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1.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 106: 110161, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753384

RESUMO

Solid inclusion complexes between chrysin and four amino-appended ß-cyclodextrins (ACDs) were prepared by suspension method and characterized in solid and solution states by kinds of analytical methods. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed distinct micro-morphologies of them. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis revealed their unique thermal properties, such as decomposition temperatures and endothermic points. Powder X-ray diffractometry (XRD) analysis disclosed their unique crystal patterns. Their nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses provided the variations of chemical shifts before and after the formation of inclusion complexes. Their binding stability constants (Ks) were 574, 842, 704, and 474 L·mol-1, respectively, as determined by spectral titration. A 1:1 inclusion mode with self-assembly of their amino side chains inside the ACD cavity was proposed based on Job plot and 2D-ROESY experiments. Water solubility of chrysin was promoted up to 4411.98 µg·mL-1 after formation of inclusion complexes with ACDs, better than that of ß-CD and its derivatives, i.e., HP- and SBE-ß-CD. In vitro antioxidant activity of chrysin was also improved after inclusion complexation by the DPPH scavenging assay. Furthermore, in vitro cytotoxicity of solid inclusion complexes towards three human cancer cell lines, A549, HT-29 and HCT116 were enhanced significantly.

2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 248: 112262, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585162

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Artemisia ordosica Krasch. (AOK) has been used for rheumatic arthritis, cold headache, sore throat, etc. in traditional Chinese/Mongolian medicine and is used for nasosinusitis by local Mongolian "barefoot" doctors. Up to now, their mechanisms are still unclear. AIM: To evaluate the in vivo anti-inflammatory and allergic rhinitis (AR) alleviating effect as well as in vitro antimicrobial activities of AOK extracts to verify its ethno-medicinal claims. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Crude extracts (methanol/95%-ethanol/ethyl acetate) of AOK root/stem/leaf and fractions (petroleum ether/ethyl acetate/n-butanol/aqueous) of AOK root extract were prepared. Xylene-induced ear swelling model in mouse and ovalbumin (OVA)-induced AR model in guinea pig were established. Ear swelling degrees of mice were measured. The numbers of rubbing movement and sneezes of guinea pigs were counted to evaluate the symptoms of AR. The serum levels of histamine, INF-γ, IL-2/4/10, and VCAM-1 were measured by ELISA assay. The histological changes of nasal mucosa were investigated by light microscope after H&E staining. Antimicrobial activities of AOK extracts were also tested. LC-MS/MS analysis was performed to characterize the constituents of active extract and molecular docking was conducted to predict the biological mechanism. RESULTS: In ear-swelling model, extract (100.00 mg/kg) from the ethyl acetate layer of 95% ethanol (100.00 mg/kg) showed better swelling inhibition in mice than positive control (dexamethasone, 191.91 mg/kg). In AR model, extract from the ethyl acetate layer of 95% ethanol significantly alleviated the AR symptoms in guinea pigs, decreased the serum levels of histamine, INF-γ, IL-2/4/10, and VCAM-1, and reduced the infiltration of eosinophil in nasal mucosa. For Staphylococcus aureus, the ethyl acetate extract of AOK stem showed the highest inhibition (MIC=1.25 mg/mL), for Escherichia coli, n-butanol layer of 95% ethanol extract of AOK root showed the highest inhibition (MIC=15.00 mg/mL), for Candida glabrata, 95%-ethyl acetate extract of AOK leaf showed the best inhibition (MIC=0.064 mg/mL), while ethyl acetate and n-butanol layers showed similar inhibition on MRSA (MIC=7.50 mg/mL). LC-MS/MS characterization showed that dicaffeoylquinic acids account for more than 30% of ethyl acetate layer of AOK extract. Dicaffeoylquinic acids bind with histamine-1 receptor with high affinities and interesting modes. CONCLUSIONS: Extracts from AOK had interesting anti-inflammatory activity in mice, alleviating effect against OVA-induced AR in guinea pigs, and antimicrobial activities in vitro, which support the ethno-medicinal use of it. The main constituents in ethyl acetate layer of AOK root extract are dicaffeoylquinic acids and could bind with histamine-1 receptor well. These findings highlighted the importance of natural product chemistry study of AOK.

