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1.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 558: 155-162, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586735

RESUMO

A facile solvent-free method was developed to synthesize Co9S8 nanoparticles entrapped, N, S-codoped mesoporous carbon, which involved two steps, including hand milling and carbonation. This synthetic route did not require any solvent during the entire process. Moreover, no water and/or acid solution were needed to remove the impurity from the calcined samples. The final products had mesoporous structures, as well as high Co, N, and S contents. In details, N and S atoms both doped into the carboneous matrix, and the Co9S8 nanoparticles also dispersed well in the composites. The characterization results revealed that the ratios of the precursors and the calcination temperatures both determined the porosities of the final products, which could further affect the electrocatalytic activities. The optional sample, G2.0T1.0Co0.3-900, revealed excellent electrocatalytic activities for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) under acidic condition, requiring overpotential of 71 mV to afford a current density of 10 mA cm-2. Additionally, G2.0T1.0Co0.3-900 also showed superior stability and duration.

2.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124676, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473531

RESUMO

While sublethal effects of insecticide on insect development have been widely studied, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Our previous studies revealed that sublethal concentrations of chlorantraniliprole significantly increased the juvenile hormone levels and resulted in both prolonged developmental time and reduced fecundity in Chilo suppressalis. In the present study, we evaluated the sublethal effects of chlorantraniliprole on molting hormone (MH) levels and mRNA expressions of three Halloween genes including CsCYP307A1, CsCYP306A1 and CsCYP314A1 in C. suppressalis. The results showed that the MH levels in different developmental stages of C. suppressalis were decreased after exposure to LC10 and LC30 of chlorantraniliprole. However, analysis of temporal expression profiles revealed that the mRNA levels of three Halloween genes were not closely correlated with the ecdysteroid titers in C. suppressalis. Notably, the transcript levels of CsCYP307A1, CsCYP306A1 and CsCYP314A1 were induced after treatment with sublethal concentrations of chlorantraniliprole in specific developmental stages. These results indicated that chlorantraniliprole had adverse effects on insect MH biosynthesis, and in addition to the involvement in MH biosynthesis, CsCYP307A1, CsCYP306A1 and CsCYP314A1 may also play important roles in the detoxification metabolism of chlorantraniliprole in C. suppressalis.

3.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(3): 1375-1382, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492297

RESUMO

This work reports the synthesis, radiolabeling and imaging studies of iodine-124 labeled peptide modified gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) as positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for lung cancer. The novel modified Au nanoclusters were successfully synthesized by conjugation of tumortargeting peptide luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) to human serum albumin (HAS) as a scaffold, resulting in 73% labeling yield of 124I-LHRH-HSA AuNCs. After rapid purification, the radiochemical purity was above 98%. Dynamic PET study in normal rats showed high liver accumulation and rapid lung clearance. Both the PET and fluorescence imaging in A549 xenografted tumor model demonstrated certain amount of tumor uptake. In orthotopic lung cancer model, the tumor sites could be clearly visualized between 2 to 5 hours in PET images. The higher radioactivity concentration in the left lung which inoculated orthotopic tumor than right lung also exhibited the targeting properties. The biological properties of this iodine-124 labeled nanoclusters afford potential applications for early diagnosis of lung cancer with PET.

4.
Zootaxa ; 4604(1): zootaxa.4604.1.9, 2019 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717208

RESUMO

The capitellid genus Leiocapitella is characterized by the possession of anterior 12-16 chaetigers exclusively with capillaries and the following 1-2 transitional chaetigers with notopodial capillaries and neuropodial hooded hooks. A new species was obtained from the continental shelf of the East China Sea, and is identified herein as Leiocapitella fujianensis. The new species differs from the other four described species by the number and location of transitional chaetigers, the dentition of abdominal hooks, and the methyl green stain on thorax. A key to all Leiocapitella species is provided in this paper.


Assuntos
Anelídeos , Poliquetos , Animais , China
5.
Sleep ; 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735957

