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2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045234

RESUMO

Highly luminescent inks are desirable for various applications such as decorative coating, art painting, and anticounterfeiting, to name a few. However, present inks display low photoluminescent efficiency requiring a strong excitation light to make them glow. Here, we report a highly luminescent ink based on the copper-iodide/1-Propyl-1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octan-1-ium (Cu4I6(pr-ted)2) hybrid cluster with a quantum efficiency exceeding 98%. Under the interaction between the Cu4I6(pr-ted)2 hybrid cluster and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), the highly luminescent Cu4I6(pr-ted)2/PVP ink can be facilely prepared via the one-pot solution synthesis. The obtained ink exhibits strong green light emission that originates from the efficient phosphorescence of Cu4I6(pr-ted)2 nanocrystals. Attractively, the ink displays high conversion efficiency for the ultraviolet light to bright green light emission due to its wide Stokes shift, implying great potential for anticounterfeiting and luminescent solar concentrator coating.

3.
Eur J Clin Invest ; : e13210, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute, self-limited vasculitis. Coronary artery aneurysm (CAA) serves as a major contributor to the long-term prognosis of KD. In addition, acute KD usually also leads to several kinds of noncoronary cardiac abnormalities (NCA) involving the pericardium, myocardium and endocardium. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 142 Chinese children with KD were recruited from July 2015 to April 2018. Blood samples were collected at 24 h pre-Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy. Several inflammatory mediators and biomarkers for acute myocardial infarction were detected. Echocardiography and electrocardiography (ECG) were performed. RESULTS: Plasma white blood cells counts (WBC) was significantly increased in patients with IVIG-nonresponsive KD when compared with their IVIG-responsive counterparts. A total of 106 children (74.65%) suffered from NCA, including 8 patients (5.63%) with pericardial effusion, 23 patients (16.20%) with acute myocarditis, 101 patients (71.13%) with valvular regurgitation, and 8 patients (5.63%) with abnormal ECG. No significant differences were observed in the distribution of clinical classification and the response to IVIG therapy regardless of NCA exhibited or not. CONCLUSIONS: NCA is almost universal in acute KD and mainly manifests as valvular regurgitation. However, it has no influence on clinical classification and the response to IVIG therapy.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32071245

RESUMO

Recurrence and metastasis remain the major obstacles to successful treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Chromatin remodeling factor ARID2 is commonly mutated in HCC, indicating its important role in cancer development. However, its role in HCC metastasis is largely elusive. In this study, we find that ARID2 expression is significantly decreased in metastatic HCC tissues, showing negative correlation with pathological grade, organ metastasis and positive association with survival of HCC patients. ARID2 inhibits migration and invasion of HCC cells in vitro and metastasis in vivo. Moreover, ARID2 knockout promotes pulmonary metastasis in different HCC mouse models. Mechanistic study reveals that ARID2 represses epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of HCC cells by recruiting DNMT1 to Snail promoter, which increases promoter methylation and inhibits Snail transcription. In addition, we discover that ARID2 mutants with disrupted C2H2 domain lose the metastasis suppressor function, exhibiting a positive association with HCC metastasis and poor prognosis. In conclusion, our study reveals the metastasis suppressor role as well as the underlying mechanism of ARID2 in HCC and provides a potential therapeutic target for ARID2-deficient HCC.

5.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 98: 499-507, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001355

RESUMO

Cathepsin K belongs to the family of cysteine cathepsins. It is well known that the cysteine cathepsins participate in various physiological processes and host immune defense in mammals. However, in teleost fish, the function of cathepsin K is very limited. In the present study, a cathepsin K homologue (SsCTSK) from the teleost black rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii) was identified and examined at expression and functional levels. In silico analysis showed that three domains, including signal peptide, cathepsin propeptide inhibitor I29 domain, and functional domain Pept_C1, are existed in SsCTSK. SsCTSK also possesses a peptidase domain with three catalytically essential residues (Cys25, His162 and Asn183). Phylogenetic profiling indicated that SsCTSK was evolutionally close to the cathepsin K of other teleost fish. Expression of SsCTSK occurred in multiple tissues and was induced by bacterial infection. Purified recombinant SsCTSK (rSsCTSK) exhibited apparent maximal peptidase activity at 45 °C, and its enzymatic activity was remarkably declined in the presence of the cathepsin inhibitor E-64. Moreover, rSsCTSK possesses the ability to bind with PAMPs and bacteria. Finally, knockdown of SsCTSK expression facilitated bacterial invasion in black rockfish. Collectively, these results indicated that SsCTSK functions as a cysteine protease and may serves as a target for pathogen manipulation of host defense system.

