volunteers. Diagnostic models were constructed through random forest algorithm and validated in subgroups. RESULTS: We determined the disturbance of systemic immunity caused by HCC and PDAC, and calculated a peripheral blood immune score (PBIScore) based on the constructed model. The PBIScore exhibited good performance in detecting HCC and PDAC, with both sensitivity and specificity being around 80% in the validation cohorts. We further established an integrated PBIScore (iPBIScore) by combining PBIScore and alpha-fetoprotein or carbohydrate antigen 19-9. The iPBIScore for HCC had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.99, 0.97 and 0.96 in training, internal validation and external validation cohorts, respectively. Similarly, the iPBIScore for PDAC showed an AUC of 0.99, 0.98 and 0.97 in the training, internal validation and external validation cohorts, respectively. In early-stage and tumour-marker-negative patients, our iPBIScore-based models also showed an AUC of 0.95-0.96 and 0.81-0.92, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our study proved that the alterations of peripheral immune cell subsets could assist tumour detection, and provide a ready-to-use detection model for HCC and PDAC.

3.
Front Oncol ; 12: 951557, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36147904

RESUMO

Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have emerged as a promising treatment option for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, highlighting the need for biomarkers to identify responders and predict the outcome of ICIs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of baseline standardized uptake value (SUV), metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) derived from 18F-FDG-PET/CT in advanced NSCLC patients receiving ICIs. Methods: PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched from January 1st, 2011 to July 18th, 2022, utilizing the search terms "non-small-cell lung cancer", "PET/CT", "standardized uptake value", "metabolic tumor volume", " total lesion glycolysis", and "immune checkpoint inhibitors". Studies that analyzed the association between PET/CT parameters and objective response, immune-related adverse events (irAEs) and prognosis of NSCLC patients treated with ICIs were included. We extracted the hazard ratio (HR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). We performed a meta-analysis of HR using Review Manager v.5.4.1. Results: Sixteen studies were included for review and thirteen for meta-analysis covering 770 patients. As for objective response and irAEs after ICIs, more studies with consistent assessment methods are needed to determine their relationship with MTV. In the meta-analysis, low SUVmax corresponded to poor PFS with a pooled HR of 0.74 (95% CI, 0.57-0.96, P=0.02). And a high level of baseline MTV level was related to shorter PFS (HR=1.45, 95% CI, 1.11-1.89, P<0.01) and OS (HR, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.97-3.73, P<0.01) especially when the cut-off value was set between 50-100 cm3. SUVmean and TLG were not associated with the prognosis of NSCLC patients receiving ICIs. Conclusions: High level of baseline MTV corresponded to shorter PFS and OS, especially when the cut-off value was set between 50-100 cm3. MTV is a potential predictive value for the outcome of ICIs in NSCLC patients.

4.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 17: 2175-2185, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36106158

RESUMO

Background: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) has been a concern all over the world because of its high prevalence and mortality. The ratio of low-density-lipoprotein to lymphocyte (LLR) has been widely used to predict the prognosis of cerebral infarction, but its association with COPD is less known. We aim to explore the relationship between LLR and COPD and to investigate its indicative role in the severity and prognosis of COPD. Methods: In this study, 279 participants (n = 138 with COPD and n = 138 age- and sex-matched health control) were recruited. COPD patients were divided into two groups according to the optimal cut-off value of LLR determined by the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). We collected the clinical characteristics, pulmonary function, LLR, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and other data of all subjects. t-test, Pearson correlation test, logistic regression analysis and other statistical analysis were carried out. Results: Compared with the healthy control group, COPD patients had a significantly higher LLR level (p < 0.001). The disease was more serious in the high LLR group, which was reflected by Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) and BMI, airway obstruction, dyspnoea, severe exacerbations (BODE) index and St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) index (p = 0.001, p = 0.013, p = 0.011, respectively). The forced expiration volume in 1 second (FEV1) (p = 0.033) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second in percent of the predicted value (FEV1%) (p = 0.009) in high LLR group were lower. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that LLR was an independent factor affecting the severity of COPD patients (odds ratio [OR] = 2.599, 95% CI: 1.266-5.337, p = 0.009). Conclusion: We found that LLR is a novel biomarker in predicting the severity of patients with COPD. Further studies with larger database were recommended to verify our findings.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Lipoproteínas LDL , Pulmão , Linfócitos
5.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 153: 113452, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076566