3.
J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater ; 108(1): 128-142, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30912286

RESUMO

Endowing the conduit with conductivity has been an effective way to stimulate nerve growth and functional recovery. Here, conducting polyaniline (PANi) was used to construct a conductive guidance by coating on the surface of microtubes inserted in a three-dimensional zein nerve conduit to study the repairing efficacy on peripheral nerve injury. PANi nanoparticles with a size of 20-30 nm were synthesized and coated on the surface of microtubes through layer-by-layer deposition. Then, conduits including microtubes with and without PANi coating were implanted into rats to bridge a 10-mm sciatic nerve defect and autograft as the control group. After 2 months, the conduit with PANicoating improved the recovery of proximal compound muscle action potential significantly in the regenerated nerve compared to the conduit without PANi coating, which was not inferior to the autograft group. However, the repairing efficacy was changed reversely at the fourth month postimplantation. PANi coating fragmented to form debris within or around the regenerated nerves while microtubes seem to degrade completely as observed by H&E staining. In vitro degradation experiment confirmed this process. The PANi nanoparticles could induce cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation of both NIH 3T3 cells and macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. These in vitro and in vivo results implied that the nondegradable PANi may occupy the regeneration space and stimulate the inflammatory response in later implantation in vivo. While there was no such risk if the PANi coating keeps in an intact film. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater 108B:128-142, 2020.

4.
Int J Phytoremediation ; 22(1): 62-68, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321987

RESUMO

A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of different rootstocks on the cadmium (Cd) accumulation characteristics of the post-grafting generations of Cd-hyperaccumulator Galinsoga parviflora plants. Five treatments, ungrafted and G. parviflora seedlings grafted on the rootstocks of Kalimeris indica, Senecio scandens, Conyza canadensis, and Artemisia sieversiana, were utilized. The four rootstock grafts decreased the shoot biomass of the G. parviflora post-grafting generation compared with ungrafted. The K. indica and S. scandens grafts increased the Cd concentration in shoots of the G. parviflora post-grafting generation by 15.06% and 14.40%, respectively, compared with ungrafted, while the C. canadensis and A. sieversiana grafts had no significant effects. K. indica grafts increased the amount of Cd extracted by shoots of the G. parviflora post-grafting generation by 10.59% compared with ungrafted, while the other treatments resulted in decreases. Compared with ungrafted, the different rootstocks had no significant effects on the photosynthetic pigment content of the G. parviflora post-grafting generation, and only C. canadensis grafts increased the superoxide dismutase activity level, while only K. indica grafts increased the peroxidase activity level. Therefore, the K. indica rootstock could increase the phytoremediation capability of G. parviflora post-grafted plants grown in Cd-contaminated soil.

5.
Pest Manag Sci ; 76(1): 134-140, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: RNA interference (RNAi) has potential as a pest insect control technique. One possible RNAi target is the cuticle protein, which is important in insect molting and development. As an example, here we evaluate the possibility of designing double-stranded RNA (RNA) that is effective for silencing the cuticle protein 19 gene (CP19) in aphids but is harmless to non-target predator insects. RESULTS: The sequences of CP19s were similar (86.6-94.4%) among the tested aphid species (Aphis citricidus, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and Myzus persicae) but different in the predator Propylaea japonica. Ingestion of species-specific dsRNAs of CP19 by the three aphids produced 39.3-64.2% gene silencing and 45.8-55.8% mortality. Ingestion of non-species-specific dsRNA (dsAcCP19) by Ac. pisum and M. persicae gave gene silencing levels ranging from 40.4% to 50.3% and 43.3-50.8% mortality. The dsApCP19 did not affect PjCP19 expression or developmental duration in P. japonica. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate that CP19 is a promising RNAi target for aphid control via one dsRNA design. The targeting of genes that are conserved in insect pests but not present in beneficial insects is a useful RNAi-based pest control strategy. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.