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated differences in upper airway, soft tissues and craniofacial structures between Asians from China and Europeans from Iceland with OSA using three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: Airway sizes, soft tissue volumes and craniofacial dimensions were compared between Icelandic (N=108) and Chinese (N=57) patients with oxygen desaturation index (ODI)≥10 events/hour matched for age, gender and ODI. Mixed effects models adjusting for height or BMI and residual differences in age and ODI were utilized. RESULTS: In our matched sample, compared to Icelandic OSA patients, Chinese patients had smaller BMI (p<0.0001) and neck circumference (p=0.011). In covariate adjusted analyses, Chinese showed smaller retropalatal airway size (p≤0.002), and smaller combined soft tissues, tongue, fat pads and pterygoid (all p≤0.0001), but male Chinese demonstrated a larger soft palate volume (p≤0.001). For craniofacial dimensions, Chinese demonstrated bigger ANB angle (p≤0.0196), differently shaped mandibles, including shorter corpus length (p<0.0001) but longer ramus length (p<0.0001), and a wider (p<0.0001) and shallower (p≤0.0001) maxilla. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to Icelandic patients of similar age, gender and ODI, Chinese patients had smaller retropalatal airway and combined soft tissue, but bigger soft palate volume (in males), and differently shaped mandible and maxilla with more bony restrictions. Results support an ethnic difference in upper airway anatomy related to OSA, which may inform targeted therapies.

6.
Small ; : e1904099, 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738003

RESUMO

Ever-growing tissue regeneration and other stem cell therapies cause pressing need for large population of self-renewable stem cells. However, stem cells gradually lose their stemness after long-term in vitro cultivation. In this study, a ZnO nanorod (ZnO NR) array is used to maintain the stemness of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs). The results prove that after culturing hADSCs on ZnO NRs for 3 weeks, the stemness genes and protein expression level are higher than that on culture plates and ZnO film. ZnO NRs can maintain stemness of hADSCs without inhibiting the cell proliferation and oriented differentiation capabilities. KLF4 (Kruppel-like factor 4) is a Zn2+ -binding gene that plays a vital role in cell proliferation and differentiation. Sustained Zn2+ release and the increased expression of KLF4 can be detected, suggesting that ZnO NRs have efficiently released Zn2+ for stemness maintenance. Taken together, the nanotopography of ZnO NRs and the Zn2+ release synergistically facilitate stemness maintenance. This study has provided a powerful tool for directing cell fate, maintaining stemness, and realizing the expansion of stem cells in vitro, which will open a new route for the manufacture of large populations of stem cells and fulfilling the growing demand for the cell therapy market.

7.
Prep Biochem Biotechnol ; : 1-11, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747333

RESUMO

Apple pomace was explored as alternative feedstock for producing bacterial cellulose (BC) by Gluconacetobacter xylinus following a cellulase saccharification performed after pretreatment of 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([AMIM]Cl). The dissolving process of apple pomace cellulose was observed by polarized light microscopy (PLM). As FT-IR and XRD results demonstrated, the IL pretreatment proved to be a physical process and no changes in the crystalline structure occurred during the pretreatment. However, the SEM result showed that more fissures and breakages appeared on the surface of pomace microfibers after IL-pretreating, which increased the contact area with cellulase and improved the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency. An enhancing effect on the BC yield has been observed, 27% higher yield of BC obtained from hydrolysate as compared to sucrose-based medium indicates efficiency of IL-treated apple pomace to serve as high quality feedstock in BC production.

8.
BMC Biotechnol ; 19(1): 76, 2019 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718625

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Corynebacterium ammoniagenes is an important industrial organism that is widely used to produce nucleotides and the potential for industrial production of coenzyme A by C. ammoniagenes ATCC 6871 has been shown. However, the yield of coenzyme A needs to be improved, and the available constitutive promoters are rather limited in this strain. RESULTS: In this study, 20 putative DNA promoters derived from genes with high transcription levels and 6 promoters from molecular chaperone genes were identified. To evaluate the activity of each promoter, red fluorescence protein (RFP) was used as a reporter. We successfully isolated a range of promoters with different activity levels, and among these a fragment derived from the upstream sequence of the 50S ribosomal protein L21 (Prpl21) exhibited the strongest activity among the 26 identified promoters. Furthermore, type III pantothenate kinase from Pseudomonas putida (PpcoaA) was overexpressed in C. ammoniagenes under the control of Prpl21, CoA yield increased approximately 4.4 times. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a paradigm for rational isolation of promoters with different activities and their application in metabolic engineering. These promoters will enrich the available promoter toolkit for C. ammoniagenes and should be valuable in current platforms for metabolic engineering and synthetic biology for the optimization of pathways to extend the product spectrum or improve the productivity in C. ammoniagenes ATCC 6871 for industrial applications.