RESUMO

AIM: The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanical and electrophysiological effects of emodin on BK channels in the IRASMCs, of the rat. METHODS: Isolated interlobar renal artery was used for vascular reactivity measurements using a pressure myograph system. Electrophysiological measurements of single vascular smooth muscle cells were conducted using whole-cell and cell-attached patch-clamp recording. Laser scanning confocal microscope technology was used to measure cytosolic calcium ion signals. KEY RESULTS: Emodin relaxed the interlobar renal artery and enhanced the outward currents amplitude of IRASMCs in a concentration-dependent manner, and IbTX inhibited these emodin-induced outward currents. Incubation of IRASMCs in a calcium ion free medium for 30 min decreased the observed effects of emodin on IRASMCs membrane currents. Furthermore, the application of nimodipine, an L-Type calcium ion channel blocker, ryanodine, a ryanodine receptor modifier, and heparin, an IP3 receptor blocker, decreased the emodin-induced BK channel currents, respectively. BAPTA-AM, a selective calcium ion chelator, abolished the emodin-induced BK channel currents. Emodin repolarized cytomembrane and enhanced BK channel open probabilities and elevated cytosolic calcium ion concentration. CONCLUSION: The vasorelaxant effect of emodin on vessels is mediated through the activation of BK channels.


Assuntos
Emodina , Canais de Potássio Ativados por Cálcio de Condutância Alta , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Emodina/farmacologia , Canais de Potássio Ativados por Cálcio de Condutância Alta/farmacologia , Músculo Liso Vascular , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Ratos , Artéria Renal/metabolismo
6.
Math Biosci Eng ; 19(10): 10407-10423, 2022 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36032000

RESUMO

Acoustic neuroma is a common benign tumor that is frequently associated with postoperative complications such as facial nerve dysfunction, which greatly affects the physical and mental health of patients. In this paper, clinical data of patients with acoustic neuroma treated with microsurgery by the same operator at Xiangya Hospital of Central South University from June 2018 to March 2020 are used as the study object. Machine learning and SMOTE-ENN techniques are used to accurately predict postoperative facial nerve function recovery, thus filling a gap in auxiliary diagnosis within the field of facial nerve treatment in acoustic neuroma. First, raw clinical data are processed and dependent variables are identified based on clinical context and data characteristics. Secondly, data balancing is corrected using the SMOTE-ENN technique. Finally, XGBoost is selected to construct a prediction model for patients' postoperative recovery, and is also compared with a total of four machine learning models, LR, SVM, CART, and RF. We find that XGBoost can most accurately predict the postoperative facial nerve function recovery, with a prediction accuracy of 90.0% and an AUC value of 0.90. CART, RF, and XGBoost can further select the more important preoperative indicators and provide therapeutic assistance to physicians, thereby improving the patient's postoperative recovery. The results show that machine learning and SMOTE-ENN techniques can handle complex clinical data and achieve accurate predictions.


