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1.
Food Chem ; 367: 130647, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343806

RESUMO

To increase the reuse of food residues, multifrequency countercurrent ultrasonic treatment was used to enhance the extraction yield of defatted mulberry seed protein (DMSP), and sweet-flavored peptides from DMSP hydrolysates (DMSPHs) were obtained for the first time. Here, the DMSP yield was increased by 16.2% (p < 0.05) while the power density was halved compared with single-frequency ultrasonic treatment. According to Fick's second law, a molecular diffusion dynamics model was developed to be suitable for predicting the pretreatment conditions (R2 = 0.9785). After that, the sweet-flavored peptides were purified and the main amino acid sequences were identified, i.e., FEGGSIE, KDFPEAHSQAT, and GSQPAEGAK. Moreover, the antioxidant activities of DMSPHs prepared with tri-frequency treatment was higher than 60%. The DMSPHs retarded the growth of HepG2 cells in vitro, increased the necrotic quadrant (Q1-UL), and extended the S phase. Therefore, the sweet-flavored peptides prepared from DMSPHs using the multifrequency-ultrasonic treatment have significant biological activities.

2.
Food Chem ; 366: 130582, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303205

RESUMO

Leaf removal applied in the upper canopy of modified vertical shooting positioning trellis system has been proposed as an effective strategy to mitigate the adverse effects of global warming on grape and wine quality. In this study, we removed the upper leaves of Cabernet Sauvignon canopy in a semi-arid climate for three consecutive years (2018-2020). About one-third of the whole canopy leaves were removed at the beginning of véraison (LR1) and post-véraison (LR2). All leaf removal treatments included two schemes: (i) leaf removal in the same vines in all vintages to investigate the carry-over effects (1-LR1 and 1-LR2); (ii) leaf removal in different vines in each vintage as repeated experiments among vintages (2-LR1 and 2-LR2). Results showed that leaf removal treatments significantly decreased total soluble solids accumulation in grapes without affecting titratable acidity and pH. LR1 treatments could delay ripening to 6.6 days on average, which was 2.6 days longer than LR2 treatments. LR treatments did not affect the yield but decreased soluble sugar content in canes. Leaves net assimilation rate showed no compensation for the loss of leaves. For phenolic composition, LR treatments increased flavonol concentration in both wines and grapes while had inconsistent effects on anthocyanins and flavanols over three seasons. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that different LR treatment stages (LR1s vs LR2s) and whether LR in the same vines over consecutive years (1-LRs vs 2-LRs) had limited effects on phenolic profiles. In conclusion, LR in consecutive years at the upper canopy of grapevines was a practical strategy to face global warming in Xinjiang.

3.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491046

RESUMO

We conducted a crossover study employing air cleaner intervention among 125 schoolchildren aged 9-12 years in a boarding school in Beijing, China. The PM concentrations were monitored, and 27 biomarkers were analyzed. We used the linear mixed-effects model to evaluate the association of intervention/time-weighted PM concentrations with biomarkers. The outcomes showed that air cleaner intervention was associated with FeNO, exhaled breath condensate (EBC) IL-1ß, and IL-6, which decreased by 12.57%, 10.83%, and 4.33%, respectively. Similar results were observed in the associations with PMs. Lag 1 day PMs had the strongest relationship with biomarkers, and significant changes were observed in biomarkers such as FEV1, FeNO, EBC 8-iso, and MCP-1. Boys showed higher percentage changes than girls, and the related biomarkers were FeNO, EBC 4-HNE, IL-1ß, IL-6, and MCP-1. The results showed that biomarkers such as FeNO, EBC IL-6, MCP-1, and 4-HNE could sensitively reflect the early abnormal response of the respiratory system under short-term PM exposure among healthy schoolchildren and indicated that (1) air cleaners exert a protective effect on children's respiratory system. (2) PM had lag and cumulative effect, lag 1 day had the greatest effect. (3) The boys were more sensitive than the girls.

