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1.
Food Funct ; 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494629

RESUMO

Currently, drug-induced liver injury caused by acetaminophen (APAP) is the second leading cause of human liver transplantation. The only clinical antidote treatment for APAP-induced liver injury is N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), which has many side effects. Chitooligosaccharides (COS) are processed from naturally occurring chitin through chemical desalting and deproteinization, biological enzymatic hydrolysis and other processes. In this study, we constructed in vitro and in vivo models of APAP-induced liver injury to study COS of two molecular weights (MWs), which are COST (MW ≤ 1000 Da) and COSM (MW ≤ 3000 Da). The results showed that COST and COSM can significantly reduce the levels of serum ALT and AST and liver MDA, TNF-α, IL-1ß and IL-6, and increase the levels and activity of GSH, SOD, GSH-Px and CAT. A mechanistic study found that COST and COSM can significantly reduce the expression of liver CYP2E1, Keap1, p-ASK1/ASK1, p-MKK4/MKK4, p-JNK/JNK, Caspase-3 and Bax and increase the expression of Nrf2, HO-1, eNOS, SOD and Bcl-XL. COST and COSM can inhibit toxic APAP metabolism, inhibit oxidative damage and the apoptosis pathway, increase activation of the liver antioxidant pathway, and ultimately ameliorate APAP-induced liver oxidative damage.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0251937, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506505

RESUMO

Pine wilt disease (PWD) is a devastating disease affecting trees belonging to the genus Pinus. To control the spread of PWD in the Masson pine forest in China, PWD resistant Masson pine clones have been selected by the Anhui Academy of Forestry. However, because Masson pine is a difficult-to-root species, producing seedlings is challenging, especially from trees older than 5 years of age, which impedes the application of PWD resistant clones. In this study, we investigated the factors affecting rooting of PWD resistant clones and established a cheap, reliable, and simple method that promotes rooting. We tested the effects of three management methods, four substrates, two cutting materials, two cutting treatments, and three collection times on the rooting of cuttings obtained from 9-year-old PWD resistant clones. Rooting was observed only in stem cuttings treated with the full-light automatic spray management method. Additionally, stem cuttings showed a significantly higher rooting rate and root quality than needles cuttings. Compared with other substrates, stem cuttings planted in perlite produced the longest adventitious root and the highest total root length and lateral root number. Moreover, stem cuttings of PWD resistant clones collected in May showed a significantly higher rooting rate and root quality than those collected in June and July. Moreover, stem cuttings prepared with a horizontal cut while retaining the needles showed significantly higher rooting rate and root quality than those prepared with a diagonal cut while partly removing the needles. This study promotes the reproduction of seedlings of PWD-resistant Masson pine clones which helps control the spread of PWD, meanwhile, provides a technical reference for the propagation of mature pine trees via cuttings.

3.
Food Res Int ; 148: 110533, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507779

RESUMO

Although the microbial diversity and structure in bean-based fermented foods have been widely studied, systematic studies on functional microbiota and mechanism of community forms in multi-microbial fermentation systems were still lacking. In this work, the metabolic pathway and functional potential of microbial community in broad bean paste (BBP) were investigated by metagenomics approach, and Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Weissella, Aspergillus and Zygosaccharomyces were found to be the potential predominant populations responsible for substrate alteration and flavor biosynthesis. Among them, Staphylococcus was the most abundant and widespread functional microbe, and closely related Staphylococcus species were diverse and ubiquitously distributed, with the opportunistic pathogen S. gallinarum being the most abundant Staphylococcus specie isolated from BBP. To explain the dominance status of S. gallinarum and species distributions of Staphylococcus genus, we tested the effects of abiotic and biotic factors on three Staphylococcus species using a tractable BBP model, demonstrating that adaptation to environmental conditions (environmental parameters and other functional microbes) led to the dominant position and species coexistence of Staphylococcus, and congeneric competition among Staphylococcus species further shaped ecological distributions of closely related Staphylococcus species. In general, this work revealed the metabolic potential of microbial community and distribution mechanism of Staphylococcus species during BBP fermentation, which could help traditional factories to more precisely control the safety and quality of bean-based fermented foods.