Assuntos
Neuroma Acústico , Nervo Facial , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Período Pós-Operatório
7.
J Am Chem Soc ; 144(32): 14798-14808, 2022 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35926228

RESUMO

The bottom-up approach through on-surface synthesis of porous graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) presents a controllable manner for implanting periodic nanostructures to tune the electronic properties of GNRs in addition to bandgap engineering by width and edge configurations. However, owing to the existing steric hindrance in small pores like divacancies, it is still difficult to embed periodic divacancies with a nonplanar configuration into GNRs. Here, we demonstrate the on-surface synthesis of atomically precise eight-carbon-wide armchair GNRs embedded with periodic divacancies (DV8-aGNRs) by utilizing the monatomic step edges on the Au(111) surface. From a single molecular precursor correspondingly following a trans- and cis-coupling, the DV8-aGNR and another porous nanographene are respectively formed at step edges and on terraces at 720 and 570 K. Combining scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and first-principles calculations, we determine the out-of-plane conformation, wide bandgap (∼3.36 eV), and wiggly shaped frontier orbitals of the DV8-aGNR. Nudged elastic band calculations further quantitatively reveal that the additional steric hindrance effect in the cyclodehydrogenative reactions has a higher barrier of 1.3 eV than that in the planar porous nanographene, which also unveils the important role played by the monatomic Au step and adatoms in reducing the energy barriers and enhancing the thermodynamic preference of the oxidative cyclodehydrogenation. Our results provide the first case of GNRs containing periodic pores as small as divacancies with a nonplanar configuration and demonstrate the strategy by utilizing the chemical heterogeneity of a substrate to promote the formation of novel carbon nanomaterials.

8.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2022 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36004683

RESUMO

The decades-long overdose epidemic in the US is driven by opioid misuse. Overdoses commonly, though not exclusively, occur in individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD). To allocate adequate resources and develop appropriately scaled public health responses, accurate estimation of the prevalence of OUD is needed. Indirect methods (e.g., multiplier method) of estimating prevalence of problematic substance use behavior circumvent some limitations of household surveys and use of administrative data. We used a multiplier method to estimate OUD prevalence among the adult Medicaid population (ages 18-64) in 19 Ohio counties that are highly affected by overdose. We used Medicaid claims data and National Vital Statistics System overdose death data, which were linked at the person level. A statistical model leveraged opioid-related death rate information from a group with known OUD to estimate prevalence among a group with unknown OUD status given recorded opioid-related deaths in that group. We estimated that 13.6% of the total study population had OUD in 2019. Males (16.7%) had a higher prevalence of OUD than females (11.4%) and persons aged 35-54 had the highest prevalence (16.7%). Our approach to prevalence estimation has important implications for OUD surveillance and treatment in the United States.