6.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 98: 508-514, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004613

RESUMO

At present, several reports have indicated that the C-terminal peptides of tissue factor pathway inhibitor 1 (TFPI-1) were active antibacterial peptides. However, the functions of TFPI-1 C-terminal peptides in teleost are still very limited. In this study, a C-terminal peptide, TC26 (with 26 amino acids), derived from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) TFPI-1, was synthesized and investigated for its antibacterial spectrum, action mechanism, as well as the in vivo effects on bacterial invasion. Our results showed that TC26 was active against Gram-positive bacteria Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus, as well as Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio vulnificus. TC26 treatment facilitated the bactericidal process of erythromycin by enhancing the out-membrane permeability of V. vulnificus. During the bactericidal process, TC26 killed the target bacterial cells Vibrio vulnificus, by destroying cell membrane integrity, penetrating into the cytoplasm and inducing degradation of genomic DNA and total RNA. In vivo study showed that administration of turbot with TC26 before bacterial infection significantly reduced pathogen dissemination and replication in tissues. These results indicated that TC26 is a novel and active antibacterial peptide and may play a vital role in fighting pathogenic infection in aquaculture.

7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 475, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980622

RESUMO

We reported previously that acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) mediates acidic neuronal necroptosis via recruiting receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) to its C terminus (CT), independent of its ion-conducting function. Here we show that the N-terminus (NT) of ASIC1a interacts with its CT to form an auto-inhibition that prevents RIPK1 recruitment/activation under resting conditions. The interaction involves glutamate residues at distal NT and is disrupted by acidosis. Expression of mutant ASIC1a bearing truncation or glutamate-to-alanine substitutions at distal NT causes constitutive cell death. The NT-CT interaction is further disrupted by N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion ATPase (NSF), which associates with ASIC1a-NT under acidosis, facilitating RIPK1 interaction with ASIC1a-CT. Importantly, a membrane-penetrating synthetic peptide representing the distal 20 ASIC1a NT residues, NT1-20, reduced neuronal damage in both in vitro model of acidotoxicity and in vivo mouse model of ischemic stroke, demonstrating the therapeutic potential of targeting the auto-inhibition of ASIC1a for neuroprotection against acidotoxicity.

8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(6): 2956-2967, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902206

RESUMO

All-inorganic lead halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) are potential candidates for fabricating high-performance light-emitting diodes (LEDs) owing to their precisely tunable bandgaps, high photoluminescence (PL) efficiency, and excellent color purities. However, the performance of pure red (630-640 nm) all-inorganic perovskite LEDs is still limited by the halide segregation-induced instability of the electroluminescence (EL) of mixed halide CsPbI3-xBrx NCs. Herein, we report an effective approach to improving the EL stability of pure red all-inorganic CsPbI3-xBrx NC-based LEDs via the passivation of potassium bromide on NCs. By adding potassium oleate to the reaction system, we obtained potassium bromide surface-passivated (KBr-passivated) CsPbI3-xBrx NCs with pure red PL emission and a photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) exceeding 90%. We determine that most potassium ions present on the surface of NCs bind with bromide ions and thus demonstrate that potassium bromide surface passivation of NCs can both improve the PL stability and inhibit the halide segregation of NCs. Using KBr-passivated CsPbI3-xBrx NCs as an emitting layer, we fabricated stable and pure red perovskite LEDs with emission at 637 nm, showing a maximum brightness of 2671 cd m-2, maximum external quantum efficiency of 3.55%, and good EL stability. The proposed KBr-passivated NC strategy will open a new avenue for fabricating efficient, stable, and tunable pure color perovskite NC LEDs.

9.
Zool Res ; 41(1): 20-31, 2020 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930784

RESUMO

There is a growing appreciation for the specific health benefits conferred by commensal microbiota on their hosts. Clinical microbiota analysis and animal studies in germ-free or antibiotic-treated mice have been crucial for improving our understanding of the role of the microbiome on the host mucosal surface; however, studies on the mechanisms involved in microbiome-host interactions remain limited to small animal models. Here, we demonstrated that rhesus monkeys under short-term broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment could be used as a model to study the gut mucosal host-microbiome niche and immune balance with steady health status. Results showed that the diversity and community structure of the gut commensal bacteria in rhesus monkeys were both disrupted after antibiotic treatment. Furthermore, the 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing results indicated that Escherichia-Shigella were predominant in stool samples 9 d of treatment, and the abundances of bacterial functional genes and predicted KEGG pathways were significantly changed. In addition to inducing aberrant morphology of small intestinal villi, the depletion of gut commensal bacteria led to increased proportions of CD3 + T, CD4 + T, and CD16 + NK cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), but decreased numbers of Treg and CD20 + B cells. The transcriptome of PBMCs from antibiotic-treated monkeys showed that the immune balance was affected by modulation of the expression of many functional genes, including IL-13, VCAM1, and LGR4.


