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1.
Food Chem ; 337: 127811, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799155

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of microwave processing (2.45 GHz, 1000 W, 75-125 °C, and 5-15 min) on the secondary structures, in-vitro protein digestibility, microstructural characteristics, and allergenicity of shrimp. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the band intensity of tropomyosin reduced with the increase of processing temperatures and durations. The significant reduction in the allergenicity of tropomyosin was up to 75% when treated with microwave at 125 °C for 15 min. A significant reduction by 30-75% in the total soluble protein content, peptide content, and in-vitro protein digestibility of shrimp protein was observed. These changes mentioned above were strongly associated with the modification of the secondary structure of shrimp proteins, including the increase in ß-sheets, and the loss in turns. Also, more microscopic holes, fragments, strips in treated samples were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Therefore, high-intensity microwave treatment showed great potential in reducing the allergenicity of shrimp.

2.
J Hazard Mater ; 401: 123311, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652417

RESUMO

Thallium (Tl), is a highly toxic trace metal in the natural environment. Emerging Tl pollution in waters has gradually become a global concern. However, limited removal technologies are available for Tl-containing wastewater. Herein, MnFe2O4-biochar composite (MFBC) was successfully fabricated via coprecipitation method as a novel and efficient adsorbent for treating Tl(I)-contaminated wastewater. It was found that the MFBC, with a specific surface area of 187.03 m2/g, exhibited high performance across a wide pH range of 4-11, with the superior Tl(I) removal capacity (170.55 mg/g) based on Langmuir model (pH 6.0, a dosage of 1 g/L). The removal mechanisms included physical and chemical adsorption, ion exchange, surface complexation, and oxidation. This investigation revealed that MFBC is a promising and environmentally friendly adsorbent with a low cost, large specific surface area, magnetic properties, and high efficiency for the removal of Tl(I) from wastewater.

3.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 2020 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040166

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate whether the LI-RADS v2018 LR-5 criteria can be modified to increase sensitivity without reducing specificity for diagnosing small (10-19 mm) HCC. METHODS: 167 consecutive high-risk patients with 174 small observations reported clinically on extracellular contrast-enhanced MRI from 2014 to 2018 were retrospectively studied. The best available reference standard was applied for each observation. Blinded to the reference standard, two radiologists scored LI-RADS imaging features retrospectively and assigned each observation a LI-RADS category using LI-RADS v2018 and each of four modified LI-RADS versions (mLI-RADS I to IV) with successively more expansive LR-5 criteria. Per-observation sensitivity and specificity of LR-5 for small HCC using each version were assessed. Each modified version was compared to v2018 (McNemar test). RESULTS: The 174 observations included 135 HCC, 8 non-HCC malignancies, and 31 benign entities. Using LI-RADS v2018, LR-5 provided 70% (both readers) sensitivity and 95% (both readers) specificity for small HCC. Expanding the LR-5 criteria to include nonrim APHE plus at least one additional major feature (mLI-RADS I) or no APHE plus at least two additional major features (mLI-RADS II) significantly increased sensitivity (reader 1/reader 2: 75%/75% vs. 70%, p = 0.016/0.031; 78%/79% vs. 70%, p = 0.001/0.001) without significantly reducing specificity (reader 1/reader 2: 90%/92% vs. 95%, p = 0.500/1.000 for both). mLI-RADS III and IV further increased sensitivity (reader 1/reader 2: 80%/81% vs. 70%, p < 0.001/< 0.001; 94%/92% vs. 70, p < 0.001/< 0.001) but with trend-level (reader 1/reader 2: 85%/80% vs. 95%, p = 0.125/0.063) or significant (reader 1/reader 2: 64%/62% vs. 95%, p < 0.001/< 0.001) specificity reductions. CONCLUSIONS: Expanding the v2018 LR-5 criteria to include nonrim APHE plus at least one additional major feature or no APHE plus at least two additional major features significantly increases sensitivity without significantly reducing specificity for small HCC. Confirmation is warranted in multi-center prospective studies.