4.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; : e21842, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499777

RESUMO

Glyphodes pyloalis Walker has become one of the most significant mulberry pests, and it has caused serious economic losses in major mulberry growing regions in China. Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are responsible for initiating and regulating immune signalling pathways in insects. However, their roles responding to chemical pesticides is still less known. This study aimed to investigate the possible detoxication function of GpPGRP-S2 and GpPGRP-S3 in G. pyloalis in response to chlorfenapyr and phoxim. The chlorfenapyr and phoxim treatment significantly induced the expression level of GpPGRP-S3 at 48 h. In addition, the expression levels of GpPGRP-S2 and GpPGRP-S3 in the chlorfenapyr/phoxim treatment group were significantly higher in midgut than those in the control group at 48 h. The results of the survival experiment showed that silencing either GpPGRP-S2 or GpPGRP-S3 would not influence the survival rate of G. pyloalis which treated with phoxim, however, silencing GpPGRP-S2 or GpPGRP-S3 would cause G. pyloalis to be more easily killed by chlorfenapyr. The expression of carboxylesterase GpCXE1 was significantly induced by chlorfenapyr/phoxim treatment, while it was suppressed once silenced GpPGRP-S2 followed with chlorfenapyr treatment or silenced GpPGRP-S3 followed with phoxim treatment. These results might suggest that under the chlorfenapyr/phoxim treatment condition, the connection between GpPGRPs and detoxification genes in insect was induced to maintain physiological homeostasis; and these results may further enrich the mechanisms of insects challenged by insecticides.

5.
Mol Cells ; 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504050

RESUMO

As a pancreatic inflammatory marker, regenerating islet-derived protein 3A (Reg3A) plays a key role in inflammation-associated pancreatic carcinogenesis by promoting cell proliferation, inhibiting apoptosis, and regulating cancer cell migration and invasion. This study aimed to reveal a novel immuno-regulatory mechanism by which Reg3A modulates tumour-promoting responses during pancreatic cancer (PC) progression. In an in vitro Transwell system that allowed the direct co-culture of human peripheral blood-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and Reg3A-overexpressing/ silenced human PC cells, PC cell-derived Reg3A was found to downregulate CD80, CD83 and CD86 expression on educated DCs, increase DC endocytic function, inhibit DC-induced T lymphocyte proliferation, reduce IL-12p70 production, and enhance IL-23 production by DCs. The positive effect of tumour-derived Reg3A-educated human DCs on PC progression was demonstrated in vivo by intraperitoneally transferring them into PC-implanted severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice reconstituted with human T cells. A Reg3A-JAK2/STAT3 positive feedback loop was identified in DCs educated with Reg3A. In conclusion, as a tumour-derived factor, Reg3A acted to block the differentiation and maturation of the most important antigen-presenting cells, DCs, causing them to limit their potential anti-tumour responses, thus facilitating PC escape and progression.

6.
Cell Commun Signal ; 19(1): 90, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479599

RESUMO

Ulcerative colitis (UC) has closely been associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. However, the exact mechanisms underlying colitis-associated cancer (CAC) development remain unclear. As a classic pattern-recognition receptor, Toll like receptor (TLR)4 is a canonical receptor for lipopolysaccharide of Gram-negative bacteria (including two CAC-associated pathogens Fusobacterium nucleatum and Salmonella), and functions as a key bridge molecule linking oncogenic infection to colonic inflammatory and malignant processes. Accumulating studies verified the overexpression of TLR4 in colitis and CAC, and the over-expressed TLR4 might promote colitis-associated tumorigenesis via facilitating cell proliferation, protecting malignant cells against apoptosis, accelerating invasion and metastasis, as well as contributing to the creation of tumor-favouring cellular microenvironment. In recent years, considerable attention has been focused on the regulation of TLR4 signaling in the context of colitis-associated tumorigenesis. MicroRNA (miR)-155 and TLR4 exhibited a similar dynamic expression change during CAC development and shared similar CAC-promoting properties. The available data demonstrated an interplay between TLR4 and miR-155 in the context of different disorders or cell lines. miR-155 could augment TLR4 signaling through targeting negative regulators SOCS1 and SHIP1; and TLR4 activation would induce miR-155 expression via transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. This possible TLR4-miR-155 positive feedback loop might result in the synergistic accelerating effect of TLR4 and miR-155 on CAC development. Video abstract.

7.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 21(1): 323, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ocular parasitosis can cause eye damage, which contribute to eye symptoms such as burning, itching and even blindness. It is uncommon to see the parasitosis lying in the sclera layer, neither it causing pterygium. Here, we present an unusual case of a secondary pterygium caused by intrascleral worm. CASE PRESENTATION: A 52-year-old women complained about discomfort in right eye for 6 years. Slit-lamp examination indicated a thickened triangular layers of conjunctiva extending from the nasal edge to the cornea. The diagnosis was pterygium in the right eye. To our surprise, after scleral of nasal side exposed, we could see a tiny fistula right in the sclera which lied right under the pterygium, with an alive and motile worm inside. An intrascleral fistula was noted. Then the worm was removed by forceps from the fistula, which was creamy white, thread-like and 1 cm long. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: As far as we known, it is the first case of an intrascleral worm hidden beneath the conjunctiva which caused the secondary pterygium. It is hard to know the etiology of the secondary pterygium which caused by parasitosis in the scleral fistula untill excision surgery. It is hard to imagine the worm was living in the sclera of the patient for a long-time.


