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1.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 38(1): 232, 2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sorafenib is approved as a standard therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but its clinical application is limited due to moderate therapeutic efficacy and high incidence of acquired resistance resulted from elevated levels of SDF-1/CXCR4 axis induced by prolonged sorafenib treatment. We previously demonstrated metapristone (RU486 metabolite) as a cancer metastatic chemopreventive agent targeting SDF-1/CXCR4 axis. Therefore, we hypothesized that combining sorafenib with metapristone could synergistically suppress cell proliferation, enhance anti-cancer activity and repress potential drug resistance. METHODS: Changes in cellular CXCR4 expression by metapristone were analyzed by RT-PCR and western blotting. Effect of combining sorafenib with metapristone on cell viability was examined by MTT assay; combination index value was calculated to evaluate the synergistic effect of combined therapy. To overcome poor pharmacokinetics and reduce off-target toxicity, CXCR4-targeted nanoparticles (NPs) were developed to co-deliver sorafenib and metapristone into CXCR4-expressing HCC in vitro and in vivo; cell proliferation, colony formation and apoptosis assays were conducted; nude mice bearing HCC xenograft were used to examine effects of this therapeutic approach on HCC progression. RESULTS: Here we showed metapristone significantly reduced CXCR4 expression in HCC. Combinatory chemotherapy of sorafenib with metapristone synergistically suppressed HCC proliferation and resistance. CXCR4-targeted PEGylated poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) NPs conjugated with LFC131 (a peptide inhibitor of CXCR4), could deliver more sorafenib and metapristone into HCC via specific recognition and binding with transmembrane CXCR4, and resulted in the enhanced cytotoxicity, colony inhibition and apoptosis by regulating more Akt/ERK/p38 MAPK/caspase signaling pathways. Co-delivery of sorafenib with metapristone by the LFC131-conjugated NPs showed prolonged circulation and target accumulation at tumor sites, and thus suppressed tumor growth in a tumor xenograft model. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, co-delivery of sorafenib and metapristone via the CXCR4-targeted NPs displays a synergistic therapy against HCC. Our results suggest combinational treatment of chemotherapeutics offer an effective strategy for enhancing the therapeutic efficacy on carcinoma, and highlight the potential application of ligand-modified tumor-targeting nanocarriers in delivering drugs as a promising cancer therapeutic approach.

2.
Cancer Sci ; 110(8): 2442-2455, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148345

RESUMO

The human prolyl isomerase PIN1, best known for its association with carcinogenesis, has recently been indicated in the disease of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). However, the functions of PIN1 and the feasibility of targeting PIN1 in PDAC remain elusive. For this purpose, we examined the expression of PIN1 in cancer, related paracarcinoma and metastatic cancer tissues by immunohistochemistry and analyzed the associations with the pathogenesis of PDAC in 173 patients. The functional roles of PIN1 in PDAC were explored in vitro and in vivo using both genetic and chemical PIN1 inhibition. We showed that PIN1 was upregulated in pancreatic cancer and metastatic tissues. High PIN1 expression is significantly association with poor clinicopathological features and shorter overall survival and disease-free survival. Further stratified analysis showed that PIN1 phenotypes refined prognostication in PDAC. Inhibition of PIN1 expression with RNA interference or with all trans retinoic acid decreased not only the growth but also the migration and invasion of PDAC cells through regulating the key molecules of multiple cancer-driving pathways, simultaneously resulting in cell cycle arrest and mesenchymal-epithelial transition in vitro. Furthermore, genetic and chemical PIN1 ablation showed dramatic inhibition of the tumorigenesis and metastatic spread and then reduced the tumor burden in vivo. We provided further evidence for the use of PIN1 as a promising therapeutic target in PDAC. Genetic and chemical PIN1 ablation exerted potent antitumor effects through blocking multiple cancer-driving pathways in PDAC. More potent and specific PIN1 targeted inhibitors could be exploited to treat this aggressive cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Peptidilprolil Isomerase de Interação com NIMA/genética , Metástase Neoplásica/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Animais , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/genética , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/genética
3.
Mol Carcinog ; 58(8): 1450-1464, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31026381