4.
Plant Dis ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044142

RESUMO

Garlic leaf blight (GLB) caused by Stemphylium eturmiunum is first reported in Jiangsu Province of China. The dicarboximide fungicide (DCF) procymidone is reported to possess broad-spectrum action in inhibiting filamentous fungi and widely used to control leaf disease of various plants. In current study, of 41 S. eturmiunum isolates collected from commercial garlic farms in Pizhou and Dafeng Counties of Jiangsu Province, eight isolates were resistant to procymidone. Three phenotypes were categorized according to the in vitro responses to dicarboximide fungicides: S (sensitive), S+ (LR to iprodione and procymidone), and R2 (HR to all iprodione and procymidone). The fitness of all the resistant isolates was decreased in accordance with the data of mycelial growth, conidiation and virulence. After treated with 10µg/ml procymidone for 4 h, mycelial intracellular glycerol concentrations of resistant isolates were significantly lower than those of sensitive isolates. Positive cross-resistance was observed between dicarboximides and phenylpyrroles, but no cross-resistance between dicarboximides and fluazinam or difenoconazole in the two resistant phenotypes. Nucleotide sequence alignment results of the two-component histidine kinase genes from the sensitive and resistant isolates indicated that amino acid mutations were located at the histidine kinase, adenylyl cyclase, methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein, and phosphatase (HAMP) domain of N-terminal region, and response regulator domain (Rec) of C-terminal region. To our knowledge, the DCF-resistance in S. eturmiunum is first reported, and the findings are helpful to establish the rational strategy to manage the DCF-resistant populations of S. eturmiunum in field.

5.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(10): e1008209, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006962

RESUMO

Uncovering the underlying biophysical principles of emergent collective computational abilities, such as working memory, in neural circuits is one of the most essential concerns in modern neuroscience. Working memory system is often desired to be robust against noises. Such systems can be highly flexible for adapting environmental demands. How neural circuits reconfigure themselves according to the cognitive task requirement remains unclear. Previous studies explored the robustness and the flexibility in working memory by tracing individual dynamical trajectories in a limited time scale, where the accuracy of the results depends on the volume of the collected statistical data. Inspired by thermodynamics and statistical mechanics in physical systems, we developed a non-equilibrium landscape and flux framework for studying the neural network dynamics. Applying this approach to a biophysically based working memory model, we investigated how changes in the recurrent excitation mediated by slow NMDA receptors within a selective population and mutual inhibition mediated by GABAergic interneurons between populations affect the robustness against noises. This is realized through quantifying the underlying non-equilibrium potential landscape topography and the kinetics of state switching. We found that an optimal compromise for a working memory circuit between the robustness and the flexibility can be achieved through the emergence of an intermediate state between the working memory states. An optimal combination of both increased self-excitation and inhibition can enhance the flexibility to external signals without significantly reducing the robustness to the random fluctuations. Furthermore, we found that the enhanced performance in working memory is supported by larger energy consumption. Our approach can facilitate the design of new network structure for cognitive functions with the optimal balance between performance and cost. Our work also provides a new paradigm for exploring the underlying mechanisms of many cognitive functions based on non-equilibrium physics.

6.
Am Heart J ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031789

RESUMO

Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) is key for the prevention of recurrent ischemic events after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), however, it increases the risk of bleeding complications. While new generation drug-eluting stents have been shown superior to bare-metal stents after a short DAPT course, the optimal DAPT duration in patients at high bleeding risk (HBR) remains to be determined. TRIAL DESIGN: The XIENCE Short DAPT program consists of three prospective, single-arm studies (XIENCE 90, XIENCE 28 Global and XIENCE 28 USA) investigating 3- or 1-month DAPT durations in HBR patients undergoing PCI with the XIENCE stent. The XIENCE 90 study is being conducted in the US and enrolled 2047 subjects who discontinued DAPT at 3months if they were free from myocardial infarction (MI), repeat coronary revascularization, stroke, or stent thrombosis. The XIENCE 28 program includes the USA study, enrolling 642 patients in US and Canada, and the Global study, enrolling 963 patients in Europe and Asia. In XIENCE 28, patients were to discontinue DAPT at 1month post-PCI if event-free. The primary hypothesis for both XIENCE 90 and XIENCE 28 is that a short DAPT regimen will be non-inferior to a conventional DAPT duration with respect to the composite of all-cause death or MI. Patients enrolled in the prospective multicenter post-market XIENCE V USA study will be used as historical control group in a stratified propensity-adjusted analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The XIENCE Short DAPT Program will provide insights into the safety and efficacy of two abbreviated DAPT regimens of 3- and 1-month duration in a large cohort of HBR patients undergoing PCI with the XIENCE stent.