4.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509522

RESUMO

Hair loss remains a challenging clinical problem that influences the quality of life. Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting has become a valuable tool for fabricating tissue constructs for transplantation and other biomedical applications. Although some simple organs, such as skin and cartilage, have been successfully simulated, it remains challenging to make hair follicles (HFs), which are highly complex organs. The tissue engineering of human HFs has been a long-standing challenge, and progress with this has lagged behind that with other lab-grown tissues. This is principally due to a lack of availability of a platform that can successfully recapitulate the microenvironmental cues required to maintain the requisite cellular interactions for hair neogenesis. In this study, we used a 3D bioprinting technique based on a gelatin/alginate hydrogel to construct a multilayer composite scaffold with cuticular and corium layers to simulate the microenvironment of dermal papilla cells (DPCs) in the human body. This new approach permits the controllable formation of self-aggregating spheroids of DPCs in a physiologically relevant extracellular matrix and the initiation of epidermal-mesenchymal interactions, which results in HF formation in vivo. In conclusion, our 3D-bioprinted multilayer composite scaffold prepared using a gelatin/alginate hydrogel provides a suitable 3D microenvironment for DPCs to induce HF formation. The ability to regenerate entire HFs should have a significant impact on the medical management of hair loss. This method may also have critical applications for skin tissue engineering, with its appendages, for other purposes.

5.
J Pept Sci ; : e3368, 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514664

RESUMO

Coupling reagents play crucial roles in the iterative construction of amide bonds for the synthesis of peptides and peptide-based derivatives. The novel DIC/Oxyma condensation system featured with the low risk of explosion displayed remarkable abilities to inhibit racemization, along with efficient coupling efficiency in both manual and automated syntheses. Nevertheless, an ideal reaction molar ratio in DIC/Oxyma condensation system and the moderate reaction temperature by manual synthesis remain to be further investigated. Herein, the synthetic efficiencies of different reaction ratios between DIC and Oxyma under moderate reaction temperature were systematically evaluated. The robustness and efficiency of DIC/Oxyma condensation system are validated by the rapid synthesis of linear centipede toxin RhTx. Different folding strategies were applied for the construction of disulfide bridges in RhTx, which was further confirmed in assays of circular dichroism and patch-clamp electrophysiology evaluation. This work establishes the DIC/Oxyma-based accelerated synthesis of peptides under moderate condensation conditions, which is especially useful for the manual synthesis of peptides. Besides, the strategy presented here provides robust technical supports for the large-scale synthesis and oxidative folding of RhTx.

6.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 461, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489395

RESUMO

Running exercise has been shown to relieve symptoms of depression, but the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effects are unclear. Microglia and concomitant dysregulated neuroinflammation play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of depression. However, the effects of running exercise on hippocampal neuroinflammation and the number and activation of microglia in depression have not been studied. In this study, rats were subjected to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) for 5 weeks followed by treadmill running for 6 weeks. The depressive-like symptoms of the rats were assessed with a sucrose preference test (SPT). Immunohistochemistry and stereology were performed to quantify the total number of ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1)+ microglia, and immunofluorescence was used to quantify the density of Iba1+/cluster of differentiation 68 (CD68)+ in subregions of the hippocampus. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus were measured by qRT-PCR and ELISA. The results showed that running exercise reversed the decreased sucrose preference of rats with CUS-induced depression. In addition, CUS increased the number of hippocampal microglia and microglial activation in rats, but running exercise attenuated the CUS-induced increases in the number of microglia in the hippocampus and microglial activation in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus. Furthermore, CUS significantly increased the hippocampal levels of inflammatory factors, and the increases in inflammatory factors in the hippocampus were suppressed by running exercise. These results suggest that the antidepressant effects of exercise may be mediated by reducing the number of microglia and inhibiting microglial activation and neuroinflammation in the hippocampus.