9.
Sci Total Environ ; 702: 134974, 2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734610

RESUMO

Understanding the role of climatic variation on biodiversity is of chief importance due to the ongoing biodiversity loss and climate change. Freshwaters, one of the most threatened ecosystems in the world, offer a valuable context to study biodiversity patterns of distinct organism groups in relation to climatic variation. In the Tibetan Plateau biodiversity hotspot - Hengduan Mountain region, we studied the effects of climate and local physico-chemical factors on stream microorganisms (i.e. bacteria) and macroorganisms (i.e. macroinvertebrates) in two parallel catchments with contrasting precipitation and temperature, that is, the Nujiang and Lancang Rivers. Diversities and community structures were better explained by climatic and local environmental variables in the drier and colder catchment and at higher elevations, than in the warmer and wetter conditions and at lower elevations. This suggests that communities may be more strongly assembled by deterministic processes in the former, comparatively harsher conditions, compared to the latter, more benign conditions. Macroinvertebrates were more strongly affected by climatic and local environmental factors compared to bacteria, but the diversities and community structures of the two groups showed spatially similar responses to overall abiotic variation, being especially evident with their community structures' responses to climate. Furthermore, bacterial and macroinvertebrate diversities were positively correlated in the drier and colder catchment, implying that these biologically and ecologically distinct organism groups are likely to be driven by similar processes in areas with such climatic conditions. We conclude that changes in climatic and local environmental conditions may affect the diversity of macroorganisms more strongly than that of microorganisms, at least in subtropical mountainous stream ecosystems studied here, but simultaneous responses of both groups to environmental changes can also be expected.

11.
Nano Lett ; 19(11): 7901-7907, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596599

RESUMO

Achieving efficient spatial modulation of phonon transmission is an essential step on the path to phononic circuits using "phonon currents". With their intrinsic and reconfigurable interfaces, domain walls (DWs), ferroelectrics are alluring candidates to be harnessed as dynamic heat modulators. This paper reports the thermal conductivity of single-crystal PbTiO3 thin films over a wide variety of epitaxial-strain-engineered ferroelectric domain configurations. The phonon transport is proved to be strongly affected by the density and type of DWs, achieving a 61% reduction of the room-temperature thermal conductivity compared to the single-domain scenario. The thermal resistance across the ferroelectric DWs is obtained, revealing a very high value (≈5.0 × 10-9 K m2 W-1), comparable to grain boundaries in oxides, explaining the strong modulation of the thermal conductivity in PbTiO3. This low thermal conductance of the DWs is ascribed to the structural mismatch and polarization gradient found between the different types of domains in the PbTiO3 films, resulting in a structural inhomogeneity that extends several unit cells around the DWs. These findings demonstrate the potential of ferroelectric DWs as efficient regulators of heat flow in one single material, overcoming the complexity of multilayers systems and the uncontrolled distribution of grain boundaries, paving the way for applications in phononics.

12.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; : e21636, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612557

RESUMO

As a member of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) superfamily, vitellogenin (Vg) receptor (VgR) is responsible for the uptake of Vg into developing oocytes and is a potential target for pest control. Here, a full-length VgR complementary DNA (named as CsVgR) was isolated and characterized in the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis. The composite CsVgR gene contained an open reading frame of 5,484 bp encoding a protein of 1,827 amino acid residues. Structural analysis revealed that CsVgR contained two ligand-binding domains (LBDs) with four Class A (LDLRA ) repeats in LBD1 and seven in LBD2, which was structurally different from most non-Lepidopteran insect VgRs having five repeats in LBD1 and eight in LBD2. The developmental expression analysis showed that CsVgR messenger RNA expression was first detectable in 3-day-old pupae, sharply increased in newly emerged female adults, and reached a peak in 2-day-old female adults. Consistent with most other insects VgRs, CsVgR was exclusively expressed in the ovary. Notably, injection of dsCsVgR into late pupae resulted in fewer follicles in the ovarioles as well as reduced fecundity, suggesting a critical role of CsVgR in female reproduction. These results may contribute to the development of RNA interference-mediated disruption of reproduction as a control strategy of C. suppressalis.

13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(20)2019 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635127

RESUMO

Combining research areas of biomechanics and pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) provides a very promising way for pedestrian positioning in environments where Global Positioning System (GPS) signals are degraded or unavailable. In recent years, the PDR systems based on a smartphone's built-in inertial sensors have attracted much attention in such environments. However, smartphone-based PDR systems are facing various challenges, especially the heading drift, which leads to the phenomenon of estimated walking path passing through walls. In this paper, the 2D PDR system is implemented by using a pocket-worn smartphone, and then enhanced by introducing a map-matching algorithm that employs a particle filter to prevent the wall-crossing problem. In addition, to extend the PDR system for 3D applications, the smartphone's built-in barometer is used to measure the pressure variation associated to the pedestrian's vertical displacement. Experimental results show that the map-matching algorithm based on a particle filter can effectively solve the wall-crossing problem and improve the accuracy of indoor PDR. By fusing the barometer readings, the vertical displacement can be calculated to derive the floor transition information. Despite the inherent sensor noises and complex pedestrian movements, smartphone-based 3D pedestrian positioning systems have considerable potential for indoor location-based services (LBS).