7.
Mol Neurobiol ; 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085047

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI), which leads to high mortality and morbidity, is a prominent public health problem worldwide. Neuroinflammation involving microglia and astrocyte activation has been demonstrated to play critical role in the secondary injury induced by TBI. A1 astrocytes, which are induced by activated microglia, can directly kill neurons by secreting neurotoxic complement C3. Estrogen has been proved to possess neuroprotective effects, but the effect and underlying mechanism of estrogen on TBI-induced neuroinflammatory injury remain largely unclear. In this study, we constructed an adult male mouse model of TBI and immediately after injury treated the mice with 17ß-estradiol (E2) (100 µg/kg, once every day via intraperitoneal injection) for 3 days. We found that E2 treatment significantly alleviated TBI-induced neurological deficits, neuronal injuries, and brain edema and significantly inhibited Iba1 and GFAP expression, which are markers of microglia and astrocyte activation, respectively. E2 treatment also significantly inhibited TLR4 and NF-κB protein expression, and significantly reduced the expression of the proinflammatory factors IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α. Moreover, E2 treatment significantly decreased the number of complement C3d/GFAP-positive cells and complement C3d protein expression. Taking these results together, we concluded that E2 treatment dramatically alleviates TBI neuroinflammatory injury by inhibiting TLR4/NF-κB pathway-mediated microglia and astrocyte activation and neuroinflammation and reducing A1-phenotype neurotoxic astrocyte activation. Our findings indicate that E2 treatment may be a potential therapy strategy for TBI-induced neuroinflammation injury.

8.
EBioMedicine ; 61: 103036, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Real-time reverse transcription-PCR (rRT-PCR) has been the most effective and widely implemented diagnostic technology since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, fuzzy rRT-PCR readouts with high Ct values are frequently encountered, resulting in uncertainty in diagnosis. METHODS: A Specific Enhancer for PCR-amplified Nucleic Acid (SENA) was developed based on the Cas12a trans-cleavage activity, which is specifically triggered by the rRT-PCR amplicons of the SARS-CoV-2 Orf1ab (O) and N fragments. SENA was first characterized to determine its sensitivity and specificity, using a systematic titration experiment with pure SARS-CoV-2 RNA standards, and was then verified in several hospitals, employing a couple of commercial rRT-PCR kits and testing various clinical specimens under different scenarios. FINDINGS: The ratio (10 min/5 min) of fluorescence change (FC) with mixed SENA reaction (mix-FCratio) was defined for quantitative analysis of target O and N genes, and the Limit of Detection (LoD) of mix-FCratio with 95% confidence interval was 1.2≤1.6≤2.1. Totally, 295 clinical specimens were analyzed, among which 21 uncertain rRT-PCR cases as well as 4 false negative and 2 false positive samples were characterized by SENA and further verified by next-generation sequencing (NGS). The cut-off values for mix-FCratio were determined as 1.145 for positive and 1.068 for negative. INTERPRETATION: SENA increases both the sensitivity and the specificity of rRT-PCR, solving the uncertainty problem in COVID-19 diagnosis and thus providing a simple and low-cost companion diagnosis for combating the pandemic. FUNDING: Detailed funding information is available at the end of the manuscript.