9.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 13(1): 341, 2022 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35883153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to cell and tissue impairment, as well as functional deficits. Stem cells promote structural and functional recovery and thus are considered as a promising therapy for various nerve injuries. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of ectoderm-derived frontal bone mesenchymal stem cells (FbMSCs) in promoting cerebral repair and functional recovery in a murine TBI model. METHODS: A murine TBI model was established by injuring C57BL/6 N mice with moderate-controlled cortical impact to evaluate the extent of brain damage and behavioral deficits. Ectoderm-derived FbMSCs were isolated from the frontal bone and their characteristics were assessed using multiple differentiation assays, flow cytometry and microarray analysis. Brain repairment and functional recovery were analyzed at different days post-injury with or without FbMSC application. Behavioral tests were performed to assess learning and memory improvements. RNA sequencing analysis, immunofluorescence staining, and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were used to examine inflammation reaction and neural regeneration. In vitro co-culture analysis and quantification of glutamate transportation were carried out to explore the possible mechanism of neurogenesis and functional recovery promoted by FbMSCs. RESULTS: Ectoderm-derived FbMSCs showed fibroblast like morphology and osteogenic differentiation capacity. FbMSCs were CD105, CD29 positive and CD45, CD31 negative. Different from mesoderm-derived MSCs, FbMSCs expressed the ectoderm-specific transcription factor Tfap2ß. TBI mice showed impaired learning and memory deficits. Microglia and astrocyte activation, as well as neural damage, were significantly increased post-injury. FbMSC application ameliorated the behavioral deficits of TBI mice and promoted neural regeneration. RNA sequencing analysis showed that signal pathways related to inflammation decreased, whereas those related to neural activation increased. Immunofluorescence staining and qRT-PCR data revealed that microglial activation and astrocyte polarization to the A1 phenotype were suppressed by FbMSC application. In addition, FGF1 secreted from FbMSCs enhanced glutamate transportation by astrocytes and alleviated the cytotoxic effect of excessive glutamate on neurons. CONCLUSIONS: Ectoderm-derived FbMSC application significantly alleviated neuroinflammation, brain injury, and excitatory toxicity to neurons, improved cognition and behavioral deficits in TBI mice. Therefore, ectoderm-derived FbMSCs could be ideal therapeutic candidates for TBI which mostly affect cells from the same embryonic origins as FbMSCs.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Lesões Encefálicas , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Animais , Lesões Encefálicas/metabolismo , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/metabolismo , Ectoderma/metabolismo , Fator 1 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fator 1 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/farmacologia , Fator 1 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/uso terapêutico , Osso Frontal/metabolismo , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Ácido Glutâmico/farmacologia , Ácido Glutâmico/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/terapia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microglia/metabolismo , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias , Osteogênese
10.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 36(9): e24600, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35870182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sulfatase gene family members mediate various biological functions in tumor stroma and tumor cell environments. However, the expressions and prognostic value of Arylsulfatase I (ARSI), a sulfatase gene family member, in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSC) have not been fully established. METHODS: Arylsulfatase I expressions in pan-cancer were profiled using publicly available databases. Then, univariate Cox regression, Kaplan-Meier, and the Pearson's correlation analyses were performed to determine correlations between ARSI expressions and cancer prognosis, immune cell status, and drug sensitivity. Gene set variation analysis (GSVA) and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) were used to assess the potential mechanisms underlying ARSI functions in HNSC. RESULTS: Arylsulfatase I was highly expressed in 15 cancer types, with significant expressions in HNSC. Elevated ARSI levels were associated with worse prognostic outcomes in HNSC patients. In addition, GSVA and GSEA showed that ARSI was highly involved in tumor cell escape and inflammatory responses. Expressions of ARSI negatively correlated with tumor mutation burden or microsatellite instability and positively correlated with immune-related genes. Elevated ARSI expressions conferred poor tolerance to daporinad and sinularin, but increased cell sensitivity to dasatinib and XAV939. CONCLUSION: Arylsulfatase I is a promising prognostic and therapeutic target for HNSC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Arilsulfatases , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Humanos , Prognóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Sulfatases
11.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2022 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35849293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to comprehensively investigate the clinicopathologic characteristics and therapeutic situations of gallbladder neuroendocrine neoplasms (GB-NENs) in the real world via a multicenter, large-scale cohort study. METHODS: The study searched for patients in 143 hospitals in China and enrolled 154 patients with GB-NENs diagnosed in 40 hospitals between 2004 and 2021. Clinicopathologic characteristics and therapeutic approaches were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: The median age at the initial diagnosis of the patients with GB-NENs was 63 years (range 33-83 years), and 61.7% of the patients were women. Tumor-node-metastasis staging classified 92 patients as stage 3 or above. Based on the 2019 World Health Organization classification, 96 cases (62.3%) were confirmed pathologically as poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas, 13 cases (8.4%) as well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors, and 45 cases as mixed neuroendocrine-non-neuroendocrine neoplasms. The liver was the most frequent metastatic site. Immunohistochemistry showed that synaptophysin was most frequently positive (80.4%), followed by chromogranin A (61.7%), and CD56 (58.4%). Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed more common clear boundaries (25/39 cases) and invasive growth features (27 cases). None of these cases had an accurate diagnosis before surgery, with a misdiagnosis rate of 100%. Surgical resection is the main treatment, and platinum-based chemotherapeutic regimens were preferred as adjuvant therapies for patients with GB-NENs. The available survival data for 74 patients showed an overall survival rate of 59% at 1 year, 33% at 3 years, and 29% at 5 years. No significant difference was found between the patients treated with and those treated without adjuvant chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Gallbladder neuroendocrine neoplasms have high malignancy and a poor prognosis. Importantly, this large-scale cohort study significantly improves our understanding of GB-NENs and will benefit the exploration of its mechanism and treatment modes. Further investigation is necessary to explore the management of this disease.