Assuntos
Disbiose/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Macaca mulatta/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Masculino
10.
Environ Pollut ; 257: 113583, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780361

RESUMO

In recent years, numerous studies paid more attention to the molecular mechanisms associated with fluoride toxicity. However, the detailed mechanisms of fluoride immunotoxicity in bovine neutrophils remain unclear. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is a novel immune mechanism of neutrophils. We hypothesized that sodium fluoride (NaF) can trigger NETs activation and release, and investigate the related molecular mechanisms during the process. We exposed peripheral blood neutrophils to 1 mM NaF for 120 min in bovine neutrophils. The results showed that NaF exposure triggered NET-like structures decorated with histones and granule proteins. Quantitative measurement of NETs content correlated positively with the concentration of NaF. Mechanistically, NaF exposure increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and phosphorylation levels of ERK, p38, whereas inhibiting the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) compared with control neutrophils. NETs formation is induced by NaF and this effect was inhibited by the inhibitors diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI), U0126 and SB202190. Our findings described the potential importance of NaF-triggered NETs related molecules, which might help to extend the current understanding of NaF immunotoxicity.

12.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(1): 110-117, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the specific etiology of Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) is still unknown, several kinds of infectious triggers have been proved to participate in its pathogenesis. The objectives of present study were to analyze the association of the infectious triggers with childhood HSP in Anhui province, China. METHODS: 1200 HSP children were recruited from January 2015 to December 2017. Serum antistreptolysin O titer, TORCH, Epstein-Barr virus, helicobacter pylori (HP), Mycoplasma antibodies (MP-Ab), tubercle bacillus antibody (TB-Ab), respiratory pathogens (legionella pneumophila, chlamydia pneumoniae, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A virus, influenza B virus, rickettsia, parainfluenza virus) were determined. Patients' histories were obtained by interviews and questionnaires. RESULTS: The annual incidence of HSP was 8.13-9.17 per 100,000. HSP occurred more commonly in spring and winter than in summer with an obvious west-to-east gradient. On admission, several potential infections were identified in 611 cases (50.92%). The infectious agents including streptococcus, HP, MP, parainfluenza, respiratory syncytial virus, TB and toxoplasma gondii were identified in 205 cases (17.08%), 71 cases (5.92%), 58 cases (4.83%), 6 cases (0.5%), 1 case (0.08%), 1 case (0.08%) and 1 case (0.08%) respectively. 123 cases (10.25%) relapsed or recurred more than one time; the mean number was 2.92, and the mean interval was 11.4 weeks. The infection was the most frequent trigger regardless of clinical phenotypes and relapse/recurrence. Symptomatic treatment plus adjunctive anti-infectious agents could significantly improve the remission rate of purpura in the infectious cases (x2=24.60, p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Streptococcus is the most frequent infectious agent in HSP children regardless of clinical phenotype or relapse/recurrence. The complete elimination of infectious triggers may help relieve cutaneous purpura.

13.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(6): 3415-3423, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748034

RESUMO

G-C3N4 has a bright application prospect as an electrode material of supercapacitors, which makes it a concern. In order to increase the specific capacitance of g-C3N4, we consider to combine it with a metal oxide with high theoretical specific capacitance and utilize the synergistic effect. As a common metal oxide, CuO has the characteristics of high theoretical capacitance, high chemical stability, simple preparation and environmental friendliness. A composite containing CuO nanobelts and graphitic C3N4 (g-C3N4) was successfully synthesized by a chemical precipitation method. Various testing methods were used to explore its composition, microstructure and electrochemical properties to discuss whether CuO is suitable for improving the electrochemical properties of g-C3N4.

