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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6858, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34824214

RESUMO

Muntjac deer have experienced drastic karyotype changes during their speciation, making it an ideal model for studying mechanisms and functional consequences of mammalian chromosome evolution. Here we generated chromosome-level genomes for Hydropotes inermis (2n = 70), Muntiacus reevesi (2n = 46), female and male M. crinifrons (2n = 8/9) and a contig-level genome for M. gongshanensis (2n = 8/9). These high-quality genomes combined with Hi-C data allowed us to reveal the evolution of 3D chromatin architectures during mammalian chromosome evolution. We find that the chromosome fusion events of muntjac species did not alter the A/B compartment structure and topologically associated domains near the fusion sites, but new chromatin interactions were gradually established across the fusion sites. The recently borne neo-Y chromosome of M. crinifrons, which underwent male-specific inversions, has dramatically restructured chromatin compartments, recapitulating the early evolution of canonical mammalian Y chromosomes. We also reveal that a complex structure containing unique centromeric satellite, truncated telomeric and palindrome repeats might have mediated muntjacs' recurrent chromosome fusions. These results provide insights into the recurrent chromosome tandem fusion in muntjacs, early evolution of mammalian sex chromosomes, and reveal how chromosome rearrangements can reshape the 3D chromatin regulatory conformations during species evolution.

2.
Hematol Oncol ; 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796518

RESUMO

T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive hematological malignancy. Most patients with T-ALL are treated with high-dose multi-agent chemotherapy due to limited targeted therapeutic options. To further investigate its pathogenesis and establish new therapeutic targets, we studied the role of FAPP2, a Golgi protein, that is, highly expressed in T-ALL, in the growth and function of T-ALL. We found that T-ALL cells underwent reduced cell proliferation and sub-G1 accumulation after knocking down of FAPP2 gene using shRNA systems. Instead, FAPP2 downregulation promoted cell autophagy. The level of autophagy markers, LC3Ⅱ/Ⅰ, Beclin1, and ATG5, was markedly increased, whereas that of P62 decreased after FAPP2 knocking down in T-ALL cells. FAPP2 knocking down led to the accumulation of LC3 in the cytoplasm of T-ALL cells as shown by fluorescence microscopy. In addition, the level of PI(4)P and PI(3,4,5)P decreased and phosphorylation of P-AKT and P-mTOR were downregulated in FAPP2 knock-down cells. In summary, our results show that decreased expression of FAPP2 inhibited cell proliferation, resulted in the sub-G1 phase accumulation of T-ALL cells, and enhanced autophagy of T-ALL cells, likely mediated by PI(4)P, PI(3,4,5)P, and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. Our results provide a new insight into the pathogenesis and development of potential targeted therapy of T-ALL.

3.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34782776

RESUMO

The growth of wafer-scale single-crystal two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) on insulating substrates is critically important for a variety of high-end applications1-4. Although the epitaxial growth of wafer-scale graphene and hexagonal boron nitride on metal surfaces has been reported5-8, these techniques are not applicable for growing TMDs on insulating substrates because of substantial differences in growth kinetics. Thus, despite great efforts9-20, the direct growth of wafer-scale single-crystal TMDs on insulating substrates is yet to be realized. Here we report the successful epitaxial growth of two-inch single-crystal WS2 monolayer films on vicinal a-plane sapphire surfaces. In-depth characterizations and theoretical calculations reveal that the epitaxy is driven by a dual-coupling-guided mechanism, where the sapphire plane-WS2 interaction leads to two preferred antiparallel orientations of the WS2 crystal, and sapphire step edge-WS2 interaction breaks the symmetry of the antiparallel orientations. These two interactions result in the unidirectional alignment of nearly all the WS2 islands. The unidirectional alignment and seamless stitching of WS2 islands are illustrated via multiscale characterization techniques; the high quality of WS2 monolayers is further evidenced by a photoluminescent circular helicity of ~55%, comparable to that of exfoliated WS2 flakes. Our findings offer the opportunity to boost the production of wafer-scale single crystals of a broad range of two-dimensional materials on insulators, paving the way to applications in integrated devices.