RESUMO

Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality and the fourth most common cancer globally. High intratumor heterogeneity of advanced gastric cancer poses great challenges to targeted therapy due to simultaneous activation of many redundant cancer-driving pathways. A central common signaling mechanism in cancer is proline-directed phosphorylation, which is further regulated by the unique proline isomerase Pin1. Pin1 inhibition exerts anticancer activity by blocking multiple cancer-driving pathways in some cancers, but its role in gastric cancer is not fully understood. Here we detected Pin1 protein expression in 1065 gastric cancer patients and paired normal tissues using immunohistochemistry and Western blot, and then examined the effects of Pin1 overexpression, and genetic and chemical Pin1 inhibition using Pin1 short hairpin RNA or small molecule inhibitor all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on tumorigenesis of human gastric cancer in vitro and in vivo, followed by biochemical analyses to elucidate Pin1 regulated oncogenic pathways. We found that Pin1 was significantly overexpressed in primary and metastasized tumors, with Pin1 overexpression being correlated with advanced stage and poor prognosis. Furthermore, whereas Pin1 overexpression promoted the transformed phenotype in immortalized and nontransformed human gastric cells, either genetic or chemical Pin1 inhibition in multiple human gastric cancer cells potently suppressed cell growth, G1/S transition and colony formation in vitro, as well as tumor growth in xenograft tumor models in vivo, which were further supported by downregulation of multiple key oncoproteins in PI3K/AKT and Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathways. These results not only provide the first evidence for a critical role of Pin1 in the tumorigenesis of gastric cancer but also suggest that targeting Pin1 using ATRA or other inhibitors offers an effective new therapeutic approach for treating advanced gastric cancer.

4.
Cancer Lett ; 444: 82-93, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30583078

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cancer death because of its high metastasis and drug resistance. Regorafenib was newly approved by FDA for HCC treatment, but its resistance is not understood. The unique isomerase Pin1 is critical for HCC development, but its role in metastasis and drug resistance is unknown. Here we generated Regorafenib-resistant HCC cells and found that they exhibited enhanced tumor invasion and metastasis in vitro and in vivo, and elevated Pin1 levels. Furthermore, Pin1 was highly overexpressed and closely related to the EMT in human HCC tissues. Depletion or overexpression of Pin1 correspondingly inhibited or promoted HCC cell migration and invasion, with altered expression of EMT-related molecules, E-cadherin and Snail. Significantly, Pin1 interacted with Gli1, a regulator of the EMT, and silencing Gli1 partly blocked Pin1-induced EMT in HCC cells. Moreover, genetic or chemical Pin1 inhibition reversed Regorafenib resistance of HCC with reducing EMT, migration, invasion and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. These results reveal a novel molecular mechanism underlying Regorafenib resistance in HCC, and also provide first evidence that Pin1 inhibitors offer an attractive strategy for treating Regorafenib-resistant HCC.

5.
Mol Carcinog ; 58(1): 144-155, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30259564

RESUMO

Although the CXCL12-CXCR4/CXCR7 chemokine axis is demonstrated to play an integral role in tumor progression, the controversy exists and the role of CXCL12-CXCR4/CXCR7 signaling axis in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of human ovarian cancer has not been explored. Here, we showed that in ovarian cancer CXCL12 induced EMT phenotypes including the spindle-like cell morphology, podia and stress fiber formation, a decrease in E-cadherin expression, and increases in mesenchymal N-cadherin and vimentin expressions. These effects of CXCL12 could be antagonized by the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100, but not by the anti-CXCR7 antibody. The expressions of the EMT markers were significantly down-regulated by the CXCR4 siRNA, and up-regulated by the pcDNA3.1/CXCR4 plasmid, whereas not affected by the CXCR7 siRNA. Furthermore, intraperitoneal administration of AMD3100 inhibited tumor dissemination and growth in the nude mice inoculated with ovarian IGROV-1 cells with a concomitant reduction in EMT marker expressions. Collectively, these data suggest that CXCR4, rather than CXCR7, plays a key role in CXCL12-activated EMT phenotypes, and targeting the CXCL12-CXCR4 chemokine axis represents a potential therapeutic strategy to prevent ovarian cancer progression.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CXCL12/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/secundário , Receptores CXCR4/metabolismo , Receptores CXCR/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Compostos Heterocíclicos , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Invasividade Neoplásica , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Peritoneais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Peritoneais/metabolismo , Receptores CXCR4/antagonistas & inibidores , Transdução de Sinais , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
6.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 34(6): 1012-1018, 2018 Jun 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29943547