7.
Front Public Health ; 9: 657804, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490177

RESUMO

Objective: Our objective is to explore the effect of applying cloud video conferencing methods to the informed consent process in an early-phase clinical trial during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: All participants who intended to participate in the trial were informed via a cloud video conference before signing the informed consent forms (ICF). Then, the attitudes of the participants with the cloud video conference and their understanding of the trial were evaluated using a questionnaire when they visited to sign the ICF onsite. Results: A total of 165 subjects participated in the cloud video conference process, and 142 visited the site to sign and date the ICFs at the center during the appointment time. The survey showed that nearly 100% of the subjects evaluated the video-based informed consent process as very good or good and gave correct answers to questions about the trial. Furthermore, 136 (95.8%) subjects believed that the knowledge about the trial derived via the video-based informed consent process was consistent with the onsite reality, and 139 (97.9%) subjects expressed their willingness to participate in an informed consent procedure undertaken through an online video conference. Conclusions: The video-based informed consent process achieved the same effects as an onsite informed consent process. The former saves time and cost of transportation for the subject and exhibits good public acceptance; especially in light of the COVID-19 pandemic, this process is conducive for reducing the risk of subject infection due to travel and would also help avoid crowding on site.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Comunicação por Videoconferência
8.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256628, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492040

RESUMO

Paratuberculosis a contagious and chronic disease in domestic and wild ruminants, is caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Typical clinical signs include intractable diarrhea, progressive emaciation, proliferative enteropathy, and mesenteric lymphadenitis. Paratuberculosis is endemic to many parts of the world and responsible for considerable economic losses. In this study, different types of paratuberculosis and MAP in sheep and goats were investigated in Inner Mongolia, a northern province in China contiguous with two countries and eight other provinces. A total of 4434 serum samples were collected from six cities in the western, central, and eastern regions of Inner Mongolia and analyzed using the ELISA test. In addition, tissue samples were collected from seven animals that were suspected to be infected with MAP. Finally, these tissues samples were analyzed by histopathological examination followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), IS1311 PCR-restriction enzyme analysis (PCR-REA), and a sequence analysis of five genes. Among all 4434 ruminant serum samples collected from the six cities in the western, central, and eastern regions of Inner Mongolia, 7.60% (337/4434) measured positive for the MAP antibody. The proportions of positive MAP antibody results for serum samples collected in the western, central, and eastern regions were 5.10% (105/2058), 6.63% (85/1282), and 13.44% (147/1094), respectively. For the seven suspected infected animals selected from the herd with the highest rate of positivity, the gross pathology and histopathology of the necropsied animals were found to be consistent with the pathological features of paratuberculosis. The PCR analysis further confirmed the diagnosis of paratuberculosis. The rest of the results demonstrated that herds of sheep and goats in Inner Mongolia were infected with both MAP type II and type III. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of the two subtypes of MAP strains in sheep and goats in Inner Mongolia.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AIMS: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) improve the survival of patients with advanced tumors. However, immune-related adverse events limit the use of ICIs. Although liver toxicity has been concerned gradually, little is known about bile duct injury associated with ICIs. Hence, this review aims to describe clinicopathological features, imaging, and management of immune-mediated cholangitis (IMC) induced by ICIs. METHODS: We retrieved the literature from the PubMed database for case reports and series of IMC induced by ICIs. IMC was then classified as small-ducts type, large-ducts type and mixed type. Biochemical parameters, pathological characteristics, imaging features, treatment and response were evaluated and compared among three patterns. RESULTS: Fifty-three cases of IMC were enrolled. The median values of alkaline phosphatase and alanine transaminase of IMC were 1328 and 156 IU/L. The ALP level of the large-ducts type was higher than that of the small-ducts type (P = 0.021). The main pathological characteristics of small-ducts cholangitis were portal inflammation, bile duct injury and ductular reaction. The imaging features of large-duct cholangitis were bile duct dilatation, stenosis and bile duct wall thickening and irregularity. Forty-eight (90%) cases received immunosuppression therapy. Biliary enzymes reduced in 79% of cases receiving immunosuppression therapy, but only 8.5% of cases returned to normal. It took a long time for biliary enzymes to recover. CONCLUSIONS: The clinicians should be aware of the possibility of IMC if the biliary enzymes increase significantly after the use of ICIs. The liver function can be improved partially by immunosuppressive therapy in the majority of IMC.