4.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 748677, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34658887

RESUMO

Objective: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are effective anti-cancer drugs that can improve survival in cancer patients, but their use may be associated with adverse cardiovascular side effects. Therefore, there is a clinical unmet need to identify non-invasive biomarker to detect subclinical cardiac toxicity after ICI treatment. The aim of this study is to examine the plasma levels of biomarkers in cancer survivors who were treated with ICIs. Patients and Methods: In a cohort of 19 cancer patients, biomarkers were evaluated at baseline, 1 month, 3 and 6 months after ICI administration. These biomarkers, hypothesized to be mechanistically relevant to cardiotoxicity, included cardiac troponin I (cTnI), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro BNP), CK (creatine kinase), CK-MB (creatine kinase-MB), Pentraxin-related protein 3 (PTX3), growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15), heart type-fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) and galectin 3 (Gal-3). Results: H-FABP, but not other biomarkers, were increased at 3 months, which persisted at 6 months (529.28 ± 312.83 vs. 752.33 ± 283.65 vs. 808.00 ± 289.69 pg/ml, p = 0.031 and p = 0.013). Left ventricular ejection fraction (63.00 ± 4.15% vs. 63.74 ± 4.07%, p > 0.05) was not significantly reduced at this time point. Conclusions: H-FABP, but not other biomarkers, were increased in patients who were treated using ICIs. H-FABP might be a more sensitive biomarker to detect ICI-related subclinical myocardial damage than traditional cardiac biomarkers.

5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 37-44, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33992764

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the feasibility of using serum microRNAs to predict the response of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients to antiviral therapy over 48 weeks. METHODS: Sixty-five CHB patients were divided into responder and non-responder groups according to whether hepatitis B e antigen seroconversion occurred at week 48. Serum microRNAs were dynamically detected. RESULTS: At baseline, the responder group had lower miR-122-5p (P = 0.006) and higher miR-1307-3p (P = 0.018) than the non-responder group. After therapy, miR-320a-3p and miR-320c were higher in the responder group than the non-responder group (P = 0.043 and 0.031, respectively). In the responder group, 9 microRNAs-let-7d-5p, let-7f-5p, let-7i-5p, miR-126-3p, miR-1307-3p, miR-181a-5p, miR-21-5p, miR-425-5p and miR-652-3p-were significantly lower at week 48 than at baseline (P < 0.05); however, miR-320a-3p was significantly elevated after therapy (P < 0.001). In the non-responder group, miR-122-5p significantly decreased after therapy compared with baseline (P = 0.005). Finally, miR-122-5p was positively correlated with titer of hepatitis B virus DNA (r = 0.438, P = 0.008) and hepatitis B e antigen (r = 0.610, P < 0.001), and miR-320a-3p was negatively correlated with hepatitis B virus DNA titer (r = -0.366, P = 0.028) at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: The dynamic fluctuations of serum microRNAs might predict the efficacy of antiviral therapy for CHB.


Assuntos
Hepatite B Crônica , MicroRNAs , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Antígenos E da Hepatite B , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética
6.
Ann Hematol ; 100(9): 2207-2214, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990890

RESUMO

Chromosomal abnormalities play an important role in classification and prognostication of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients. However, more than 50% of low-risk MDS patients harbor a normal karyotype. Recently, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) has emerged as an effective and robust method for the detection of cytogenetic aberrations in MDS patients. To characterize the subset of MDS with normal karyotype or failed chromosome banding analysis, we analyzed 144 patient samples with normal karyotype or undetectable through regular chromosome banding analysis, which were subjected to parallel comparison via fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and MLPA. MLPA identifies copy number changes in 16.7% of 144 MDS patients, and we observed a significant difference in overall survival (OS) (median OS: undefined vs 27 months, p=0.0071) in patients with normal karyotype proved by MLPA versus aberrant karyotype cohort as determined by MLPA. Interestingly, patients with undetectable karyotype via regular chromosome banding indicated inferior outcome. Collectively, MDS patients with normal or undetectable karyotype via chromosome banding analysis can be further clarified by MLPA, providing more prognostic information that benefit for individualized therapy.