9.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 28(5): 1486-1490, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067942

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the consistency between pathologic immunohistochemistry assay and flow immunotyping of patients with lymphoma cell leukemia. METHODS: The immunohistochemistry and flow immunotyping data of 31 patients with non-hodgkin lymphoma admitted in our hospital from January 2012 to December 2018 were analyzed retrospectively. The pathologic immunohistochemical expression of lymphatic cells was compared with that of flow immunotyping types, and the change of expression rate of various antigens in the progression of lymphomas into leukemia stage was studied. The characteristics of immune typing and pathologic immunohistochemistry of lymphoblastic leukemia, and their diagnostic value in lymphoblastic leukemia was observed. RESULTS: All patients with lymphoma reached the leukemia stage. The results of flow immunotyping were basically consistent with the results of pathological immunohistochemistry. The pathological immunohistochemistry showed that CD5, CD3, CD99, CD7, CD34, CD43, etc. mainly expressed in the patients with T lymphocyte lymphoma leukemia, of which CD5 showed the highest expression rate and its positive rate was 100%. The flow immunotyping showed that CD7, CD3, CD2, CD5, CD11b, CD34 and HLA-DR was mainly expressed in the patients with T lymphocyte lymphoma leukemia, of which CD7 was the most sensitive and its positive rate was 100 %. Although the antigens expressed in the pathologic immunohistochemistry and flow immunotyping were basically consistent, there were differences in the expression rates of various antigens, CD20, CD79a, BCL-2, CD10, and the Hodgkin's lymphoma cell antigen PAX5 derived from B cells them mainly expressed in BLL patients assay by pathological immunohistochemistry, among the expression rate of CD20 was 100%, which was higher than other antigen expression rate. CD19, CD20, CD22, CD79a, skappa, and early antigen HLA-DR mainly expressed in BLL patients assayed by flow immunotyping, among them CD19 showed a positive rate of 94.7%. The results of immunohistochemistry and flow immunotyping were compared, it was found that 42% of the patients were accompanied by CD20 expression loss, and the survival period of these patients was significantly reduced. CONCLUSION: 25% of patients with T-lymphoma leukemia are accompanied by CD3 expression loss, and 42% of patients with B-cell lymphoma leukemia are accompanied by CD20 expression loss. There is no significant change in survival of T-cell lymphoma leukemia patients with CD3 expression loss, however, the survival period of B-cell lymphoma leukemia patients with CD20 expression loss is significantly shortened.


Assuntos
Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B , Linfoma , Antígenos HLA-DR , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Anticancer Drugs ; 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079732

RESUMO

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling is frequently activated in lung cancer. In our previous study, a new class of compounds containing pyrido[3,4-d]pyrimidine scaffold with an acrylamide moiety was designed as irreversible EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors to overcome acquired EGFR-T790M resistance. In this study, we selected the most promising compound Z25h to further investigate its effects and the underlying mechanism against non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro. Four different non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma cell lines were selected to test the antiviability profile of Z25h, and Hcc827 was the most sensitive to the drug treatment. Z25h caused cell cycle arrest at G0-G1 phase, and triggered strong early apoptosis in Hcc827 cells at 0.1 µM and late apoptosis in A549, H1975 and H1299 cells at 10 µM by 48 h treatment. Z25h inhibited the activation of EGFR and its downstream PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in the four tested cell lines, leading to the inhibition of cellular biosynthetic and metabolic processes and the promotion of apoptotic process. However, the effect of Z25h on mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway varies from cell lines. In addition, Z25h sensitized H1975 cells to X-ray radiation, and it also enhanced the radiation effect on A549 cells, while no obvious effect of Z25h was observed on the cell viability inhibition of H1299 cells induced by radiation. Hereby, Z25h might be considered as a potential therapeutic drug candidate for non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma treatment.

11.
PeerJ ; 8: e9995, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083118

RESUMO

Background: We used bioinformatic analysis and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assays to investigate the association between plasma microRNAs (miRNAs) and stable warfarin dosage in a Chinese Han population. Methods: Bioinformatics analysis was used to screen out potential warfarin dose-associated miRNAs. Three plasma miRNAs were validated in 99 samples by RT-qPCR. Kruskal-Wallis test and multivariate logistic regression were used to compare differences in plasma miRNAs expression levels between three warfarin dosage groups. Results: There were significant between-group differences among the three dose groups for hsa-miR-133b expression (p = 0.005), but we observed an "n-shaped" dose-dependent curve rather than a linear relationship. Expression levels of hsa-miR-24-3p (p = 0.475) and hsa-miR-1276 (p = 0.558) were not significantly different in the multivariate logistic regression. Conclusion: miRNAs have received extensive attention as ideal biomarkers and possible therapeutic targets for various diseases. However, they are not yet widely used in precision medicine. Our results indicate that hsa-miR-133b may be a possible reference factor for the warfarin dosage algorithm. These findings emphasize the importance of a comprehensive evaluation of complex relationships in warfarin dose prediction models and provide new avenues for future pharmacogenomics studies.