10.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 2021 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MRI-based elastography (MRE) are the most promising noninvasive techniques in assessing liver diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an advanced multiparametric imaging method for staging disease and assessing treatment response in realistic preclinical ALD models. METHODS: We utilized four different preclinical mouse models in our study: Model 1-mice were fed a fast-food diet and fructose water for 48 weeks to induce nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; Model 2-mice were fed chronic-binge ethanol (EtOH) for 10 days or 8 weeks to induce liver steatosis/inflammation. Two groups of mice were treated with interleukin-22 at different time points to induce disease regression; Model 3-mice were administered CCl4 for 2 to 4 weeks to establish liver fibrosis followed by 2 or 4 weeks of recovery; and Model 4-mice were administered EtOH plus CCl4 for 12 weeks. Mouse liver imaging biomarkers including proton density fat fraction (PDFF), liver stiffness (LS), loss modulus (LM), and damping ratio (DR) were assessed. Liver and serum samples were obtained for histologic and biochemical analyses. Ordinal logistic regression and generalized linear regression analyses were used to model the severity of steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis, and to assess the regression of these conditions. RESULTS: Multiparametric models with combinations of biomarkers (LS, LM, DR, and PDFF) used noninvasively to predict the histologic severity and regression of steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis were highly accurate (area under the curve > 0.84 for all). A three-parameter model that incorporates LS, DR, and ALT predicted histologic fibrosis progression (r = 0.84, p < 0.0001) and regression (r = 0.79, p < 0.0001) as measured by collagen content in livers. CONCLUSION: This preclinical study provides evidence that multiparametric MRI/MRE can be used noninvasively to assess disease severity and monitor treatment response in ALD.

11.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 704919, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504807

RESUMO

Aims: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are critical regulators of viral infection and inflammatory responses. However, the roles of lncRNAs in acute myocarditis (AM), especially fulminant myocarditis (FM), remain unclear. Methods: FM and non-fulminant myocarditis (NFM) were induced by coxsackie B3 virus (CVB3) in different mouse strains. Then, the expression profiles of the lncRNAs in the heart tissues were detected by sequencing. Finally, the patterns were analyzed by Pearson/Spearman rank correlation, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, and Cytoscape 3.7. Results: First, 1,216, 983, 1,606, and 2,459 differentially expressed lncRNAs were identified in CVB3-treated A/J, C57BL/6, BALB/c, and C3H mice with myocarditis, respectively. Among them, 88 lncRNAs were commonly dysregulated in all four models. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses further confirmed that four out of the top six commonly dysregulated lncRNAs were upregulated in all four models. Moreover, the levels of ENSMUST00000188819, ENSMUST00000199139, and ENSMUST00000222401 were significantly elevated in the heart and spleen and correlated with the severity of cardiac inflammatory infiltration. Meanwhile, 923 FM-specific dysregulated lncRNAs were detected, among which the levels of MSTRG.26098.49, MSTRG.31307.11, MSTRG.31357.2, and MSTRG.32881.28 were highly correlated with LVEF. Conclusion: Expression of lncRNAs is significantly dysregulated in acute myocarditis, which may play different roles in the progression of AM.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521263

RESUMO

Fluorescent probes and mass spectrometry are the two most popular and complementary methods to quantify thiols in biological systems. In this review, we focus on the widely used and commercially available methods to detect and quantify thiols in living cells and the general approaches applied in mass spectrometry-based thiol quantification. We hope this review can serve as a general guide for redox biologists who are interested in thiol species.