6.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 121: 109627, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810120

RESUMO

Osteosarcoma (OS) is one of the most common malignant bone tumors in childhood and adolescence. Although great efforts have been made in therapeutic methods for OS, the prognosis is not yet satisfactory and the underlying molecular mechanisms of OS pathogenesis have not been fully explored. Meanwhile, non-coding RNAs, especially microRNAs (miRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), have long been investigated due to their roles as key players in regulating various biological and pathological processes, such as proliferation, apoptosis, cell-cycle, migration, invasion, metastasis, EMT and drug resistance, through targeting their mRNAs transcriptionally or posttranscriptionally. Although, numerous studies have confirmed a complex cross-regulation among lncRNAs, miRNAs and mRNAs, the underlying molecular mechanism has not been elucidated. In this review, we comprehensively summarized the latest research progress of the regulatory relationship among lncRNAs, miRNAs and mRNAs, and highlighted the role of lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA axis in the development of OS to provide novel approaches for cancer diagnosis and treatment.

7.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124775, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521931

RESUMO

Enriched levels of thallium (Tl) in the environment are not only derived from anthropogenic sources but also have potential natural origins owing to Tl-rich sulphide mineralization. However, little is known regarding the geochemical fractionations of Tl in contaminated soils from geogenic sources. This study aims to reveal the Tl geochemical fractionations in different types of soils from a large-scale independent Tl mine in southwestern China, via a modified Institute for Reference Materials and Measurement (IRMM) sequential extraction (four-step) scheme. The results revealed that a large percentage of Tl was related to the labile portions (including reducible, weak-acid-exchangeable, and oxidizable fraction) of the soils (68.8-367 mg kg-1). Further analyses by Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (STEM-EDS) found that Tl mainly existed in the Fe-containing minerals (such as jarosite and hematite) with fine particles (∼1 µm). These results highlight that, apart from the anthropogenically induced Tl pollution, the naturally occurring Tl contamination in soils may also pose significant risks to human health and ecological safety. Owing to the relatively high mobility and bioavailability of Tl in the labile fractions, it is important to understand geochemical fractionations of this element for alleviating Tl pollution and effective management of naturally occurring Tl contaminated soils.

8.
J Cogn Neurosci ; 32(1): 36-49, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596168

RESUMO

Previous studies have found specialized syntactic and semantic processes in the adult brain during language comprehension. Young children have sophisticated semantic and syntactic aspects of language, yet many previous fMRI studies failed to detect this specialization, possibly due to experimental design and analytical methods. In this current study, 5- to 6-year-old children completed a syntactic task and a semantic task to dissociate these two processes. Multivoxel pattern analysis was used to examine the correlation of patterns within a task (between runs) or across tasks. We found that the left middle temporal gyrus showed more similar patterns within the semantic task compared with across tasks, whereas there was no difference in the correlation within the syntactic task compared with across tasks, suggesting its specialization in semantic processing. Moreover, the left superior temporal gyrus showed more similar patterns within both the semantic task and the syntactic task as compared with across tasks, suggesting its role in integration of semantic and syntactic information. In contrast to the temporal lobe, we did not find specialization or integration effects in either the opercular or triangular part of the inferior frontal gyrus. Overall, our study showed that 5- to 6-year-old children have already developed specialization and integration in the temporal lobe, but not in the frontal lobe, consistent with developmental neurocognitive models of language comprehension in typically developing young children.

9.
Molecules ; 24(24)2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817377

RESUMO

Many anti-obesity chemicals have been withdrawn from the market due to serious adverse reactions, and the researchers have turned their attention to low-toxic natural products. Previous studies have demonstrated that chitosan (CTS) and chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) were low-toxic natural products for the use of weight loss. However, it is still unclear whether CTS and COS have positive effects on the thermogenesis. In this study, CTS and COS significantly reduced the weight gain of rats without affecting food intake and effectively inhibited adipose tissue hypertrophy and hyperplasia. Consistently, CTS and COS significantly increased the thermogenic capacity of obese rats induced by high-fat diet (HFD) and increased the expression of browning genes and proteins (UCP1, PGC1α, PRMD16, and ATF2) in white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). In vitro, COS inhibited the formation of mature adipocytes and increased the expression of browning genes. In conclusion, COS and CTS was used to explore the function and mechanism on thermogenesis, and CTS and COS can increase the browning of WAT and the thermogenesis of BAT to inhibit obesity. This effect may be achieved by promoting the expression of browning and thermogenic genes, providing new ideas for the utilization of COS and CTS.