Assuntos
Pterígio , Túnica Conjuntiva , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Pterígio/diagnóstico , Esclera
8.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 175: 216-225, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474106

RESUMO

Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in cardiovascular and immune systems. Quantification of blood nitrite and nitrate, two relatively stable metabolites of NO (generally as NOx), has been acknowledged, in part, representing NO bioactivity. Dysregulation of NOx had been reported in SARS-CoV-2 infected populations, but whether patients recovered from COVID-19 disease present with restored NOx is unknown. In this study, serum NO2- and NO3- were quantified and analyzed among 109 recovered adults in comparison to a control group of 166 uninfected adults. Nitrite or nitrate levels were not significantly different among mild-, common-, severe- and critical-type patients. However, these recovered patients had dramatically lower NO2- and NO2-/NO3- than the uninfected group (p < 0.0001), with significantly higher NO3- levels (p = 0.0023) than the uninfected group. Nitrate and nitrite/nitrate were positively and negatively correlated with patient age, respectively, with age 65 being a turning point among recovered patients. These results indicate that low NO2-, low NO2-/NO3- and high NO3- may be potential biomarkers of long-term poor or irreversible outcomes after SARS-CoV-2 infection. It suggests that NO metabolites might serve as a predictor to track the health status of recovered COVID-19 patients, highlighting the need to elucidate the role of NO after SARS-CoV-2 infection.

9.
Anal Chem ; 93(36): 12329-12336, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474564

RESUMO

"On-demand" accurate imaging of multiple intracellular miRNAs will significantly improve the detection reliability and accuracy. However, the "always-active" design of traditional multicomponent detection probes enables them to passively recognize and output signals as soon as they encounter targets, which will inevitably impair the detection accuracy and, inevitably, result in false-positive signals. To address this scientific problem, in this work, we developed a near-infrared (NIR) light-activated multicomponent detection intelligent nanoprobe for spatially and temporally controlled on-demand accurate imaging of multiple intracellular miRNAs. The proposed intelligent nanoprobe is composed of a rationally designed UV light-responsive triangular DNA nano sucker (TDS) and upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), named UCNPs@TDS (UTDS), which can enter cells autonomously through endocytosis and enable remote regulation of on-demand accurate imaging for multiple intracellular miRNAs using NIR light illumination at a chosen time and place. It is worth noting that the most important highlight of the UTDS we designed in this work is that it can resist nonspecific activation as well as effectively avoid false-positive signals and improve the accuracy of imaging of multiple intracellular miRNAs. Moreover, distinguishing different kinds of cell lines with different miRNA expressions levels can be also achieved through this NIR light-activated intelligent UTDS, showing feasible prospects in precise imaging and disease diagnosis.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Nanopartículas , DNA , Raios Infravermelhos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
10.
Mol Med Rep ; 24(5)2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476501

RESUMO

The present study aimed to investigate the effect of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) on cell apoptosis and oxidative stress in H2O2­induced vertebral endplate chondrocytes (EPCs), and to assess the associated mechanisms involved. Cell viability and apoptosis were evaluated using the Cell Counting Kit­8 method and TUNEL assay, respectively. In addition, the scavenging capability was detected using various enzymatic assays, and the quantity of nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were assessed. The expression levels of apoptosis­related proteins, activation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2­related factor 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase­1 (HO­1) signaling pathway induced by H2O2 and the effect of treatment with ANP on vertebral EPCs were detected by western blotting. The results revealed that ANP protected EPCs from H2O2­induced cell damage. H2O2­induced intracellular MDA was decreased by ANP, and the levels of SOD and NO were increased in the presence of ANP. ANP also inhibited the H2O2­induced alterations in the expression levels of cleaved­caspase­3, Bax and Bcl­2. Finally, ANP blocked H2O2­induced oxidative stress through activating the Nrf2/HO­1 signaling pathway. These findings suggested that ANP may effectively protect EPCs through inhibition of H2O2­induced oxidant injury and cell death by activating the Nrf2/HO­1 signaling pathway.