13.
Food Chem ; 369: 131008, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500205

RESUMO

In this study, we developed a prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs) immunochromatographic assay (ICA) integrated with smartphone-based detection device for ZEN in cereals. PBNPs, as probe labels, were synthesized with properties of controllable structure, environment friendliness, and high affinities to antibody (Ab). PBNPs-ICA quantitative analysis was performed with a hand-held smartphone-based device coupled with a user-friendly and self-programmed detection App. This integrated strategy demonstrated high sensitivity for ZEN with a cut-off value of 10 µg/kg, a detection limit of 0.12 µg/kg, a quantitation limit of 0.27 µg/kg, and recovery rates of 92.0%-105.0% and 88.0%-98.0% for maize and wheat, respectively. The results of 20 naturally contaminated cereal samples showed good correlation (R2>0.99) between LC-MS/MS and developed system. Moreover, the stability experiment revealed that PBNPs-ICA maintained high stability and bioactivity against competitive antigen (Ag). The proposed strategy exhibited great potential for the rapid monitoring of mycotoxins or other small molecule hazards.

14.
Mol Carcinog ; 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499769

RESUMO

Gastric cancer (GC) has one of the highest tumor incidences worldwide. Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is highly expressed and plays a critical role in the occurrence, progression, metastasis, poor prognosis, and drug resistance of GC. However, the underlying mechanisms of HSP70 are not clear. To explore the regulatory role of HSP70 in GC, we performed cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and EdU staining assays to assess cell proliferation; immunohistochemistry and western blot analyses to assess protein expression; coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assays to assess interactions between two proteins; and immunofluorescence to assess protein expression and localization. HSP70 was highly expressed in clinical samples from patients with GC and indicated a poor prognosis. HSP70 inhibition enhanced the sensitivity of GC cells to thermochemotherapy. Furthermore, we found that S phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) was highly expressed in GC and correlated with HSP70 in array data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Importantly, HSP70 inhibition promoted Skp2 degradation. Skp2 overexpression abrogated HSP70 inhibition-induced cell cycle arrest, suggesting that the role of HSP70 in GC depends on Skp2 expression. Our results illustrate a possible regulatory mechanism of HSP70 and may provide a therapeutic strategy for overcoming resistance to thermochemotherapy.

15.
Mol Med Rep ; 24(5)2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476505

RESUMO

Ischemic stroke is one of the most common diseases that has a high rate of mortality, and has become a burden to the healthcare system. Previous research has shown that EPH receptor B4 (EphB4) promotes neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation in vitro. However, little is known regarding its role in the neurogenesis of ischemic stroke in vivo. Thus, the present study aimed to verify whether EphB4 was a key regulator of neurogenesis in ischemic stroke in vivo. Cerebral ischemia was induced in C57BL/6J mice via middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), followed by reperfusion. Immunofluorescence staining was performed to evaluate the effect of EphB4 on the neurogenesis in cerebral cortex. The levels of inflammatory cytokines were determined using an ELISA kit. The expression levels of ABL proto­oncogene 1, non­receptor tyrosine kinase (ABL1)/Cyclin D1 signaling pathway­related proteins were detected via western blotting. The current findings indicated that EphB4 expression was significantly increased in the cerebral cortex of MCAO model mice in comparison with sham­operated mice. Moreover, EphB4 appeared to be expressed in neural stem cells (Nestin+), and persisted as these cells became neuronal progenitors (Sox2+), neuroblasts [doublecortin (DCX)+], and eventually mature neurons [neuronal nuclei (NeuN)+]. Overexpression of EphB4 elevated the number of proliferating (bromodeoxyuridine+, Ki67+) and differentiated cells (Nestin+, Sox2+, DCX+ and NeuN+), indicating the promoting effect of EphB4 on the neurogenesis of ischemic stroke. Furthermore, EphB4 overexpression alleviated the inflammation injury in MCAO model mice. The expression levels of proteins­related to the ABL1/Cyclin D1 signaling pathway were significantly increased by the overexpression of EphB4, which suggested that restoration of EphB4 promoted the activation of the ABL1/Cyclin D1 signaling pathway. In conclusion, this study contributes to the current understanding of the mechanisms of EphB4 in exerting neurorestorative effects and may recommend a potential new strategy for ischemic stroke treatment.