RESUMO

To establish a time-resolved fluorescence immunochromatographic assay for quantitative determination of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) in serum, we prepared CA19-9 test strips by integrating double-antibody sandwich method and fluorescence immunochromatography technique. Carboxy fluorescent microspheres and nitrocellulose membrane were used as carriers for labeling and coating CA19-9 pairing antibodies. We optimized the process by adjusting the amount of labeling and coating antibody. According to the linear range, lowest detection limit and precision, We evaluated the time-resolved fluorescence immunochromatographic assay of CA19-9. When the amount of labeled antibody was 80 µg for 20 µL fluorescent microspheres, and the concentration of coated antibody on the test line was 1.5 mg/mL, the optimal reaction time was 15 minutes. Assay linear range was 12.5 to 800 U/mL and the minimum detection limit was 6.32 U/mL. The Within-run and between-run coefficient of variation were less than 15%. Average recovery rate was 101%. By detecting 50 clinical samples in parallel with Roche electrochemical luminescence detection kit, correlation coefficient was 0.980 6. The experiment, initially established a fluorescence immunochromatographic detection method to quantitative detection of serum CA19-9, which has a good clinical application prospect.

7.
J Control Release ; 269: 405-422, 2018 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29170140

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide largely due to lack of effective targeted drugs to simultaneously block multiple cancer-driving pathways. The identification of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) as a potent Pin1 inhibitor provides a promising candidate for HCC targeted therapy because Pin1 is overexpressed in most HCC and activates numerous cancer-driving pathways. However, the efficacy of ATRA against solid tumors is limited due to its short half-life of 45min in humans. A slow-releasing ATRA formulation inhibits solid tumors such as HCC, but can be used only in animals. Here, we developed a one-step, cost-effective route to produce a novel biocompatible, biodegradable, and non-toxic controlled release formulation of ATRA for effective HCC therapy. We used supercritical carbon dioxide process to encapsulate ATRA in largely uniform poly L-lactic acid (PLLA) microparticles, with the efficiency of 91.4% and yield of 68.3%, and ~4-fold higher Cmax and AUC over the slow-releasing ATRA formulation. ATRA-PLLA microparticles had good biocompatibility, and significantly enhanced the inhibitory potency of ATRA on HCC cell growth, improving IC50 by over 3-fold. ATRA-PLLA microparticles exerted its efficacy likely through degrading Pin1 and inhibiting multiple Pin1-regulated cancer pathways and cell cycle progression. Indeed, Pin1 knock-down abolished ATRA inhibitory effects on HCC cells and ATRA-PLLA did not inhibit normal liver cells, as expected because ATRA selectively inhibits active Pin1 in cancer cells. Moreover ATRA-PLLA microparticles significantly enhanced the efficacy of ATRA against HCC tumor growth in mice through reducing Pin1, with a better potency than the slow-releasing ATRA formulation, consistent with its improved pharmacokinetic profiles. This study illustrates an effective platform to produce controlled release formulation of anti-cancer drugs, and ATRA-PLLA microparticles might be a promising targeted drug for HCC therapy as PLLA is biocompatible, biodegradable and nontoxic to humans.