12.
J Med Econ ; : 1, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084446

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Extreme prematurity exerts a substantial economic burden on families and societies worldwide, especially in developing countries with limited healthcare resources. This study aimed to estimate initial hospitalization charges after extremely preterm birth in China over previous decade. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in the largest tertiary neonatal intensive care unit in Shanghai, China, including 441 extremely preterm infants (gestational age <28 weeks) discharged between 2010 and 2019. Hospitalization data and medical charges were obtained from electronic inpatient medical records. Subgroup analysis was conducted to examine how the charges and length of stay varied by gestational age, discharge year, survival status, and major morbidities. RESULTS: The median total hospitalization charge was $20 770.70 with a median length of stay of 70.0 days. Total and daily charges declined as gestational age increased. A rising trend was found over time for overall and daily medical charges. Compared with decedents, survivors had longer length of stay and higher total hospitalization charges, but their charge per day was lower. Total hospitalization charges were significantly higher in infants with necrotizing enterocolitis (Stage II-III), bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and sepsis when compared with neonates of the same gestational age without these co-morbidities. Charges for treatments accounted for the highest proportion (31.3%). LIMITATIONS: Local statistics collected retrospectively might limit generalizability to other regions. Long-term medical charges were not reported. CONCLUSION: Economic burden of the initial hospitalization for extremely preterm infants was substantial in China. Such economic factors should be fully taken into account for perinatal consultations, medical insurance policy-making, and clinical decisions.

13.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 113: 104114, 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045517

RESUMO

The poor elasticity of wound dressings often leads to wound healing failure due to rupture and fall off. In this study, the composite films of zein and hydrogel poly (acrylic acid) were developed in order to obtain stretchable wound dressing for skin burn repair. The mechanical test revealed that the maximum elongation of break of composite films could reach 349.76% when the mass ratio of zein to poly (acrylic acid) was 1.5. SEM and FTIR analysis demonstrated the good elasticity of composite films might be due to the formation of a dense structure and the strong interaction between zein and poly (acrylic acid). Interestingly, the composite films exhibited great adhesiveness to human finger skin and stretchable ability under strenuous joint exercise. CCK-8 assay and fluorescence staining showed that the composite films and their extract had good cytocompatibility on human foreskin fibroblasts (L929) cells. The in vivo experiment on rat's skin burning model indicated that the composite films could promote wound healing and collagen synthesis by comparison with commercial gauze. It could be concluded that the stretchable composite films of zein and hydrogel poly (acrylic acid) had the potential as the wound dressing.

14.
Theranostics ; 10(25): 11673-11689, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052240

RESUMO

Hair regenerative medicine, a promising strategy for the treatment of hair loss, will likely involve the transplantation of autologous hair follicular stem cells (HFSCs) and dermal papilla cells (DPCs) into regions of hair loss. Cyclic hair regeneration results from the periodic partial activation of HFSCs. However, previous studies have not successfully achieved large-scale HFSC expansion in vitro without the use of feeder cells, with a lack of research focused on regulating HFSC fate for hair follicular (HF) regeneration. Hence, an emerging focus in regenerative medicine is the reconstruction of natural extracellular matrix (ECM) regulatory characteristics using biomaterials to generate cellular microenvironments for expanding stem cells and directing their fate for tissue regeneration. Methods: HFSCs were coated with gelatin and alginate using layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly technology to construct biomimetic ECM for HFSCs; after which transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß2 was loaded into the coating layer, which served as a sustained-release signal molecule to regulate the fate of HFSCs both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro experiments (cell culture and siRNA) were employed to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved and in vivo implantation was carried out to evaluate hair induction efficiency. Results: Nanoscale biomimetic ECM was constructed for individual HFSCs, which allowed for the stable amplification of HFSCs and maintenance of their stem cell properties. TGF-ß2 loading into the coating layer induced transformation of CD34+ stem cells into highly proliferating Lgr5+ stem cells, similar to the partial activation of HFSCs in HF regeneration. Thus, LbL coating and TGF-ß2 loading partially reconstructed the quiescent and activated states, respectively, of stem cells during HF regeneration, thereby mimicking the microenvironment that regulates stem cell fate for tissue regeneration during HF cycling. Improved HF regeneration was achieved when the two HFSC states were co-transplanted with neonatal mouse dermal cells into nude mice. Conclusion: This study provides novel methods for the construction of stem cell microenvironments and experimental models of HF regeneration for the treatment of hair loss.