10.
DNA Cell Biol ; 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808724

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a severe risk to public health, and there is growing evidence that alternative splicing (AS) plays a crucial role in cancer. However, the AS biomarkers in CRC are seldom reported. In this study, we perform transcriptome analysis of colorectal samples for cancer-specific AS and transcriptomic alterations. We identify 1577 splice events in 885 genes, enriched in CRC-associated pathways and functions. In parallel, we find 10 splicing factors (SFs) with transcriptome variation or significant differential expression. Based on co-expression and binding motif, we construct an SF-AS regulatory network, revealing the association between cancer-specific AS and aberrant SF. Integrating The Cancer Genome Atlas and published sources, we observed that some recurrent AS is an indicator of poor prognosis. Through further experimental verification, we found that the AS of six genes showed significant differences between the tumor sample and the normal sample, and AS of TCF7, COL12A1, GK, and UBA1 can be used as new potential biomarkers in CRC. Our study provides an important analysis of CRC-associated AS, which could act as a starting point for future functional explorations, the development of biomarkers and AS-based target therapy.

11.
Inorg Chem ; 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820951

RESUMO

The combination of magnetic interaction with high magnetic anisotropy provides a promising way for modulating/fine-tuning molecular magnetic behaviors. Here, we show the building block approach for the synthesis of a family of dilanthanide single-molecule magnets (SMMs) bridged with a cyanometallate starting from a monolanthanide SMM. Contingent on the central para-/diamagnetic [M(CN)6]3- (M = Fe, Co) integrated between two highly anisotropic pentagonal-bipyramid Dy(III) subunits, the remanence of magnetization is OFF/ON below 15 K and they respectively display a record reversal barrier of 659 K among d-f SMMs and 975 K among cyano-bridged SMMs.

12.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18726, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822749

RESUMO

Depressed individuals are biased to perceive, interpret, and judge ambiguous cues in a negative/pessimistic manner. Depressed mood can induce and exacerbate these biases, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We theorize that depressed mood can bias ambiguity processing by altering one's subjective emotional feelings (e.g. pleasantness/unpleasantness) of the cues. This is because when there is limited objective information, individuals often rely on subjective feelings as a source of information for cognitive processing. To test this theory, three groups (induced depression vs. spontaneous depression vs. neutral) were tested in the Judgement Bias Task (JBT), a behavioral assay of ambiguity processing bias. Subjective pleasantness/unpleasantness of cues was measured by facial electromyography (EMG) from the zygomaticus major (ZM, "smiling") and from the corrugator supercilii (CS, "frowning") muscles. As predicted, induced sad mood (vs. neutral mood) yielded a negative bias with a magnitude comparable to that in a spontaneous depressed mood. The facial EMG data indicates that the negative judgement bias induced by depressed mood was associated with a decrease in ZM reactivity (i.e., diminished perceived pleasantness of cues). Our results suggest that depressed mood may bias ambiguity processing by affecting the reward system.

13.
Invest New Drugs ; 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823159

RESUMO

The PI3K pathway is aberrantly activated in many cancers and plays a critical role in tumour cell proliferation and survival, making it a rational therapeutic target. In the present study, the effects and the underlying mechanism of a new PI3K inhibitor, W941, were investigated in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The results of this study showed that W941 inhibited the growth of A549 and Hcc827 cells with IC50 values of 0.12 and 0.23 µM, respectively, and that W941 markedly inhibited the growth of A549 xenograft tumours in a nude mouse model without decreasing body weight. Western blotting assays showed that W941 inhibited the phosphorylation of downstream proteins in the PI3K pathway (AKT, mTOR, p70S6K and 4EBP1) in both A549 and Hcc827 cells. In addition, after W941 treatment, a dose-dependent increase in the ratio of the LC3-II/I ratio was observed. When cells were pre-treated with chloroquine or bafilomycin A1, W941 increased the LC3-II/I ratio, suggesting that W941 acted as an autophagy inducer. Moreover, autophagy blockers enhanced apoptosis after W941 treatment, indicating that W941-induced autophagy actually protected the cells against its cytotoxicity. Our findings suggest that the combination of a PI3K inhibitor with an autophagy inhibitor might be a novel option for NSCLC treatment.