14.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 2543, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787947

RESUMO

Mixed-species biofilms are the predominant form of biofilms found in nature. Research on biofilms have typically concentrated on single species biofilms and this study expands the horizon of biofilm research, where the characterization and dynamic changes of mono and mixed-species biofilms formed by the pathogens, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes were investigated. Compared to mono-species biofilm, the biomass, bio-volume, and thickness of mixed-species biofilms were significantly lower, which were confirmed using crystal violet staining, confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Further experimental analysis showed these variations might result from the reduction of bacterial numbers, the down-regulation of biofilm-regulated genes and loss of metabolic activity in mixed-species biofilm. In addition, V. parahaemolyticus was located primarily on the surface layers of the mixed-species biofilms thus accruing competitive advantage. This competitive advantage was evidenced in a higher V. parahaemolyticus population density in the mixed-species biofilms. The adhesion to surfaces of the mixed-species biofilms were also reduced due to lower concentrations of extracellular polysaccharide and protein when the structure of the mixed-species was examined using Raman spectral analysis, phenol-sulfuric acid method and Lowry method. Furthermore, the minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration to antibiotics obviously decreased when V. parahaemolyticus co-exited with L. monocytogenes. This study firstly elucidated the interactive behavior in biofilm development of two foodborne pathogens, and future studies for biofilm control and antibiotic therapy should take into account interactions in mixed-species biofilms.

15.
Mol Plant ; 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794845

RESUMO

In plants, high disease resistance often results in a reduction of yield. Therefore, breeding crops with balanced yield and disease resistance has become a major challenge. Recently, microRNA (miRNA)-mediated R gene turnover has been shown to be a protective mechanism used by plants to prevent autoimmunity in the absence of pathogens. However, whether these miRNAs play a role in plant growth and how miRNA-mediated R gene turnover responds to pathogen infection have rarely been explored. Here, we found that a Brassica miRNA, miR1885, targets both an immune receptor gene and a development-related gene for negative regulation through distinct modes of action. MiR1885 directly silences the TIR-NBS-LRR class of R gene BraTNL1 but represses the expression of the photosynthesis-related gene BraCP24 by targeting the Trans-Acting Silencing (TAS) gene BraTIR1 for trans-acting small interfering RNAs (tasiRNAs)-mediated silencing. We found that, under natural conditions, miR1885 was kept at low levels to maintain normal development and basal immunity but peaked during the floral transition to promote flowering. Interestingly, upon Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) infection, miR1885-dependent trans-acting silencing of BraCP24 was enhanced to speed up the floral transition, whereas miR1885-mediated R gene turnover was overcome by TuMV-induced BraTNL1 expression, reflecting precise regulation of the arms race between plants and pathogens. Collectively, our results demonstrate that a single Brassica miRNA dynamically regulates both innate immunity and plant growth and responds to viral infection, revealing that Brassica plants have developed a sophisticated mechanism in modulating the interplay between growth, immunity, and pathogen infection.

16.
Stem Cells Dev ; 2019 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830866

RESUMO

The secretome of mesenchymal stem cell offers a series of immuno-regulatory properties and is regarded as an effective method of mitigating secondary neuroinflammation induced by traumatic brain injury (TBI). The secretome of adipose-derived MSCs (ASC-ST) was collected under hypoxia conditions. Proteomics data were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and concentrations of major components were tested. Following the TBI caused by an electric cortical contusion impactor, rats were injected ASC-ST via caudal veins for 7 days. The neurological functional prognosis of TBI rats was significantly improved, and the vasogenic edema of brain tissues that was measured 14 days after TBI was relieved by ASC-ST, corresponding to brain water content levels. ASC-ST ameliorated TBI-induced neuroinflammatory environments that caused the edema, the apoptosis of the neural cells, and the nerve fiber damage by increasing the number of M2 phenotypes present while reducing the number of M1 phenotype microglia present. Furthermore, IL-6 and TNF-α levels were reduced while TGF-ß and TSG-6 levels were increased after secretome treatment. Altogether, ASC-ST is capable of improving neural functioning by modulating TBI-induced neuroinflammation and its related secondary insults. ASC-ST may be one of the most promising candidates for regulating the secondary inflammatory reactions of central nervous systems for clinical use.