11.
J Control Release ; 338: 583-592, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481020

RESUMO

Glioblastoma, the most common malignant tumor of the central nervous system, readily relapses after surgery. Based on the CD47-SIRPα axis, we designed and implanted a thermo-sensitive hydrogel loaded with a gene complex into the postoperative cavity to inhibit the immune escape of residual tumor cells after surgery. A novel non-viral vector, G5-BGG, was synthesized and formed into a gene complex with shRNA plasmid. Our results showed that the G5-BGG/shRNA871 complex downregulated CD47 protein expression, leading to enhanced phagocytosis of U87MG cells by marrow-derived macrophages. G5-BGG/pDNA complex was loaded into a poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA-PEG-PLGA) hydrogel. Studies confirmed that the G5-BGG/pDNA complex remained integrated in the hydrogel and was sustainably released for up to 7 days. In an in vivo orthotopic U87MG postoperative tumor model, G5-BGG/shRNA871-loaded hydrogel combined with temozolomide downregulated CD47 protein expression, increased macrophage infiltration into residual tumors, and significantly prolonged the survival time of mice, indicating potential applications for glioblastoma treatment.

12.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 282: 114606, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506939

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tibetan ginseng named Wangla (tuber of Coeloglossum viride var. bracteatum) is a traditional tonic that has Yang-strengthening and qi-enhancing, tranquilizing, intelligence-enhancing and longevity-enhancing properties. It has been used to treat impotence, spermatorrhea, anemia and insomnia. Therefore, its characteristic components and neuronal modulating effects were studied. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the elimination of Aß-induced toxicity by CE and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involving BDNF, FGF2, and their related signaling axis, and the RIP1-driven inflammatory pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We established Aß-induced toxicity models in cultured neurons and ICR mice, respectively. MWM and fear conditioning tests were performed for behavioral analysis of cognitive functions in mice. Western blot was used to investigate the levels of BDNF, FGF2, and their downstream effector TrkB/Akt/Bcl-2, as well as the RIP1-driven RIP1/RIP3/MLKL pathway. Immunofluorescence assay is used to examine the status of glial cells. RESULTS: CE abrogated Aß toxicity and inhibited apoptosis in cultured neurons, mainly by regulating the BDNF, FGF2, and TrkB/Akt signaling pathways as well as RIP1-driven inflammation and necroptosis. Similarly, mice injected intracerebrally with Aß exhibited cognitive deficits and had elevated oxidative stress and inflammatory factors detected in their serum and brain. However, CE-treated mice showed recovery of cognitive abilities and quelled levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory factors. Moreover, Aß toxicity led to a reduction in BDNF, FGF2, and related signaling regulators in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, accompanied by activation of RIP1-driven inflammatory signaling pathways, and a reduction in TBK1 and Bcl-2. However, CE restored the levels of BDNF, FGF2, and TrkB/Akt signaling pathway, while inhibiting RIP1-induced RIP1/RIP3/MLKL pathway, thereby antagonizing apoptosis and maintaining neuronal activity. CONCLUSIONS: CE effectively eliminated the toxicity of Aß in cultured neurons and mouse models, which holds promise for drug development.

13.
EBioMedicine ; 71: 103558, 2021 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy is a major cause of therapeutic failure during the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients. Our study aims to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which ZNF711 down regulation promotes CISPLATIN resistance in EOC. METHODS: ZNF711 expression in 150 EOC specimens was examined using immunohistochemistry. ZNF711 expression and the survival of EOC patients were assessed with a Kaplan-Meier analysis. The effects of ZNF711 expression on CDDP resistance were studied by IC50, Annexin V, and colony formation in vitro, and in an in vivo intra-peritoneal tumor model. The molecular mechanism was determined using a luciferase reporter assay, ChIP assay, CAPTURE approach, and co-IP assay. FINDINGS: ZNF711 down-regulation exerts a great impact on CDDP resistance for EOC patients by suppressing SLC31A1 and inhibiting CDDP influx. ZNF711 down-regulation promoted, while ZNF711 overexpression drastically inhibited CDDP resistance, both in vivo and in vitro. Mechanistically, the histone demethylase JHDM2A was recruited to the SLC31A1 promoter by ZNF711 and decreased the H3K9me2 level, resulting in the activation of SLC31A1 transcription and enhancement of CDDP uptake. Importantly, co-treatment with the histone methylation inhibitor, BIX-01294, increased the therapeutic efficacy of CDDP treatment in ZNF711-suppressed EOC cells. INTERPRETATION: These findings both verified the clinical importance of ZNF711 in CDDP resistance and provide novel therapeutic regimens for EOC treatment. FUNDING: This work was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China; Guangzhou Science and Technology Plan Projects; Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province; The Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities; and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation.