8.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 17190, 2017 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29215040

RESUMO

Metapristone is the primary metabolite of the abortifacient mifepristone (RU486), and is being developed as a safe and effective cancer metastatic chemopreventive agent for both sexes. Here, we systematically investigated the sex-related pharmacokinetics of metapristone in both rats and dogs, and explored the related mechanisms of actions. Administration of metapristone to rats and dogs showed that plasma concentrations of metapristone (AUC, C max ) were significantly higher in female dogs and rats than in males. The sex-related differences in pharmacokinetics become more significant after ten consecutive days of oral administration. Female liver microsomes metabolized metapristone significantly slower than the male ones. The results from P450 reaction phenotyping using recombinant cDNA-expressed human CYPs in conjunction with specific CYP inhibitors suggested that CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 are the predominant CYPs involved in the metapristone metabolism, which were further confirmed by the enhanced protein levels of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 induced by 1-week oral administration of metapristone to rats. The highest tissue concentration of metapristone was found in the liver. The study demonstrates, for the first time, the sex-related pharmacokinetics of metapristone, and reveals that activities of liver microsomal CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 as well as the renal clearance are primarily responsible for the sex-related pharmacokinetics.

9.
Oncotarget ; 8(35): 59123-59135, 2017 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28938623

RESUMO

SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling axis determines the proliferative potential and site-specific cancer metastasis. Recent studies suggest involvement of the axis and steroidal hormone in ovarian cancer metastasis. Here we hypothesize that mifepristone (RU486), a well-known progesterone-based abortifacient, might interfere this axis and inhibit ovarian cancer metastasis. Mifepristone at concentrations < IC50 inhibited expression of CXCR4 on cell surface of ovarian cancer SKOV-3 and IGROV-1, and reduced expression of the intracellular CXCR4 protein and its related mRNA activated by SDF-1. SDF-1 significantly stimulated proliferation of SKOV-3 and IGROV-1 cells with concomitant increases in intracellular phosphorylation of Akt and ERK. SDF-1 activated cell chemotatic migration and actin polymerization, and up-regulated expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, COX-2, VEGF without influencing the adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and integrins ß1, α1, α3, α5, and α6. The above-mentioned effects of SDF-1 could be antagonized by mifepristone concentration-dependently, and CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100. Mifepristone suppressed the SDF-1-induced migration, invasion and adhesion of the cancer cells to extracellular matrixes. Three-day pretreatment of nude mice with mifepristone (5 and 20 mg/kg/day) followed by a single intraperitoneal IGROV-1 inoculation, along with repeated SDF-1 and mifepristone administrations in turn every other day for 36 days significantly reduced ascitic fluid, metastatic foci, tumor weight and immunoreactivity of CXCR4 in comparison with the SDF-1-treated control. Our results suggest that mifepristone inhibit SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling axis, may have preventive and therapeutic effects on ovarian cancer metastasis.

10.
Sci Rep ; 7: 45915, 2017 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28383568

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer related-death. As a major common regulator of numerous cancer-driving pathways and a unique therapeutic target, the prolyl isomerase Pin1 is overexpressed in a majority of HCCs, whereas the mechanism underlying Pin1 overexpression remains elusive. Here we find that miR-140-5p inhibits HCC by directly targeting Pin1 to block multiple cancer-driving pathways. Bioinformatics analysis, miRNA binding and functional assays identify that miR-140-5p directly interacts with the 3'UTR of Pin1 and inhibits Pin1 translation. Furthermore, like stable Pin1 knockdown, moderate overexpression of miR-140-5p not only eliminates Pin1, but also inhibits cells growth and metastasis. Importantly, these effects of miR-140-5p are largely rescued by reconstitution of Pin1. Moreover, miR-140-5p inhibits multiple Pin1-dependent cancer pathways and suppresses tumor growth in mice. The clinical significance of these findings has been substantiated by the demonstrations that miR-140-5p is frequently down-regulated and inversely correlated with Pin1 overexpression in HCC tissues and cell lines. Given prevalent miR-140-5p downregulation in other cancers and major impact of Pin1 overexpression on activating numerous cancer-driving pathways including global miRNA downregulation, the miR-140-5p/Pin1 axis may play a major role in tumorigenesis and offer promising therapeutic targets for HCC and other cancers.