12.
Arthroscopy ; 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35840069

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of arthroscopically assisted double-bundle medial patellofemoral complex reconstruction (MPFC-R). METHODS: A retrospective review was carried out among adult patients who experienced at least 2 patellar dislocations and underwent primary arthroscopically assisted MPFC-R between January 2014 and November 2019. Dejour classification, tibial tubercle-trochlear groove (TT-TG) distance, and patellar height (with Insall-Salvati index) were measured. Pre- and postoperative patellar tilt were compared. Information on outcome scores, ability to return to sports, postoperative recurrent dislocations, and complications was recorded. RESULTS: A total of 42 MPFC-Rs in 39 patients were included. Mean age at surgery was 22.2 ± 7.6 years; 69.2% of patients were female. Mean follow-up was 47.3 ± 20.2 months. Seventy-four percent of cases had Dejour B (19.0%), C (33.3%), and D (21.4%) trochlear dysplasia; mean TT-TG distance was 19.6 ± 3.5 mm, and mean Insall-Salvati index was 1.21 ± 0.17. Mean patellar tilt decreased from 27.6 ± 11.6° to 9.4 ± 6.5° (P < .001). All patients had statistically significant (P < .001) improvement in mean International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) (44.9 ± 18.2 to 87.5 ± 6.9), Lysholm (61.4 ± 16.6 to 94.1 ± 6.4), Kujala (56.0 ± 16.8 to 92.9 ± 5.3), and Tegner score (2.7 ± 1.3 to 4.6 ± 1.4). The majority of patients (96.9%) returned to sports, with 90.3% returning to the same or greater level of activity. No postoperative dislocations or subluxations were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Arthroscopically assisted double-bundle MPFC-R is a promising procedure to treat recurrent patellar instability at 2- to 7-year mid-term follow-up, despite the presence of trochlear dysplasia, elevated TT-TG distance and patellar alta. The improvement of IKDC score exceeded the minimal clinically important difference in 95.2% patients, and 66.7% surpassed the patient acceptable symptomatic state based on postoperative IKDC score with no redislocations being reported at latest follow-up. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, case series, retrospective.

13.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 34(39)2022 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35850114

RESUMO

Skyrmion bags as spin textures with arbitrary topological charge are expected to be the carriers in racetrack memory. Here, we theoretically and numerically investigated the dynamics of skyrmion bags in an anisotropy gradient. It is found that, without the boundary potential, the dynamics of skyrmion bags are dependent on the spin textures, and the velocity of skyrmionium withQ = 0 is faster than other skyrmion bags. However, when the skyrmion bags move along the boundary, the velocities of all skyrmion bags with differentQare same. In addition, we theoretically derived the dynamics of skyrmion bags in the two cases using the Thiele approach and discussed the scope of Thiele equation. Within a certain range, the simulation results are in good agreement with the analytically calculated results. Our findings provide an alternative way to manipulate the racetrack memory based on the skyrmion bags.

14.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 915506, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35898208