14.
JAMA ; 326(10): 916-925, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519801

RESUMO

Importance: Standard first-line therapy for advanced or metastatic esophageal carcinoma is chemotherapy, but the prognosis remains poor. Camrelizumab (an anti-programmed death receptor 1 [PD-1] antibody) showed antitumor activity in previously treated advanced or metastatic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and adverse events of camrelizumab plus chemotherapy vs placebo plus chemotherapy as a first-line treatment in advanced or metastatic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, phase 3 trial (ESCORT-1st study) enrolled patients from 60 hospitals in China between December 3, 2018, and May 12, 2020 (final follow-up, October 30, 2020). A total of 751 patients were screened and 596 eligible patients with untreated advanced or metastatic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were randomized. Interventions: Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive either camrelizumab 200 mg (n = 298) or placebo (n = 298), combined with up to 6 cycles of paclitaxel (175 mg/m2) and cisplatin (75 mg/m2). All treatments were given intravenously every 3 weeks. Main Outcomes and Measures: Coprimary end points were overall survival (significance threshold, 1-sided P < .02) and progression-free survival (significance threshold, 1-sided P < .005). Results: Of the 596 patients randomized (median age, 62 years [interquartile range, 56-67 years]; 523 men [87.8%]), 1 patient in the placebo-chemotherapy group did not receive planned treatment. A total of 490 patients (82.2%) had discontinued the study treatment. The median follow-up was 10.8 months. The overall survival for the camrelizumab-chemotherapy group was a median of 15.3 months (95% CI, 12.8-17.3; 135 deaths) vs a median of 12.0 months (95% CI, 11.0-13.3; 174 deaths) for the placebo-chemotherapy group (hazard ratio [HR] for death, 0.70 [95% CI, 0.56-0.88]; 1-sided P = .001). Progression-free survival for camrelizumab plus chemotherapy was a median of 6.9 months (95% CI, 5.8-7.4; 199 progression or deaths) vs 5.6 months (95% CI, 5.5-5.7; 229 progression or deaths) for the placebo-chemotherapy group (HR for progression or death, 0.56 [95% CI, 0.46-0.68]; 1-sided P < .001). Treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 or higher occurred in 189 patients (63.4%) in the camrelizumab-chemotherapy group and 201 (67.7%) in the placebo-chemotherapy group, including treatment-related deaths among 9 patients (3.0%) and 11 patients (3.7%), respectively. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with advanced or metastatic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, the addition of camrelizumab to chemotherapy, compared with placebo and chemotherapy, significantly improved overall survival and progression-free survival. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03691090.

15.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2021 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520845

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term consequences of survivors with COVID-19 one year after recovery, and to identify the risk factors associated with abnormal patterns in chest imaging manifestations, or impaired lung function. METHODS: COVID-19 patients were recruited and prospectively followed up with symptoms, HRQoL (health-related quality of life), psychological questionnaires, 6MWT (6-minute walking test), chest CT, PFTs and blood tests. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between the clinical characteristics and the chest CT abnormalities or the pulmonary function. RESULTS: Ninety-four patients with COVID-19 were recruited between January 16 and February 6, 2021. Muscle fatigue and insomnia were the most common symptoms. Chest CT scan were abnormal in 71.28% of participants. Results of multivariable regression showed an increase odd in age. Ten patients had impairment of DLCO (diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide). Urea nitrogen concentration on admission was significantly associated with impaired DLCO. The level of IgG and the neutralizing activity were significantly lower compared with those at the early phase. CONCLUSIONS: One year after hospitalization for COVID-19, a cohort of survivors were mainly troubled with muscle fatigue and insomnia. Pulmonary structural abnormalities and pulmonary diffusion capacities were highly prevalent in surviving COVID-19 patients. It is necessary to intervene main target population for long-term recovery.