11.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 90: 339-349, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28376402

RESUMO

Uncontrolled cell proliferation and metastasis are the two well-known manifestations of melanoma. We hypothesized that metapristone, a potential cancer metastatic chemopreventive agent derived from mifepristone (RU486), had a dual function to fight cancer. In the present study, our findings clearly demonstrated that metapristone had modest cytostatic effect in melanoma cells. Metapristone inhibited cell viability and induced both early and late apoptosis in B16F10 and A375 cells in a time- and concentrate-dependent manner. Metapristone-treatment caused the cell arrest at the G0/G1 stage, and the inhibition of colony formation in B16F10 cells. Western blot analysis further revealed that metapristone treatment elicited a decline of Akt and ERK phosphorylation and Bcl-2, and facilitated expression of total P53 and Bax in A375 cells. In addition, cell migration and invasion were significantly suppressed by metapristone through down-regulating the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, N-cadherin and vimentin, whereas up-regulating E-cadherin expression. Notably, metapristone exhibited anti-metastatic activity in melanoma B16F10 cells in vivo. Our results reveal metapristone, having the dual function of anti-proliferation and anti-migration for melanoma cell lines, may be a useful chemopreventive agent to reduce the risk of melanoma cancer metastasis.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Mifepristona/análogos & derivados , Mifepristona/farmacologia , Metástase Neoplásica/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fase G1/efeitos dos fármacos , Melanoma/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fase de Repouso do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Oncotarget ; 8(18): 29771-29784, 2017 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28404959

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer, but is the second leading cause of cancer deaths, partially due to its heterogeneity and drug resistance. Sorafenib is the only medical treatment with a proven efficacy against advanced HCC, but its overall clinical efficacy is still modest. Therefore, a major challenge is how to improve its therapeutic efficacy. The unique prolyl isomerase Pin1 regulates numerous cancer-driving pathways. Notably, Pin1 is overexpressed in about 70% HBV-positive HCC patients and contributes to HCC tumorigenesis. However, the role of Pin1 in the efficacy of sorafenib against HCC is unknown. Here we found that sorafenib down-regulated Pin1 mRNA and protein expression, likely through inhibition of Pin1 transcription by the Rb/E2F pathway. Importantly, Pin1 knockdown potently enhanced the ability of sorafenib to induce cell death in HCC, which was further supported by the findings that Pin1 knockdown led to stabilization of Fbxw7 and destabilization of Mcl-1. Furthermore, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), a known anticancer drug that inhibits and ultimately induces degradation of active Pin1 in cancer cells, also potently sensitized HCC cells to sorafenib-induced cell death at least in part through a caspase-dependent manner. Moreover, ATRA also synergistically enhanced the ability of sorafenib to reduce Pin1 and inhibit tumor growth of HCC in mouse xenograft models. Collectively, these results not only demonstrate that Pin1 down-regulation is a key event underlying the anti-tumor effects of sorafenib, but also uncover that Pin1 inhibitors offer a novel approach to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of sorafenib against HCC.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Peptidilprolil Isomerase de Interação com NIMA/antagonistas & inibidores , Niacinamida/análogos & derivados , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Peptidilprolil Isomerase de Interação com NIMA/genética , Peptidilprolil Isomerase de Interação com NIMA/metabolismo , Niacinamida/farmacologia , Sorafenibe , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
13.
Mol Carcinog ; 56(8): 1896-1908, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28277622

RESUMO

Recent global epidemiological studies revealed the lower ovarian cancer death from long-term use of oral contraceptives. However, the underlying mechanism of action is not clear. Here, we use the abortifacient metapristone (RU486 derivative) to test the hypothesis that the contraceptives might interrupt CXCL12/CXCR4 chemokine axis to inhibit ovarian cancer metastasis. Metapristone at concentrations (

Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Quimiocina CXCL12/metabolismo , Mifepristona/análogos & derivados , Invasividade Neoplásica/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Peritoneais/secundário , Receptores CXCR4/metabolismo , Abortivos/química , Abortivos/farmacologia , Abortivos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimioprevenção , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Mifepristona/química , Mifepristona/farmacologia , Mifepristona/uso terapêutico , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/metabolismo , Ovário/patologia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Peritoneais/patologia , Peritônio/efeitos dos fármacos , Peritônio/metabolismo , Peritônio/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 78: 291-300, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26898454

RESUMO

Malignant melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer, has a high propensity for metastatic spread and is notoriously chemotherapy-resistant. Metapristone is the primary metabolite of mifepristone (RU486) and shows biological activities similar to RU486. In the present study, we comprehensively investigated the efficacy of metapristone as a metastatic chemopreventive against melanoma B16F10 cells in vitro and in vivo, and evaluated the safety profile of both drugs in mice. Metapristone showed less cytostatic effect in vitro and in vivo in comparison with mifepristone. However, metapristone interfered the adhesion of B16F10 cells to fibronectin by down-regulating cellular expression of integrin α4. Chemopreventive pretreatment followed by oral administration of metapristone and mifepristone (2.5, 10, 50 mg/kg/day for 35 days) to melanoma C57BL/6 mouse model showed significant attenuation of pulmonary metastatic development. Oral administration of high doses of metapristone and mifepristone to normal mice for 35 days (25, 100, 250 mg/kg/day) resulted in a dose-dependent increase in mouse liver weight that was more severe with mifepristone than metapristone. The long-term toxicity study revealed more changes by mifepristone in counts of erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets than by metapristone. In conclusion, metapristone may fit into a new class of cancer metastatic chemopreventive agents. It showed a safety and efficacy profile better than mifepristone.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Mifepristona/análogos & derivados , Mifepristona/efeitos adversos , Mifepristona/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anticarcinógenos/efeitos adversos , Anticarcinógenos/uso terapêutico , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimioprevenção , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Integrina alfa4/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Melanoma Experimental/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mifepristona/toxicidade , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Toxicol Mech Methods ; 26(1): 36-45, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26907462

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Mifepristone (RU486) is an oral first-line contraceptive used by hundreds of millions of women, and recently it was tested for anticancer activity in both genders worldwide. We are developing metapristone (the N-monodemethyl RU486) as a potential metastasis chemopreventive. The present acute and 30-d subacute toxicity study aimed at examining and compared in parallel the potential toxicity of the two drugs. METHODS: The single-dose acute toxicity and 30-d subacute toxicity studies were conducted in mice and rats, respectively, by gavaging metapristone or mifepristone at various doses. Blood samples and organs were collected for blood chemistry, hematology and histology analyses. RESULTS: Oral mifepristone (3000 mg/kg) caused 30% and 40% death in female and male mice, respectively, within 15 h post-dosing. In comparison, the same dose of metapristone produced 30% acute death in males only. Thirty-day oral administration of the two drugs to rats (12.5, 50 and 200 mg/kg/day) caused reversible hepatotoxicity that only occurred at 200 mg/kg/day group, evidenced by the elevated liver enzyme activity and liver organ weight. CONCLUSION: The present study, for the first time, reveals reversible hepatotoxicity in rats caused by the 30-d consecutive administration at the high dose, and warns the potential hepatotoxicity caused by long-term administrations of high doses of mifepristone or metapristone in clinical trials but not by the acute single abortion doses.