17.
J Mater Sci Mater Med ; 30(11): 123, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686219

RESUMO

Prognosis and treatment evaluation of spinal cord injury (SCI) are still in the long-term research stage. Prognostic factors for SCI treatment need effective biomarker to assess therapeutic effect. Quantitative diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) may become a potential indicators for assessing SCI repair. However, its correlation with the results of locomotor function recovery and tissue repair has not been carefully studied. The aim of this study was to use quantitative DTI to predict neurological repair of SCI with transplanting collagen/chitosan scaffold binding basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). To achieve our research goals, T10 complete transection SCI model was established. Then collagen/chitosan mixture adsorbed with bFGF (CCS/bFGF) were implanted into rats with SCI. At 8 weeks after modeling, implanting CCS/bFGF demonstrated more significant improvements in locomotor function according to Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) score, inclined-grid climbing test, and electrophysiological examinations. DTI was carried out to evaluate the repair of axons by diffusion tensor tractgraphy (DTT), fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), a numerical measure of relative white matter from the rostral to the caudal. Parallel to locomotor function recovery, the CCS/bFGF group could significantly promote the regeneration of nerve fibers tracts according to DTT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Bielschowsky's silver staining and immunofluorescence staining. Positive correlations between imaging and locomotor function or histology were found at all locations from the rostral to the caudal (P < 0.0001). These results demonstrated that DTI might be used as an effective predictor for evaluating neurological repair after SCI in experimental trails and clinical cases.

18.
J Anat ; 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670395

RESUMO

Since embryonic heart development is a complex process and acquisition of human embryonic specimens is challenging, the mechanism by which the embryonic conduction system develops remains unclear. Herein, we attempt to gain insights into this developmental process through immunohistochemical staining and 3D reconstructions. Expression analysis of T-box transcription factor 3, cytoskeleton desmin, and nucleoskeleton lamin A protein in human embryos in Carnegie stages 11-20 showed that desmin is preferentially expressed in the myocardium of the central conduction system compared with the peripheral conduction system, and is co-expressed with T-box transcription factor 3 in the central conduction system. Further, lamin A was first expressed in the embryonic ventricular trabeculations, where the terminal ramifications of the peripheral conduction system develop, and extended progressively to all parts of the central conduction system. The uncoupled spatiotemporal distribution pattern of lamin A and desmin indicated that the association of cytoskeleton desmin and nucleoskeleton lamin A may be a late event in human embryonic heart development. Compared with model animals, our data provide a direct morphological basis for understanding the arrhythmogenesis caused by mutations in human DES and LMNA genes.

19.
J Neurol Sci ; 407: 116419, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698177

RESUMO

The terminal complement inhibitor eculizumab was shown to improve myasthenia gravis-related symptoms in the 26-week, phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled REGAIN study (NCT01997229). In this 52-week sub-analysis of the open-label extension of REGAIN (NCT02301624), eculizumab's efficacy and safety were assessed in 11 Japanese and 88 Caucasian patients with anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive refractory generalized myasthenia gravis. For patients who had received placebo during REGAIN, treatment with open-label eculizumab resulted in generally similar outcomes in the Japanese and Caucasian populations. Rapid improvements were maintained for 52 weeks, assessed by change in score from open-label extension baseline to week 52 (mean [standard error]) using the following scales (in Japanese and Caucasian patients, respectively): Myasthenia Gravis Activities of Daily Living (-2.4 [1.34] and - 3.3 [0.65]); Quantitative Myasthenia Gravis (-2.9 [1.98] and - 4.3 [0.79]); Myasthenia Gravis Composite (-4.5 [2.63] and - 4.9 [1.19]); and Myasthenia Gravis Quality of Life 15-item questionnaire (-8.6 [5.68] and - 6.5 [1.93]). Overall, the safety of eculizumab was consistent with its known safety profile. In this interim sub-analysis, the efficacy and safety of eculizumab in Japanese and Caucasian patients were generally similar, and consistent with the overall REGAIN population.

20.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(45): 25047-25053, 2019 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690901

RESUMO

As an important pathway for energy storage and a key reaction in the carbon cycle, the CO2 electrochemical reduction reaction has recently gained significant interest. A variety of catalysts have been used to approach this topic experimentally and theoretically; however, the molecular level insight into the reaction mechanism is lacking due to the complexity of the surface processes and the challenges in probing the intermediate species. In this study, CO2 reduction reactions on polycrystalline Cu and Au electrodes were investigated in 0.1 M CO2-saturated NaHCO3 solution. In situ sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy has been adopted to access the intermediates and products on the metal electrodes. On the Au electrode, only linearly adsorbed CO could be detected, and the reduction produced no hydrocarbon species. On the Cu electrode, C-H stretching vibrations corresponding to surface-adsorbed ethoxy species were observed, but no CO vibrations can be detected with SFG. The results revealed that the CO randomly adsorbed on the Cu surface, and the multiple orientations of the adsorbed species may be the reason for the formation of C-C bonding. These results demonstrate direct molecular level evidence for different reaction pathways on the Cu and Au electrodes.

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