14.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1929, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474995

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles are membrane-bound structures released by living cells and present in body fluids. Their composition includes proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids and are involved in transfers between cells. Extracellular vesicles can deliver molecules to cells and tissues even if distant. As a consequence, they have a role in information transmission and in the modulation of the biological function of recipient cells. Among other things, they are involved in antigen presentation and the induction of secretion events by immune cells. Thus, extracellular vesicles participate in the regulation of immune responses during infections. We will discuss their potential as effectors and disease biomarkers concerning only mycobacterial infections.

15.
ISA Trans ; 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488246

RESUMO

Recently, a robust least squares support vector machine (R-LSSVM) was proposed, but its computational complexity is very high compared with the traditional least squares support vector machine (LSSVM). To reduce R-LSSVM's computational complexity, an improved version, i.e., extended LSSVM (E-LSSVM), is developed in this paper. E-LSSVM and R-LSSVM are equivalent in terms of the generalization performance, but the former needs lower computational complexity than the latter. It is proved that the traditional LSSVM is a special case of E-LSSVM, and based on this fact, we know that the bias in the traditional LSSVM owns manifest physical meaning, i.e., the mean of the modeling error. To solve the mathematical model of E-LSSVM, two algorithms, DE-LSSVM (dual E-LSSVM) and PE-LSSVM (primal E-LSSVM), are proposed from dual and primal spaces, respectively. Even competing against the traditional LSSVM, DE-LSSVM takes the edge in term of the training time. In addition, the sparse problem and cross validation of DE-LSSVM are discussed as well. To verify the effectiveness and soundness of the proposed DE-LSSVM and PE-LSSVM, experiments on regression and classification problems are investigated. To be more important, DE-LSSM and PE-LSSVM are successfully applied to the fault diagnosis of aircraft engine, showing that they are eligible for potential techniques of the fault diagnosis of aircraft engine.

16.
Environ Pollut ; 254(Pt B): 113108, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491696

RESUMO

Taihu Lake is one of the largest freshwater lakes in China and serves as an important source for drinking water. This lake is suffering from eutrophication, cyanobacterial blooms and fecal pollution, and the inflow Tiaoxi River is one of the main contributors. The goal here was to characterize the bacterial community structure of Tiaoxi River water by next-generation sequencing (NGS), paying attention to bacteria that are either fecal-associated or pathogenic, and to examine the relationship between environmental parameters and bacterial community structure. Water samples collected from 15 locations in three seasons, and fecal samples collected from different hosts and wastewater samples were used for bacterial community analysis. The phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Cyanobacteria were predominant in most of the water samples tested. In fecal samples, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria were abundant, while wastewater samples were dominated by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria, and Chloroflexi. The cluster analysis and principal coordinate analysis indicated that bacterial community structure was significantly different between water, fecal and sewage samples. Shared OTUs between water samples and chicken, pig, and human fecal samples ranged from 4.5 to 9.8% indicating the presence of avian, pig and human fecal contamination in Tiaoxi River. At genus level, five bacterial genera of fecal origin and sequences of seven potential pathogens were detected in many locations and their presence was correlated well with the land use pattern. The sequencing data revealed that Faecalibacterium could be a potential target for human-associated microbial source-tracking qPCR assays. Our results suggest that pH, conductivity, and temperature were the main environmental factors in shaping the bacterial community based on redundancy analysis. Overall, NGS is a valuable tool for preliminary investigation of environmental samples to identify the potential human health risk, providing specific information about fecal and potentially pathogenic bacteria that can be followed up by specific methods.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Fezes , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Lagos/microbiologia , Rios/microbiologia , Poluição da Água , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bacteroidetes/isolamento & purificação , China , Cianobactérias/isolamento & purificação , Eutrofização , Fezes/microbiologia , Humanos , Microbiota , Tipagem Molecular , Proteobactérias/isolamento & purificação , RNA Bacteriano , Estações do Ano
17.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 3(9): 1298-1308, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427732