14.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 12: CD009324, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a common neurologic disorder, affecting approximately 50 million people worldwide; nearly a third of these people have epilepsy that is not well controlled by a single antiepileptic drug (AED) and they usually require treatment with a combination of two or more AEDs. In recent years, many newer AEDs have been investigated as add-on therapy for focal epilepsy; losigamone is one of these drugs and is the focus of this systematic review. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2012 and updated in 2018. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the efficacy and tolerability of losigamone when used as an add-on therapy for focal epilepsy. SEARCH METHODS: For the latest update on 20 August 2019, we searched the Cochrane Register of Studies (CRS Web) and MEDLINE. CRS Web includes randomized or quasi-randomized, controlled studies from the Specialized Registers of Cochrane Review Groups including Cochrane Epilepsy, CENTRAL, PubMed, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). Previously we searched trials registers and contacted the manufacturer of losigamone and authors of included studies for additional information. We did not impose any language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled, add-on studies comparing losigamone with placebo for focal epilepsy. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed study quality and extracted data. The primary outcomes were 50% or greater reduction in seizure frequency and seizure freedom; the secondary outcomes were treatment withdrawal and adverse events. Results are presented as risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) or 99% CIs (for the individual listed adverse events to make an allowance for multiple testing). MAIN RESULTS: Two studies involving a total of 467 participants, aged over 18 years, were eligible for inclusion. Both studies assessed losigamone 1200 mg/day or 1500 mg/day as an add-on therapy for focal epilepsy. We assessed one study as being of good methodological quality while the other was of uncertain quality. For the efficacy outcomes, results showed that participants taking losigamone were significantly more likely to achieve a 50% or greater reduction in seizure frequency (RR 1.76, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.72; 2 studies, 467 participants; moderate-quality evidence), but associated with a significant increase of treatment withdrawal when compared with those taking placebo (RR 2.16, 95% CI 1.28 to 3.67; 2 studies, 467 participants; moderate-quality evidence). For the tolerability outcomes, results indicated that the proportion of participants who experienced adverse events in the losigamone group was higher than in the placebo group (RR 1.34, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.80; 2 studies, 467 participants; moderate-quality evidence). Dizziness was the only adverse event significantly reported in relation to losigamone (RR 3.82, 99% CI 1.69 to 8.64; 2 studies; 467 participants; moderate-quality evidence). Neither study reported the proportion of participants achieving seizure freedom. A subgroup analysis according to different doses of losigamone showed that a higher dose of losigamone (1500 mg/day) was associated with a greater reduction in seizure frequency than lower doses, but was also associated with more dropouts due to adverse events. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The results of this review showed that losigamone did reduce seizure frequency but was associated with more treatment withdrawals when used as an add-on therapy for people with focal epilepsy. However, the included studies were of short-term duration and uncertain quality. Future well-designed randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies with a longer-term duration are needed. We did not find any new studies since the last version of this review. We judged the overall quality of the evidence for the outcomes assessed as moderate.

15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17913, 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784546

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess left ventricular (LV) myocardial strain in patients with connective tissue disease (CTD) and compare LV deformation between subgroups of idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) and non-IIM. Ninety-eight patients with CTD, comprising 56 with IIM and 42 with non-IIM, and 30 healthy subjects were enrolled and underwent 3.0T cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning. The LV function and strain parameters were measured and assessed. Our result revealed that CTD patients had preserved LV ejection fraction (60.85%) and had significantly decreased global and regional peak strain (PS) in radial, circumferential, and longitudinal directions (all p < 0.05). IIM patients showed significantly reduced global longitudinal PS (GLPS) and longitudinal PS at apical slice, whereas all strain parameters decreased in non-IIM patients. Except GLPS and longitudinal PS at apical slice, all strain parameters in non-IIM patients were lower than those in IIM patients. By Pearson's correlation analysis, the LV global radial and circumferential PS were correlated to N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide level and LV ejection fraction in both IIM and non-IIM patients. This study indicated that CTD patients showed abnormal LV deformation despite with preserved LVEF. The impairment of LV deformation differed between IIM and non-IIM patients.