15.
Genome Biol ; 21(1): 263, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy has improved patient survival in a variety of cancers, but only a minority of cancer patients respond. Multiple studies have sought to identify general biomarkers of ICB response, but elucidating the molecular and cellular drivers of resistance for individual tumors remains challenging. We sought to determine whether a tumor with defined genetic background exhibits a stereotypic or heterogeneous response to ICB treatment. RESULTS: We establish a unique mouse system that utilizes clonal tracing and mathematical modeling to monitor the growth of each cancer clone, as well as the bulk tumor, in response to ICB. We find that tumors derived from the same clonal populations showed heterogeneous ICB response and diverse response patterns. Primary response is associated with higher immune infiltration and leads to enrichment of pre-existing ICB-resistant cancer clones. We further identify several cancer cell-intrinsic gene expression signatures associated with ICB resistance, including increased interferon response genes and glucocorticoid response genes. These findings are supported by clinical data from ICB treatment cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates diverse response patterns from the same ancestor cancer cells in response to ICB. This suggests the value of monitoring clonal constitution and tumor microenvironment over time to optimize ICB response and to design new combination therapies. Furthermore, as ICB response may enrich for cancer cell-intrinsic resistance signatures, this can affect interpretations of tumor RNA-seq data for response-signature association studies.

16.
Front Immunol ; 11: 582678, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33072129

RESUMO

Background: The extent and depth of BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) infection in renal allograft correlate with prognosis. This study was designed to evaluate the value of urinary sediment double-immunostaining for predicting BKPyV infection in proximal tubular epithelium. Materials and methods: A total of 76 urine sediment cell blocks, as well as the corresponding transplanted kidney tissues with BK polyomavirus associated-nephropathy (BKPyVAN), were evaluated by automatic double-immunostaining with anti-58-kDa Golgi protein (58K, a proximal renal tubular marker) + anti-SV40-T and anti-homogentisate 1, 2-dioxygenase (HGD, a renal tubular marker) + anti-SV40-T. Results: Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that 58K was expressed in proximal tubular epithelium but not in distal tubular epithelium or transitional epithelium. Of the 76 patients, 28 (36.8%) had urinary 58K(+)/SV40-T(+) cells and HGD(+)/SV40-T(+) cells, 41 (53.9%) had only HGD(+)/SV40-T(+) cells, one (1.3%) had only 58K(+)/SV40-T(+) cells, and six (7.9%) had only 58K(-)/HGD(-)/SV40-T(+) cells. The presence of urinary 58K(+)/SV40-T(+) cells was correlated with BKPyV infection in proximal tubular epithelium (P < 0.001, r = 0.806). The mean extent of SV40-T staining was significantly more extensive in patients with urinary 58K(+)/SV40-T(+) cells than those without urinary 58K(+)/SV40-T(+) cells (21.4 vs. 12.0%, P < 0.001). The positive predictive value, negative predictive value, sensitivity, and specificity of urinary 58K(+)/SV40-T(+) cells for predicting BKPyV infection in proximal tubular epithelium were 89.7% (95% CI: 71.5-97.3%), 91.5% (95% CI: 78.7-97.2%), 86.7% (95% CI: 68.4-95.6%), and 93.5% (95% CI: 81.1-98.3%), respectively. Conclusion: Urinary sediment double-immunostaining with anti-58K and anti-SV40-T is valuable for predicting the extent and depth of BKPyV infection in renal allograft.