RESUMO

Trait-based ecology claims to offer a mechanistic approach for explaining the drivers that structure biological diversity and predicting the responses of species, trophic interactions and ecosystems to environmental change. However, support for this claim is lacking across broad taxonomic groups. A framework for defining ecosystem processes in terms of the functional traits of their constituent taxa across large spatial scales is needed. Here, we provide a comprehensive assessment of the linkages between climate, plant traits and soil microbial traits at many sites spanning a broad latitudinal temperature gradient from tropical to subalpine forests. Our results show that temperature drives coordinated shifts in most plant and soil bacterial traits but these relationships are not observed for most fungal traits. Shifts in plant traits are mechanistically associated with soil bacterial functional traits related to carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycling, indicating that microbial processes are tightly linked to variation in plant traits that influence rates of ecosystem decomposition and nutrient cycling. Our results are consistent with hypotheses that diversity gradients reflect shifts in phenotypic optima signifying local temperature adaptation mediated by soil nutrient availability and metabolism. They underscore the importance of temperature in structuring the functional diversity of plants and soil microbes in forest ecosystems and how this is coupled to biogeochemical processes via functional traits.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Solo , Biodiversidade , Florestas , Nitrogênio
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 686: 1262-1271, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412522

RESUMO

Understanding biodiversity patterns and the role of biotic attributes in governing these patterns remains one of the most important challenges in ecology. Here, taking water depth in Lake Lugu as a typical geographical gradient, we studied how these different taxa, that is bacteria, diatoms and chironomids, respond to the water depth and environmental gradients using molecular and morphological methods. We further evaluated the relative importance of water depth, environmental variables and biotic attributes in explaining biological characteristics, such as biomass, species richness, and community composition. The biomass of chironomids and the richness of bacteria and chironomids showed a nonlinearly decreasing pattern associated with increased water depth, while biomass and species richness of diatoms showed U-shaped and hump-shaped patterns, respectively. The three taxonomic groups all showed increasing dissimilarity with water depth changes, and there was clear cross-taxon congruence among the variations in community composition. Abiotic variables were pivotal in structuring biological characteristics; however, the biotic attributes also explained a unique portion of their variations. This suggests that biotic interactions significantly influenced the patterns of biomass, species richness, and community compositions along the water depth gradient for the three taxonomic groups studied. Our results provide new evidence that biotic attributes could help in predicting the biodiversity of aquatic communities along geographical gradients, such as water depth.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Biodiversidade , Chironomidae/fisiologia , Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Lagos , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/fisiologia , China
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 695: 133696, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421337

RESUMO

Radioactive contamination poses grievous latent threat to biology together with ecological balance. It is of great significance to eliminate radionuclides from nuclear waste solution. Herein, interpenetrating 3-dimensional (3D) MnO2/GO composites (MGs) were rationally constructed by integrating α-crystal manganese dioxide (MnO2) nanowire with graphene oxide (GO) via a simple ultra-sonication process. Preliminary experiments showed that the MG composite with mass ratio of 1:2 (M1G2) was the optimal material with superior adsorption capacities for U(VI) (271.7 mg/g) and Eu(III) (83.5 mg/g) at pH ~5.0 (298 K), as compared with commercial GO and individual MnO2. Furthermore, M1G2 had high selectivity for U(VI) and Eu(III), which could remove >80% of target ions in the presence of NO3-, Cl-, CO32-, HCO3-, Mg2+, K+ or Na+ ions. It exhibited excellent stability under a wide range of pH 3-10 and great resistance to high ionic strength. More importantly, kinetic studies exhibited that M1G2 could efficiently capture target ions within ultra-short kinetic equilibrium time (<1 min). The interaction mechanism was clearly visualized by analyzing characterization data, showing that oxy-gen-containing functional groups took a major part for the binding of target ions. The excellent characteristics including the simple, fast and large-scale synthesis and the efficient performance endowed M1G2 with potential to remedy radioactive pollution in actual wastewater.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401772

RESUMO

The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has important roles in the regulation of energy metabolism, and AMPK activity and its regulation have been the focus of relevant investigations. However, functional characterization of AMPK is still limited in insects. In this study, the full-length cDNA coding AMPKα (TcAMPKα) was isolated from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. The TcAMPKα gene contains an ORF of 1581 bp encoding a protein of 526 amino acid residues, which shared conserved domain structure with Drosophila melanogaster and mammalian orthologs. Exposure of female adults to oxidative, heat, and cold stresses caused an increase in TcAMPKα mRNA expression levels and phosphorylation of Thr-173 in the activation loop. The RNAi-mediated knockdown of TcAMPKα resulted in the increased sensitivity of T. castaneum to oxidative, heat, and cold stresses. These results suggest that stress signals regulate TcAMPKα activity, and TcAMPKα plays an important role in enabling protective mechanisms and processes that confer resistance to environmental stress.

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