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/genética , Adulto , Análise Citogenética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Cariótipo , Cariotipagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex
7.
Anticancer Drugs ; 32(4): 437-447, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33595943

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to explore the possible mechanisms of pediatric ependymoma using bioinformatics methods and provide potential genes and signaling pathways for pediatric ependymoma study. The data of GES74195 from Gene Expression Ominibus was analyzed by R language for pediatric ependymoma study. The differentially expressed genes were explored using gene set enrichment analysis, search tool for the retrieval of interacting genes, Cytoscape as well as other mainstream bioinformatics methods. Extracellular matrix-receptors interaction pathways and focal adhesion pathway were demonstrated as the key signaling pathway for pediatric ependymoma. The potential hub genes enriched in the two signaling pathways were regarded as final hub genes for this microarray analysis. The development and progression of pediatric ependymoma were associated with epithelial-mesenchymal-transition. Various potential hub genes and potential key signaling pathways in order to further explore their values in the diagnosis and treatment of this disease in the future.

8.
Soc Sci Med ; 270: 113656, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401218

RESUMO

Spatial accessibility to medical services (SAMS) is one of the most important indicators to examine the convenience for people to get access to medical services. In China, the difficulty in getting access to medical services is a commonly appreciated social problem. To mitigate this problem, Chinese government established the hierarchical diagnosis and treatment system (HDTS) in 2005. However, there is no existing study to examine the HDTS from the perspective of SAMS. This paper therefore introduces an integrative method to analyze SAMS in adopting HDTS. The introduced integrative method is developed by referring to the existing 2SFCA method, a commonly applied method for analyzing SAMS, and the characteristics of HDTS are taken into consideration. The application of the integrative method is demonstrated with reference to a Chongqing case. The research findings suggest that: 1) A new method to evaluate SAMS in the context of HDTS is needed; 2) The integrative method developed in this study is proven effective for analyzing SAMS in the context of HDTS through the case study; 3) The case results reveal that the implementation of HDTS can significantly improve the overall SAMS performance in Chongqing; 4) The desirable referral rate of HDTS is 1.24% in the case study by comparing the SAMS performance between different referral rates.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Encaminhamento e Consulta , China , Humanos
9.
Int J Oncol ; 58(1): 45-56, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33367931

RESUMO

MicroRNA (miR)­mediated mRNA and multiple signaling pathway dysregulations have been extensively implicated in several cancer types, including gliomas. Although previous studies have reported that miR­301a acts as an oncogene, the underlying mechanisms of miR­301a in the initiation and progression of glioma remain unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the involvement of miR­301a­mediated signaling pathway dysregulation in glioma. The results identified that miR­301a was significantly upregulated in gliomas and was associated with a poor prognosis based on The Cancer Genome Atlas and Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas databases. Moreover, zinc and ring finger 3 (ZNRF3) exerted a critical role in the miR­301a­mediated effects on the malignant phenotype, such as by affecting proliferation and apoptosis. Mechanistically, the TOP/FOP luciferase assay, western blotting and immunofluorescence results demonstrated that miR­301a knockdown inhibited the wnt/ß­catenin signaling pathway, at least partially via ZNRF3, while ZNRF3 was a direct functional target of miR­301a, as indicated by luciferase reporter assay and western blot analysis. Furthermore, ZNRF3 could in turn repress miR­301a expression, which was dependent on the wnt pathway. Collectively, the present study identified a novel miR­301a/ZNRF3/wnt/ß­catenin signaling feedback loop that serves critical roles in glioma tumorigenesis, and that may represent a potential therapeutic target.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Glioma/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Via de Sinalização Wnt/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Carcinogênese/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Progressão da Doença , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Glioma/mortalidade , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Adulto Jovem , beta Catenina/metabolismo
11.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 29(4): 827-838, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to explore the associations of dietary selenium and serum selenium concentration with coronary heart disease (CHD) prevalence and all-cause mortality among participants in United States. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Using data collected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2006, 17867 individuals were included. Logistic regression analyses were used to explore the associations between dietary selenium intake and serum selenium concentration and prevalent of CHD. Multivariable Cox regression was used to identify the association between dietary selenium intake and all-cause mortality. The nonlinear relationships were assessed using generalized additive models. RESULTS: A U-shaped association between dietary intake of selenium and all-cause mortality was observed. Compared with the lowest quartile, the second quartile of dietary intake of selenium was inversely associated with all-cause mortality (Hazard ratio [HR]: 0.802, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.658, 0.977, p=0.029). There was no evidence of association between dietary selenium intake and CHD risk (Odds ratio [OR]: 1.001, 95% CI: 0.999, 1.003, p=0.206). Furthermore, serum selenium concentration was negatively associated with CHD risk (OR: 0.989, 95% CI: 0.981, 0.997, p=0.006). Comparing with the lowest quartile, participants with the highest serum selenium concentration had a statistically significant decreased prevalence of CHD, with OR (95% CI) of 0.417 (0.259, 0.669) (p<0.001). The smoothing curve also showed a non-linear relationship between serum selenium and risk of CHD. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis suggested that a higher serum selenium concentration was associated with reduced risk of CHD, and that the relationship was non-linear. In addition, an appropriate dietary selenium intake might reduce all-cause mortality.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias , Selênio , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(10): 890, 2020 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087705