16.
J Hazard Mater ; : 121756, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818671

RESUMO

Both thallium (Tl) and arsenic (As) bear severe toxicity. Brake fern (Pteris vittata L.) is well-known for its hyperaccumulation capacity of As, yet its role on Tl accumulation remains unknown. Herein, brake ferns growing near an As tailing site in Yunnan, Southwestern China are for the first time discovered as a co-hyperaccumulator of both Tl and As. The results showed that the brake ferns extracted both As and Tl efficiently from the soils into the fronds. The studied ferns growing on Tl and As co-polluted soils were found to accumulate extremely high levels of both As (7215-11110 mg/kg) and Tl (6.47-111 mg/kg). Conspicuously high bio-accumulation factor (BCF) was observed for As (7.8) and even higher for Tl (28.4) among these co-hyperaccumulators, wherein the contents of As and Tl in contaminated soils were 1240 ± 12 and 3.91 ± 0.01 mg/kg, respectively. The applied advanced characterization techniques (e.g. transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)) indicated a preferential uptake of Tl(I) while simultaneous accumulation of As (III) and As(V) from the Tl(I)/Tl(III)-As (III)/As(V) co-existent rhizospheric soils. The findings benefit the phytoremediation practice and pose implications for managing and restoring Tl-As co-contaminated soils in other countries.

17.
J Econ Entomol ; 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31819971

RESUMO

The citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor), is an important spider mite pest in citrus producing areas. Owing to long-term acaricide exposure, resistance has evolved rapidly in recent years. To evaluate the extent of resistance, seven field mite populations sampled from various geographical locations in China during 2015-2018 were tested using the leaf-dip bioassay method to determine their susceptibilities to four acaricides. In comparison with the susceptible strain maintained in the laboratory, low or moderate levels of fenpropathrin resistance, while no resistance to abamectin or cyflumetofen, were found among populations sampled from Liangping, Wanzhou, Daying, and Anyue in Southwestern China during the test period. High levels (>1,000-fold, with LC50 values that were greater than the recommended concentration) of resistance to fenpropathrin had evolved in field populations from Southern China, including Guilin, Nanning, and Yuxi, when compared with that of the susceptible strain. Populations from Guilin and Nanning also evolved high resistance levels to abamectin (1,088-fold and 1,401-fold) and cyflumetofen (2,112-fold and 9,093-fold). All the populations sampled in 2018 showed a moderate or high resistance to bifenazate. Generally, field populations of citrus red mites from Southwestern China were more sensitive to the tested acaricides than those of Southern China. The data provide a foundation for developing acaricide resistance management strategies in these regions.

18.
Strahlenther Onkol ; 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828393

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Severe acute radiation pneumonitis (SARP) is a life-threatening complication of thoracic radiotherapy. Pre-treatment pulmonary function (PF) may influence its incidence. We have previously reported on the incidence of SARP among patients with moderate pulmonary dysfunction who received definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy (dCCRT) for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: The clinical outcomes, dose-volume histograms (DVH), and PF parameters of 122 patients (forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1%]: 60-69%) receiving dCCRT between 2013 and 2019 were recorded. SARP was defined as grade ≥3 RP occurring during or within 3 months after CCRT. Logistic regression, receiver operating characteristics curves (ROC), and hazard ratio (HR) analyses were performed to evaluate the predictive value of each factor for SARP. RESULTS: Univariate and multivariate analysis indicated that the ratio of carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO%; odds ratio [OR]: 0.934, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.896-0.974, p = 0.001) and mean lung dose (MLD; OR: 1.002, 95% CI 1.001-1.003, p = 0.002) were independent predictors of SARP. The ROC AUC of combined DLCO%/MLD was 0.775 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.688-0.861, p = 0.001), with a sensitivity and specificity of 0.871 and 0.637, respectively; this was superior to DLCO% (0.656) or MLD (0.667) alone. Compared to the MLD-low/DLCO%-high group, the MLD-high/DLCO%-low group had the highest risk for SARP, with an HR of 9.346 (95% CI: 2.133-40.941, p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: The DLCO% and MLD may predict the risk for SARP among patients with pre-treatment moderate pulmonary dysfunction who receive dCCRT for NSCLC. Prospective studies are needed to validate our findings.