RESUMO

Environmentally friendly microcapsules are becoming more and more widely used due to the increasing demand for environmental safety in pesticides. To compare the impact of differences in wheat herbicide phytotoxicity of different gibberellic acid microcapsule suspensions, two microcapsule suspensions were separately formulated using the phase transfer method and the in situ polymerization method, and the key performance indicators are the size of microcapsules and the degree of encapsulation. Meanwhile, through field trials, the pharmacological and detoxification effects of different types of microcapsule suspensions on the herbicide methyldisulfuron in wheat fields were compared. The microcapsule suspension was prepared by the phase transfer method and the particle sizes D10, D50, and D90 are 0.990, 2.136, and 5.201 µm, respectively; the microcapsule suspension was prepared by the in situ polymerization, the particle sizes D10, D50, and D90 are 4.365, 8.547, and 16.782 µm, respectively. The encapsulation rate of the microcapsules prepared by the phase transfer method and the in situ polymerization method was 86.9% and 91.2%, being higher than 80%, the national standard for capsules. Meanwhile, the release rate conforms to first-order release kinetics in 0-4 days and zero-order release kinetics in 5-28 days. The plot trials' result showed that the detoxification effect of the microcapsules prepared by the in situ polymerization method was significantly better than the detoxification effect of the microcapsules prepared by the phase transfer method and the control agent. The growth index of wheat was higher than that of the untreated check after using the agent.

15.
Med Decis Making ; 42(7): 872-884, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35735216

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Metamodels are simplified approximations of more complex models that can be used as surrogates for the original models. Challenges in using metamodels for policy analysis arise when there are multiple correlated outputs of interest. We develop a framework for metamodeling with policy simulations to accommodate multivariate outcomes. METHODS: We combine 2 algorithm adaptation methods-multitarget stacking and regression chain with maximum correlation-with different base learners including linear regression (LR), elastic net (EE) with second-order terms, Gaussian process regression (GPR), random forests (RFs), and neural networks. We optimize integrated models using variable selection and hyperparameter tuning. We compare the accuracy, efficiency, and interpretability of different approaches. As an example application, we develop metamodels to emulate a microsimulation model of testing and treatment strategies for hepatitis C in correctional settings. RESULTS: Output variables from the simulation model were correlated (average ρ = 0.58). Without multioutput algorithm adaptation methods, in-sample fit (measured by R2) ranged from 0.881 for LR to 0.987 for GPR. The multioutput algorithm adaptation method increased R2 by an average 0.002 across base learners. Variable selection and hyperparameter tuning increased R2 by 0.009. Simpler models such as LR, EE, and RF required minimal training and prediction time. LR and EE had advantages in model interpretability, and we considered methods for improving the interpretability of other models. CONCLUSIONS: In our example application, the choice of base learner had the largest impact on R2; multioutput algorithm adaptation and variable selection and hyperparameter tuning had a modest impact. Although advantages and disadvantages of specific learning algorithms may vary across different modeling applications, our framework for metamodeling in policy analyses with multivariate outcomes has broad applicability to decision analysis in health and medicine.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Distribuição Normal , Políticas
16.
Genomics ; 114(4): 110392, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35644410

RESUMO

tRNA-derived small RNAs (tsRNAs) participate in several biological processes, including carcinogenesis. The correlations between tsRNAs and human cancers are attracting substantial attention. Nevertheless, the involvement of tsRNAs in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) progression remains unclear. We constructed tsRNAs expression profiles in LSCC and adjacent normal tissues by next-generation sequencing. Interestingly, we identified a specific 5'-tiRNA fragment (tRF-33-Q1Q89P9L842205) that was significantly downregulated and was closely associated with lymph node metastasis and advanced stages of LSCC. Importantly, we found that tRF-33-Q1Q89P9L842205 suppressed cell growth, proliferation, migration, invasion and induced apoptosis in LSCC by directly silencing phosphoinositide 3-kinase catalytic subunit (PIK3CD). We speculated that tRF-33-Q1Q89P9L842205 is a potential diagnostic biomarker for LSCC and acts as a tumor suppressor by directly targeting PIK3CD.