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence indicates that the dysregulation of the miRNAs/mRNA-mediated carcinogenic signaling pathway network is intimately involved in glioma initiation and progression. In the present study, by performing experiments and bioinformatics analysis, we found that RPN2 was markedly elevated in glioma specimens compared with normal controls, and its upregulation was significantly linked to WHO grade and poor prognosis. Knockdown of RPN2 inhibited tumor proliferation and invasion, promoted apoptosis, and enhanced temozolomide (TMZ) sensitivity in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistic investigation revealed that RPN2 deletion repressed ß-catenin/Tcf-4 transcription activity partly through functional activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3ß (GSK-3ß). Furthermore, we showed that RPN2 is a direct functional target of miR-181c. Ectopic miR-181c expression suppressed ß-catenin/Tcf-4 activity, while restoration of RPN2 partly reversed this inhibitory effect mediated by miR-181c, implying a molecular mechanism in which TMZ sensitivity is mediated by miR-181c. Taken together, our data revealed a new miR-181c/RPN2/wnt/ß-catenin signaling axis that plays significant roles in glioma tumorigenesis and TMZ resistance, and it represents a potential therapeutic target, especially in GBM.


Assuntos
Glioma/patologia , Hexosiltransferases/fisiologia , MicroRNAs/fisiologia , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/fisiologia , Temozolomida/farmacologia , Via de Sinalização Wnt , Animais , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/farmacologia , Apoptose , Carcinogênese , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Glioma/genética , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Animais , Fator de Transcrição 4/fisiologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , beta Catenina/fisiologia
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(43): e22686, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120760

RESUMO

The effect of the afternoon napping duration on the risk of depression has not been well established, particularly with regard to sex and age differences. The present study examines the association between afternoon napping duration and depression stratified by sex and age among Chinese adults aged 45 years or older.The 2011 to 2012 survey of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study was utilized, including 5746 participants. We conducted logistic regression with the overall sample and subjects stratified by sex and age.Elderly men with short napping (<30 minutes) had lower odds of having depression symptoms compared with those with no napping group (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.44-0.97). In addition, the finding indicated that middle-aged women with long napping (≥90 min) had a marginally significant difference than those in reference, which showed a negative effect on depression (OR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.51-1.01).Our findings revealed that extended daytime napping duration can decrease the risk of depression status among middle and elderly people. Moreover, relevant promotion measures should be adopted, such as a suitable rest environment and regular napping habits. The potential mechanism should be clarified by a longitudinal survey to examine the specific causality.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Causalidade , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Nano Lett ; 20(11): 8053-8058, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112622