19.
Plant Cell Rep ; 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784771

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Four MaHDZs are possibly involved in banana fruit ripening by activating the transcription of genes related to ethylene biosynthesis and cell wall degradation, such as MaACO5, MaEXP2, MaEXPA10, MaPG4 and MaPL4. The homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) proteins represent plant-specific transcription factors, which contribute to various plant physiological processes. However, little information is available regarding the association of HD-ZIPs with banana fruit ripening. In this study, we identified a total of 96 HD-ZIP genes in banana genome, which were divided into four different groups consisting of 35, 31, 9 and 21 members in the I, II, III and IV subfamilies, respectively. The expression patterns of MaHDZ genes during fruit ripening showed that MaHDZI.19, MaHDZI.26, MaHDZII.4 and MaHDZII.7 were significantly up-regulated in the ripening stage and thus suggested to be potential regulators of banana fruit ripening. Furthermore, MaHDZI.19, MaHDZI.26, MaHDZII.4 and MaHDZII.7 were found to localize exclusively in the nucleus and exhibit transcriptional activation capacities. Importantly, MaHDZI.19, MaHDZI.26, MaHDZII.4 and MaHDZII.7 stimulated the transcription of several ripening-related genes including MaACO5 related to ethylene biosynthesis, MaEXP2, MaEXPA10, MaPG4 and MaPL4 were associated with cell wall degradation, through directly binding to their promoters. Taken together, our findings expand the functions of HD-ZIP transcription factors and identify four MaHDZs likely involved in regulating banana fruit ripening by activating the expression of genes related to ethylene biosynthesis and cell wall modification, which may have potential application in banana molecular breeding.

20.
Strahlenther Onkol ; 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784801

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The optimal radiotherapy dose/fraction for limited-stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is undefined. Our objectives were to compare efficacy between hyperfractionated thoracic radiotherapy (TRT; 1.5 Gy 2 times per day [bid] in 30 fractions) and hypofractionated TRT (2.5 Gy once per day [qd] in 22 fractions), and to explore prognostic factors influencing the prognosis, such as the timing of TRT. METHODS: Patients enrolled in two independent prospective studies were combined and analyzed. The primary endpoint was local/regional control (LRC). The prognosis was analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. RESULTS: Ninety-two and 96 patients were treated with hyperfractionated TRT and hypofractionated TRT, respectively. The 1­ and 2­year LRC rates of the two arms were 82.1 and 60.7%, and 84.9 and 68.8% (P = 0.27), respectively. The median overall survival (OS) times (months) were 28.3 (95% confidence interval, CI 16.4-40.1) and 22.0 (95% CI 16.4-27.5), while the 1­year, 3­year, and 5­year OS rates were 85.2, 40.8, and 27.1%, and 76.9, 34.3, and 26.8% (P = 0.37), respectively. Using a multivariate Cox regression study, time (days) from the initiation of chemotherapy to TRT (TCT) ≤43 was associated with improved LRC (hazard radio, HR 0.39, 95% CI 0.20-0.76; P = 0.005). Time (days) from the start of chemotherapy to the end of TRT (SER) ≤63 (HR 0.50, 95% CI 0.32-0.80; P = 0.003) and prophylactic cranial irradiation (HR 0.43; 95% CI 0.29-0.63; P = 0.000) were favorably related to OS. Grade 2/3 acute radiation esophagitis was observed in 37.0 and 17.7% of patients in the hyperfractionated and hypofractionated arms, respectively (P = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Both hyperfractionated and hypofractionated TRT schedules achieved good LRC and OS for patients with limited-stage SCLC in this study. Keeping TCT ≤43 and SER ≤63 resulted in a better prognosis. The incidence of acute esophagitis was significantly higher in the hyperfractionated arm.

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