16.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34532962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tanning is an important physiological process that play the critical roles in affecting cuticle pigmentation and sclerotization. Previous studies have showed that insect cuticle tanning was closely associated with tyrosine metabolism pathway that consisted of a series of enzymes. RESULTS: In this study, a total of 24 tyrosine metabolism pathway genes were identified in the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) genome. Then, the gene expression profiles throughout 15 developmental stages of B. dorsalis were established on the basis of our previous RNA-seq data, and we found 13 enzyme genes could be involved in the process of pupariation. Accordingly, a predicted tyrosine-mediated tanning pathway during the pupariation of B. dorsalis was obtained, and a critical enzyme 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) decarboxylase (DDC) was selected to explore its possible functions in the formation of puparium. Firstly, the RT-qPCR confirmed that BdDDC had epidermis-specific expression pattern, and it was also highly expressed during the larval metamorphosis of B. dorsalis. Subsequently, the dysfunction of BdDDC by feeding 5-day-old larvae with DDC inhibitor (L-α-Methyl-DOPA) could lead to (i) the significant decreasing of BdDDC enzyme activity and dopamine concentration; (ii) the defects in puparium pigmentation; (iii) the impairment of morphology and less thickness of puparium; (iv) the lower pupal weight and obstacle to eclosion. CONCLUSION: The present study provided us a potential tyrosine metabolic pathway that was responsible for insect tanning during the pupariation, and the BdDDC enzyme has been proved to act the crucial roles in larval-pupal tanning of B. dorsalis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

17.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533560

RESUMO

The Y-family DNA polymerases specialize in translesion DNA synthesis, which is essential for replicating damaged DNA. The Y-family polymerases, which are made up of four stable domains, exhibit extensive distributions of charged residues, and are responsible for the tight formation of the protein-DNA complex. However, it is still unclear how the electrostatic interactions influence the conformational dynamics of the polymerases. Here, we focus on the case of a prototype Y-family DNA polymerase, Dpo4. Using coarse-grained models including a salt-dependent electrostatic potential, we investigate the effects of the electrostatic interactions on the folding process of Dpo4. Our simulations show that strong electrostatic interactions result in a three-state folding of Dpo4, consistent with the experimental observations. This folding process exhibits low cooperativity led by low salt concentration, where the individual domains fold one by one through one single pathway. Since the refined folding order of domains in multidomain proteins can shrink the configurational space, we suggest that the electrostatic interactions facilitate the Dpo4 folding. In addition, we study the local conformational dynamics of Dpo4 in terms of fluctuation and frustration analyses. We show that the electrostatic interactions can exaggerate the local conformational properties, which are in favor of the large-scale conformational transition of Dpo4 during the functional DNA binding. Our results underline the importance of electrostatic interactions in the conformational dynamics of Dpo4 at both the global and local scale, providing useful guidance in protein engineering at the multidomain level.

18.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 34(8): 650-655, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474727

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV), two of the most prevalent human herpesviruses, cause a wide spectrum of diseases and symptoms and are associated with serious health problem. In this study, we developed an internal control reference recombinase-aided amplification (ICR-RAA) assay for the rapid detection of EBV and CMV within 30 min. The assay had a sensitivity of 5 and 1 copies/test for EBV and CMV, respectively, with no cross reaction with other pathogens. In comparison with those of the commercial quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), the sensitivity of the EBV and CMV ICR-RAAs using extracted DNA was 93.33% and 84.84%, respectively; the specificity was 98.75% and 100.00%, respectively; and the Kappa values were 0.930 and 0.892 ( P < 0.05), respectively. In comparison with those of qPCR, the sensitivity of the EBV and CMV ICR-RAAs using the DNA by thermal lysis was 72.22% and 80.00%, respectively; the specificity was 100.00%; and the Kappa values were 0.764 and 0.878 ( P < 0. 05), respectively. Thus, rapid and specific detection of EBV and CMV is possible using ICR-RAA assays.