RESUMO

The modulation of optical harmonic generation in two-dimensional (2D) materials is of paramount importance in nanophotonic and nano-optoelectronic devices for their applications in optical switching and communication. However, an effective route with ultrafast modulation speed, ultrahigh modulation depth, and broad operation wavelength range is awaiting a full exploration. Here, we report that an optical pump can dynamically modulate the third harmonic generation (THG) of a graphene monolayer with a relative modulation depth above 90% at a time scale of 2.5 ps for a broad frequency ranging from near-infrared to ultraviolet. Our observation, together with the real-time, time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) simulations, reveals that this modulation process stems from nonlinear dynamics of the photoexcited carriers in graphene. The superior performance of the nonlinear all-optical modulator based on 2D materials paves the way for its potential applications including nanolasers and optical communication circuits.

15.
Oncol Rep ; 44(5): 2108-2120, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33000268

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRs), which act as crucial regulators of oncogenes and tumor suppressors, have been confirmed to play a significant role in the initiation and progression of various malignancies, including glioma. The present study analyzed the expression and roles of miR­422a in glioma, and reverse transcription­quantitative PCR confirmed that miR­422a expression was significantly lower in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) samples and cell lines compared with the low­grade glioma samples and the H4 cell line, respectively. miR­422a overexpression suppressed proliferation and invasion, and induced apoptosis in LN229 and U87 cell lines. Luciferase reporter assay, western blotting and RNA immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that ribophorin II (RPN2) is a direct functional target of miR­422a. Additionally, the overexpression of RPN2 partially reversed the miR­422a­mediated inhibitory effect on the malignant phenotype. Mechanistic investigation demonstrated that the upregulation of miR­422a inhibited ß­catenin/transcription factor 4 transcriptional activity, at least partially through RPN2, as indicated by in vitro and in vivo experiments. Furthermore, RPN2 expression was inversely correlated with miR­422a expression in GBM specimens and predicted patient survival in the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas, UALCAN, Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis databases. In conclusion, the present data reveal a new miR­422a/RPN2/Wnt/ß­catenin signaling axis that plays critical roles in glioma tumorigenesis, and it represents a potential therapeutic target for GBM.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Glioblastoma/genética , Hexosiltransferases/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/cirurgia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Carcinogênese/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Criança , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Genes Supressores de Tumor , Glioblastoma/diagnóstico , Glioblastoma/mortalidade , Glioblastoma/cirurgia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Via de Sinalização Wnt/genética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Adulto Jovem
16.
Chaos ; 30(8): 083102, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872801

RESUMO

Adversarial attacks have been alerting the artificial intelligence community recently since many machine learning algorithms were found vulnerable to malicious attacks. This paper studies adversarial attacks on Broido and Clauset classification for scale-free networks to test its robustness in terms of statistical measures. In addition to the well-known random link rewiring (RLR) attack, two heuristic attacks are formulated and simulated: degree-addition-based link rewiring (DALR) and degree-interval-based link rewiring (DILR). These three strategies are applied to attack a number of strong scale-free networks of various sizes generated from the Barabási-Albert model and the uncorrelated configuration model. It is found that both DALR and DILR are more effective than RLR in the sense that rewiring a smaller number of links can succeed in the same attack. However, DILR is as concealed as RLR in the sense that they both are introducing a relatively small change on several typical structural properties, such as the average shortest path-length, the average clustering coefficient, the average diagonal distance, and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test of the degree distribution. The results of this paper suggest that to classify a network to be scale-free, one has to be very careful from the viewpoint of adversarial attack effects.