Assuntos
Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Neoplasias Laríngeas , MicroRNAs , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Laríngeas/genética , Neoplasias Laríngeas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Laríngeas/patologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 838(Pt 3): 156380, 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35660446

RESUMO

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), an emerging environmental persistent pollutant, has attracted extensive attention due to its potential nephrotoxicity. However, little is known about the spatial variations of lipid metabolism associated with PFOS exposure. In this study, atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (AP-MALDI MSI) was used to reveal the spatial distributions of PFOS and its adverse effect on lipid metabolism directly in mouse kidney sections. We have observed that PFOS accumulated in the renal pelvis and outer cortex regions, with some found in the medulla and inner cortex regions. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining results also demonstrated that the accumulation of PFOS caused damage to the mouse kidney, which was consistent with AP-MALDI MSI results. Furthermore, a total of 42 lipids were shown to be significantly different in the spatial distribution patterns and variations between control and PFOS exposure mice groups, including the significant down-regulation of lyso-glycerophospholipids (Lyso-GPs), phosphatidic acids (PA), phosphatidylcholines (PC), phosphatidylethanolamines (PE), phosphatidylserines (PS) sphingomyelins (SM) and sulfatides (ST) in renal medulla or cortex region of mouse kidney sections, and remarkable up-regulation of cholesterol and phosphatidylinositols (PI) in the cortex regions of mouse kidney sections. The AP-MALDI MSI provides a new tool to explore spatial distributions and variations of the endogenous metabolites for the risk assessment of environmental pollutants.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Poluentes Ambientais , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Animais , Pressão Atmosférica , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Fluorcarbonetos , Rim/metabolismo , Camundongos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35666677

RESUMO

Two Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria, designated SM9T and SM2T, were isolated from Taklamakan Desert soil samples. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strains SM9T and SM2T had the highest sequence similarity to the type strains Microvirga indica BCRC 80972T and Microvirga soli NBRC 112417T with similarity values of 98.2 and 97.7 %, respectively, and Microvirga was among the predominant genera in the desert soil. The draft genomes of these two strains were 4.56 Mbp (SM9T) and 5.08 Mbp (SM2T) long with 65.1 mol% (SM9T) and 63.5 mol% (SM2T) G+C content. To adapt to the desert environment, these two strains possessed pathways for the synthesis of stress metabolite trehalose. The major fatty acids (>5 %) included C18 : 1 ω9c in SM2T, but C16 : 0, C18 : 0 and C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c in SM9T, while the major menaquinone was ubiquinone 10 in both strains. The major polar lipids of SM9T and SM2T were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phospholipid. The average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization results further indicated that strains SM9T and SM2T were distinguished from phylogenetically related species and represented two novel species within the genus Microvirga, for which the names Microvirga roseola sp. nov. (type strain SM2T=KCTC 72792T=CGMCC 1.17776T) and Microvirga lenta sp. nov. (type strain SM9T=KCTC 82729T=CCTCC AB 2021131T) are proposed.


Assuntos
Bradyrhizobiaceae , Solo , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Bradyrhizobiaceae/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fosfolipídeos/análise , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Microbiologia do Solo
20.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 931065, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35770164

RESUMO

The oral cavity is an important window for microbial communication between the environment and the human body. The oral microbiome plays an important role in human health. However, compared to the gut microbiome, the oral microbiome has been poorly explored. Here, we analyzed 404 datasets from human oral saliva samples published by the Earth Microbiome Project (EMP) and compared them with 815 samples from the human gut, nose/pharynx, and skin. The diversity of the human saliva microbiome varied significantly among individuals, and the community compositions were complex and diverse. The saliva microbiome showed the lowest species diversity among the four environment types. Human oral habitats shared a small core bacterial community containing only 14 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) under 5 phyla, which occupied over 75% of the sequence abundance. For the four habitats, the core taxa of the saliva microbiome had the greatest impact on saliva habitats than other habitats and were mostly unique. In addition, the saliva microbiome showed significant differences in the populations of different regions, which may be determined by the living environment and lifestyle/dietary habits. Finally, the correlation analysis showed high similarity between the saliva microbiome and the microbiomes of Aerosol (non-saline) and Surface (non-saline), i.e., two environment types closely related to human, suggesting that contact and shared environment being the driving factors of microbial transmission. Together, these findings expand our understanding of human oral diversity and biogeography.

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