Assuntos
Abortivos Esteroides/toxicidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Mifepristona/análogos & derivados , Mifepristona/toxicidade , Abortivos Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Mifepristona/administração & dosagem , Ratos
16.
Oncotarget ; 6(34): 35157-72, 2015 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26459390

RESUMO

Recent scientific advances have increased our understanding of the cancer metastatic complexities and provided further impetus for new combination therapies to prevent cancer metastasis. Here, we demonstrated that a combination (HAMPT) of aspirin, lysine, mifepristone and doxycycline can effectively and safely prevent cancer metastasis. The pharmaceutically-formulated HAMPT inhibited adhesion of cancer cells to either endothelial cells or extracellular matrix via down-regulating cell adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and α4-integrin. HAMPT inhibited the cloak effect by activated platelets on cancer cells, thereby interfering adhesion and invasion of cancer cells to the underlying stroma. At the effective concentration, HAMPT induced cancer cells into dormancy with minor inhibition on cell viability. Four-day pretreatment followed by 30-day oral administration of HAMPT (33.5-134 mg/kg) to the mice inoculated with cancer cells produced significant inhibition on cancer metastasis dose-dependently without marked side effects. Fifty-day rat toxicity study with HAMPT at doses (335-1340 mg/kg) 20-fold higher than its therapeutic dose produced no significant toxicity. Interestingly, the acute toxic death could not be reached at the maximum administrable dose (5 g/kg). This proof-of-concept study provides the first conceptual evidence that cancer metastasis can be controlled by using affordable old drugs to restrain circulating tumor cells from gemmating on the metastatic soil without the need for cytotoxicity.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Doxiciclina/administração & dosagem , Interações de Medicamentos , Feminino , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Lisina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Melanoma/patologia , Melanoma Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mifepristona/administração & dosagem , Metástase Neoplásica , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
17.
Cancer ; 121(17): 3036-45, 2015 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25945459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was aimed at establishing a sensitive and specific isolation, characterization, and enumeration method for living circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in patients with colorectal carcinoma. METHODS: Quantitative isolation and characterization of CTCs were performed through a combination of immunomagnetic negative enrichment and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Isolated CTCs were identified by immunofluorescence staining. The viability and purity of the sorted cells were determined by flow cytometry. Blood samples spiked with HCT116 cells (range, 3-250 cells) were used to determine specificity, recovery, and sensitivity. The method was used to enumerate, characterize, and isolate living CTCs in 10 mL of blood from patients with colorectal carcinoma. RESULTS: The average recovery of HCT116 cells was 61% or more at each spiking level, and the correlation coefficient was 0.992. An analysis of samples from all 18 patients with colorectal carcinoma revealed that 94.4% were positive for CTCs with an average of 33 ± 24 CTCs per 10 mL of blood and with a diameter of 14 to 20 µm (vs 8-12 µm for lymphoma). All patients were CD47(+) , with only 4.3% to 61.2% being CD44(+) . The number of CTCs was well correlated with the patient TNM stage and could be detected in patients at an early cancer stage. The sorted cells could be recultured, and their viability was preserved. CONCLUSIONS: This method provides a novel technique for highly sensitive and specific detection and isolation of CTCs in patients with colorectal carcinoma. This method complements the existing approaches for the de novo functional identification of a wide variety of CTC types. It is likely to help in predicting a patient's disease progression and potentially in selecting the appropriate treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/patologia , Antígeno CD47/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Receptores de Hialuronatos/metabolismo , Separação Imunomagnética , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/metabolismo , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
18.
J Control Release ; 209: 159-69, 2015 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25933713

RESUMO

Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have been detected by us and others in cancer patient blood. However, little is known about how to specifically capture and deactivate CTCs in vivo, which may lead to successful metastasis prevention in asymptomatic cancer survivors after surgery. We hypothesize that the dual antibody conjugates may have the advantage of capturing CTCs specifically over their single antibody counterparts. Here we show that the surface-functionalized dendrimers can be sequentially coated with two antibodies directed to surface biomarkers (EpCAM and Slex) of human colorectal CTCs. The dual antibody-coated dendrimers exhibit a significantly enhanced specificity in capturing CTCs in the presence of interfering blood cells, and in both eight-patient bloods and nude mice administered with the labeled CTCs in comparison to their single antibody-coated counterparts. The dual antibody-coated conjugates down-regulate the captured CTCs. This study provides the first conceptual evidence that two antibodies can be biocompatibly conjugated to a nanomaterial to capture and down-regulate CTCs in vivo with the enhanced specificity.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/farmacologia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/imunologia , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligossacarídeos/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos/química , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Dendrímeros/química , Molécula de Adesão da Célula Epitelial , Células HL-60 , Células HT29 , Humanos , Camundongos Nus , Nanoestruturas/administração & dosagem , Nanoestruturas/química , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/imunologia , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo
19.
Sci Rep ; 5: 9445, 2015 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25819426