17.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 15(12): 987-991, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958935

RESUMO

Nonlinear optical fibres have been employed for a vast number of applications, including optical frequency conversion, ultrafast laser and optical communication1-4. In current manufacturing technologies, nonlinearity is realized by the injection of nonlinear materials into fibres5-7 or the fabrication of microstructured fibres8-10. Both strategies, however, suffer from either low optical nonlinearity or poor design flexibility. Here, we report the direct growth of MoS2, a highly nonlinear two-dimensional material11, onto the internal walls of a SiO2 optical fibre. This growth is realized via a two-step chemical vapour deposition method, where a solid precursor is pre-deposited to guarantee a homogeneous feedstock before achieving uniform two-dimensional material growth along the entire fibre walls. By using the as-fabricated 25-cm-long fibre, both second- and third-harmonic generation could be enhanced by ~300 times compared with monolayer MoS2/silica. Propagation losses remain at ~0.1 dB cm-1 for a wide frequency range. In addition, we demonstrate an all-fibre mode-locked laser (~6 mW output, ~500 fs pulse width and ~41 MHz repetition rate) by integrating the two-dimensional-material-embedded optical fibre as a saturable absorber. Initial tests show that our fabrication strategy is amenable to other transition metal dichalcogenides, making these embedded fibres versatile for several all-fibre nonlinear optics and optoelectronics applications.

18.
Infect Genet Evol ; 85: 104492, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763441

RESUMO

AIMS: Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) loss is associated with disease control and improvement of prognosis. Therefore, it is regarded as the optimal treatment endpoint for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. Pegylated interferon (PegIFN)-based extended therapy regimens was assessed in several studies. In order to summarize a conclusion on the HBsAg loss rate and safety in this regimen, a systematic review and meta-analysis was performed. METHODS: Studies on Hepatitis B and PegIFN were searched thoroughly in Pubmed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from inception to November 18, 2019. The primary endpoint of this study was the HBsAg loss rate at the end of the extended duration therapy. The secondary endpoint was safety. All analyses were performed by using the R3.6.1 version Software. Quality assessment of RCTs was carried out by using Review manager 5.3. RESULTS: A total of nine studies, including 545 CHB patients met the inclusion criteria. The pooled HBsAg loss rate after PegIFN-based extended duration therapy was 11% (95% CI: 0.05-0.19), I2 = 82%, P < 0.01(Q test). The extended duration therapy regimen was safe and tolerable. Subgroup analysis showed HBsAg loss rates were 14% (95% CI: 0.04-0.29) and 10% (95% CI: 0.02-0.20) respectively for HBeAg positive and HBeAg negative patients (P = 0.52). HBsAg loss rates were 11%(95%CI:0.03-0.22)and 12%(95%CI:0.04-0.24)respectively for PegIFN monotherapy and PegIFN with Nucleos(t)ide analogs (NAs) therapy (P = 0.84). HBsAg loss rates were 25% (95% CI: 0.19-0.31) and 8% (95% CI: 0.03-0.15) respectively for the advantageous group and non-advantageous group (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: For CHB patients, extended duration of PegIFNα-based treatment for more than 48 weeks is likely to improve HBsAg clearance rate. Specially, the advantageous group will benefit a lot. In addition, the extended duration therapy regimen is safe and tolerable.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Hepatite B/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 8610271, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32596388

RESUMO

HMGN5 regulates biological function and molecular transcription via combining with a nucleosome. There has been growing evidence that aberrant expression of HMGN5 is associated with malignant neoplasm development and progression. In the present study, we found that the expression of HMGN5 is significantly higher in high-grade glioblastoma tissues than in low-grade samples. To clarify the function of HMGN5 in glioblastoma, we knocked down HMGN5 in U87 and U251 glioblastoma cells via siRNA. The results demonstrated that HMGN5 was involved in the regulation of proliferation and apoptosis, migration, and invasion of glioblastoma cells. These outcomes also indicated that silencing HMGN5 possibly suppressed the expression of p-AKT and p-ERK1/2. Taken together, our research reveals that HMGN5 might be an efficient target for glioblastoma-targeted therapy.


Assuntos
Glioblastoma , Proteínas HMGN , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Transativadores , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Inativação Gênica , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Proteínas HMGN/genética , Proteínas HMGN/metabolismo , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Transativadores/genética , Transativadores/metabolismo
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