17.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(11): 2725-2727, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079050

RESUMO

Legionellosis caused by Legionella longbeachae is diagnosed mainly by PCR. We report a case of L. longbeachae infection in mainland China, which was diagnosed by metagenomic next-generation sequencing, in a man who developed an epileptic seizure after using moxifloxacin. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing may be a useful tool to detect Legionella spp.

18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(42): e22681, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080713

RESUMO

Button batteries are the second most frequently-ingested foreign bodies and can lead to serious clinical complications within hours of ingestion. The purpose of this study was to analyze the outcomes of 14 children with button batteries lodged in the upper gastrointestinal tract.Totally 14 children with button batteries lodged in the upper gastrointestinal tract were included. The diagnosis was made primarily by the history of button battery ingestion, physical examination and chest-abdomen X-ray examination.The button batteries lodged in the esophagus were removed by esophagoscope, and those in the gastrointestinal tract were under observation. Among 10 children with batteries in the first esophageal stenosis, 9 were cured and 1 suffered from tracheoesophageal fistula. One case of battery in the second esophageal stenosis was dead due to intercurrent aortoesophageal fistula. Two cases of batteries in the third esophageal stenosis were cured after removal, and 1 case of the battery in the gastrointestinal tract discharged spontaneously.Ingested button batteries are mainly lodged in the esophageal stenoses and are easy to cause esophageal injury and severe complications. Early detection, prompt treatment, strengthening observation and regular follow-up after discharge may help to decrease the incidence of complications and improve the outcomes.

19.
Neuron ; 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022228

RESUMO

A hexanucleotide repeat expansion at C9ORF72 is the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)/frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Initial studies of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic mice harboring this expansion described an absence of motor and survival phenotypes. However, a recent study by Liu and colleagues described transgenic mice harboring a large repeat expansion (C9-500) and reported decreased survival and progressive motor phenotypes. To determine the utility of the C9-500 animals for understanding degenerative mechanisms, we validated and established two independent colonies of transgene carriers. However, extended studies of these animals for up to 1 year revealed no reproducible abnormalities in survival, motor function, or neurodegeneration. Here, we propose several potential explanations for the disparate nature of our findings from those of Liu and colleagues. Resolving the discrepancies we identify will be essential to settle the translational utility of C9-500 mice. This Matters Arising paper is in response to Liu et al. (2016), published in Neuron. See also the response by Nguyen et al. (2020), published in this issue.

20.
J Mater Chem B ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021308

RESUMO

Core decompression of the femoral head is a recommended head-conserving strategy for early-stage osteonecrosis of the femoral head. However, no ideal filling material has been found so far. In this study, we fabricated a "solid core-porous coating" composite scaffold, which is a silk fibroin/hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (SF/HPMC) scaffold, by a "two-step" process. The solid core scaffold possesses a sufficient compression modulus (860 MPa) for support, while the porous coating scaffold with controllable pore size and porosity provides a suitable microenvironment for the osteoblast cell to adhere and proliferate. Moreover, the porous coating scaffold was mineralized by adding different contents of hydroxyapatite crystal to further enhance its osteoinductivity, according to the simulated body fluid (SBF) biomineralization assay. To demonstrate the biocompatibility and osteoinductivity of such composite scaffolds, a series of in vitro experiments were performed, indicating the MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast cells grew and differentiated well on the mineralized porous coating scaffolds. The mechanical testing results also proved that the mechanical property of the solid core scaffold varied (230-1600 MPa) with different solid contents of SF/HPMC, as expected. Furthermore, the rabbit femoral head core decompression model was adopted and confirmed the excellent mechanical performance of the solid core scaffolds, as well as the satisfied osteoinductivity of the porous coating scaffold, by inserting the composite scaffolds into the bone tunnel in vivo. All of the preliminary results implied that the novel biodegradable composite scaffold has an outstanding prospective for the clinical use of core decompression of the femoral head.

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