Assuntos
Citomegalovirus/genética , DNA Viral/análise , Herpesvirus Humano 4/genética , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Recombinases/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/virologia , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/diagnóstico , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
19.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 100: 108126, 2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492534

RESUMO

Pyroptosis, a pattern of inflammatory death, is regulated by NLRP3-Caspase-1 inflammasome and GSDMD-FL protein. Antcin A is a small triterpenoid molecule. In this study, Kupffer cells (KC) were used for in vitro model, which were treated with LPS and Nigericin (L/N) to induce pyroptosis. ELISA was used to determine the influence of Antcin A on the expression of inflammatory factors, IF was utilized to investigate NLRP3 and Caspase-1, PI staining was used to detect the opening level of membrane pores in KCs, C57BL/6J wild-type mice were fed with high-fat diet to construct a NAFLD model, and were simultaneously treated with Antcin A. H&E staining was used to detect hepatic pathological changes in mice, oil red staining was utilized to detect hepatic fat deposits in mice, IHC was used to detect the expression of NLRP3 and Caspase-1, Western blot was used to detect the expression levels of NLRP3 inflammasome (including NLRP3, ASC, Caspase-1, GSDMD-FL and GSDMD-NT). Pull-down assay and immunoprecipitation assay were used to detect the binding between Antcin A and NLRP3. As a result, Antcin A could significantly inhibit the occurrence of pyrolysis, decrease the expression of inflammatory factors, inhibit the activation and assembly of NLRP3 inflammasome, and significantly down-regulate the expression of NLRP3, Caspase-1 and GSDMD-NT in KCs. In NAFLD mice, Antcin A could suppress the inflammatory response in liver tissues of mice, reduce lipid deposition, down-regulate the levels of ALT and AST, and improve liver function in mice. Antcin A could also inhibit the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in liver tissue and decrease the level of inflammatory factors. In the study of mechanism, we revealed that Antcin A could inhibit the assembly and activation of NLRP3 inflammasome by binding with NLRP3. In summary, in this study, we found that Antcin A could inhibit pyroptosis in KC and alleviate the inflammatory response of liver tissue in NAFLD by targeting NLRP3 inflammasome, which was one of the mechanisms of Anctin A in protecting liver.

20.
J Biol Chem ; 297(4): 101160, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480896

RESUMO

Pheromone receptors (PRs) recognize specific pheromone compounds to guide the behavioral outputs of insects, which are the most diverse group of animals on earth. The activation of PRs is known to couple to the calcium permeability of their coreceptor (Orco) or putatively with G proteins; however, the underlying mechanisms of this process are not yet fully understood. Moreover, whether this transverse seven transmembrane domain (7TM)-containing receptor is able to couple to arrestin, a common effector for many conventional 7TM receptors, is unknown. Herein, using the PR BmOR3 from the silk moth Bombyx mori and its coreceptor BmOrco as a template, we revealed that an agonist-induced conformational change of BmOR3 was transmitted to BmOrco through transmembrane segment 7 from both receptors, resulting in the activation of BmOrco. Key interactions, including an ionic lock and a hydrophobic zipper, are essential in mediating the functional coupling between BmOR3 and BmOrco. BmOR3 also selectively coupled with Gi proteins, which was dispensable for BmOrco coupling. Moreover, we demonstrated that trans-7TM BmOR3 recruited arrestin in an agonist-dependent manner, which indicates an important role for BmOR3-BmOrco complex formation in ionotropic functions. Collectively, our study identified the coupling of G protein and arrestin to a prototype trans-7TM PR, BmOR3, and provided important mechanistic insights into the coupling of active PRs to their downstream effectors, including coreceptors, G proteins, and arrestin.

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