RESUMO

Circulation tumor cells (CTCs) in the bloodstream of early-stage cancer patients carry the important information about valuable biomarkers and biological properties of primary tumor. However, detection and capture of CTCs are challenging owing to their low concentrations. Traditional technologies have the limited detection sensitivity and the low capture efficiency. We, herein, report an effective approach to specifically bind and capture colon cancer HT29 cells by using multiple Sialyl Lewis X antibodies (aSlex)-conjugated PAMAM dendrimers. The conjugation was characterized by using atom force microscope, UV and fluorescence measurements. The capturing and regulating HT29 cells by the aSlex-coated dendrimer conjugate were analyzed by microscopy and flow cytometry. The results indicated that the conjugate showed the enhanced capture of HT29 cells in a concentration-dependent manner and the maximum capture efficiency of 77.88% was obtained within 1 h-exposure. G6-5aSlex-FITC conjugate showed capture efficiency better than FITC-G6-COOH-5aSlex conjugate. G6-5aSlex-FITC conjugate could specifically capture HT29 cells even when the target HT29 cells were diluted with the interfering cells (e.g., RBCs) to a low concentration. The capture resulted in a concentration-dependent restraint of the cell activity. In conclusion, the aSlex-coated dendrimer conjugate displayed the great potential in capturing and restraining colorectal CTCs in blood.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/imunologia , Dendrímeros/administração & dosagem , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/imunologia , Anticorpos/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos/imunologia , Neoplasias do Colo/sangue , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Dendrímeros/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Células HT29 , Humanos , Antígenos CD15/sangue , Antígenos CD15/imunologia , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/patologia
20.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 13: 9, 2015 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25643843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer metastasis caused by circulating tumor cells (CTCs) accounts for 90% cancer-related death worldwide. Blocking the circulation of CTCs in bloodstream and their hetero-adhesion to vascular endothelia of the distant metastatic organs may prevent cancer metastasis. Nanomaterial-based intervention with adhesion between CTCs and endothelia has not been reported. Driven by the novel idea that multivalent conjugation of EpCAM and Slex antibodies to dendrimer surface may enhance the capacity and specificity of the nanomaterial conjugates for capturing and down-regulating colorectal CTCs, we conjugated the dendrimer nanomaterial with the EpCAM and Slex antibodies, and examined the capacity of the dual antibody-coated nanomaterial for their roles in interrupting CTCs-related cancer metastasis. RESULTS: The antibody-coated nanomaterial was synthesized and characterized. The conjugates specifically bound and captured colon cancer cells SW620. The conjugate inhibited the cells' viability and their adhesion to fibronectin (Fn)-coated substrate or human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in a concentration-dependent manner. In comparison with SW480 and LoVo cell lines, the activity and adhesion of SW620 to Fn-coated substrate and HUVECs were more specifically inhibited by the dual antibody conjugate because of the higher levels of EpCAM and Slex on SW620 cell surface. The hetero-adhesion between SW620 and Fn-coated substrate, or HUVECs was inhibited by about 60-70%. The dual conjugate showed the inhibition capacity more significant than its corresponding single antibody conjugates. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides the new evidence that coating nanomaterials with more than one antibody against CTCs may effectively interfere with the interaction between SW620 and HUVECs.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/citologia , Nanoestruturas , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/efeitos dos fármacos , Anticorpos/química , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/imunologia , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células , Dendrímeros/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Molécula de Adesão da Célula Epitelial , Fibronectinas/química , Fibronectinas/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanoestruturas/química , Metástase Neoplásica/prevenção & controle , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/metabolismo , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/patologia
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