16.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150075, 2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520911

RESUMO

Water quantity and quality are two key factors affecting the performance of integrated watershed management. Conventional water resources assessment of rivers often deals with water quantity and quality separately. However, how to make an objective and impartial assessment of water resources by incorporating both water quantity and quality remains unclear, especially in watersheds with significant human activity impacts and high spatiotemporal variations in flows. In such areas, the nonmonotonic relationship between the water quality and discharge rate of a river, in contrast to near-natural conditions, is often ignored. To resolve this problem, this paper develops a new framework for the integrated evaluation of water quantity and quality by incorporating a new index, namely, the water quality improvement degree (WQID). The WQID is proposed to quantify the disturbance degree of human activities to the near-natural relationship between the water quality and discharge rate of a river. The Yihe River in Northern China is selected as a case study to apply the proposed framework. The results show that the observed flow discharge rates of some abnormal months after a specific time of change-point are greater than the estimated discharges under the river's near-natural condition. The WQID values in these abnormal months are less than 1, resulting in a decrease in the modified water resources surplus (WRS*) or an increase in the modified water resources deficit (WRD*). This indicates that the WQID can take into account the near-natural law between water quantity and quality to make a more objective evaluation of integrated water resources management for the months of interest. The proposed framework can serve as a useful and reliable tool for a comprehensive assessment of the watershed management performance of a river system.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499202

RESUMO

Increased understanding of the interactions between endophytic fungi and plants has led to the discovery of a new generation of chemical compounds and processes between endophytic fungi and plants. Due to the long-term co-evolution between fungal endophytes and host plants, endophytes have evolved special biotransformation abilities, which can have critical consequences on plant metabolic processes and their composition. Biotransformation or bioconversion can impact the synthesis and decomposition of hormones, sugars, amino acids, vitamins, lipids, proteins, and various secondary metabolites, including flavonoids, polysaccharides, and terpenes. Endophytic fungi produce enzymes and various bioactive secondary metabolites with industrial value and can degrade or sequester inorganic and organic small molecules and macromolecules (e.g., toxins, pollutants, heavy metals). These fungi also have the ability to cause highly selective catalytic conversion of high-value compounds in an environmentally friendly manner, which can be important for the production/innovation of bioactive molecules, food and nutrition, agriculture, and environment. This work mainly summarized recent research progress in this field, providing a reference for further research and application of fungal endophytes. KEY POINTS: •The industrial value of degradation of endophytes was summarized. • The commercial value for the pharmaceutical industry is reviewed.

18.
J Immunol ; 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507947

RESUMO

Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysfunctional host response to infection. Neutrophils play a protective role by releasing antibacterial proteins or by phagocytizing bacteria. However, excess neutrophils can induce tissue damage. Recently, a novel intercellular communication pathway involving extracellular vesicles (EVs) has garnered considerable attention. However, whether EVs secreted by macrophages mediate neutrophil recruitment to infected sites has yet to be studied. In this study, we assessed the chemotactic effect of EVs isolated from mouse Raw264.7 macrophages on mouse neutrophils and found that CXCL2 was highly expressed in these EVs. By regulating CXCL2 in Raw264.7 macrophages, we found that CXCL2 on macrophage EVs recruited neutrophils in vitro and in vivo. The CXCL2 EVs activated the CXCR2/PKC/NOX4 pathway and induced tissue damage. This study provides information regarding the mechanisms underlying neutrophil recruitment to tissues and proposes innovative strategies and targets for the treatment of sepsis.

19.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 23(8): 814-820, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511171

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study the survival rate and the incidence of complications of very preterm infants and the factors influencing the survival rate and the incidence of complications. METHODS: The medical data of the very preterm infants with a gestational age of <32 weeks and who were admitted to the Department of Neonatology in 11 hospitals of Jiangsu Province in China from January 2018 to December 2019 were retrospectively reviewed. Their survival rate and the incidence of serious complications were analyzed. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk factors for death and serious complications in very preterm infants. RESULTS: A total of 2 339 very preterm infants were enrolled, among whom 2 010 (85.93%) survived and 1 507 (64.43%) survived without serious complications. The groups with a gestational age of 22-25+6 weeks, 26-26+6 weeks, 27-27+6 weeks, 28-28+6 weeks, 29-29+6 weeks, 30-30+6 weeks, and 31-31+6 weeks had a survival rate of 32.5%, 60.6%, 68.0%, 82.9%, 90.1%, 92.3%, and 94.8% respectively. The survival rate tended to increase with the gestational age (P<0.05) and the survival rate without serious complications in each gestational age group was 7.5%, 18.1%, 34.5%, 52.2%, 66.7%, 75.7%, and 81.8% respectively, suggesting that the survival rate without serious complications increased with the gestational age (P<0.05). The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that high gestational age, high birth weight, and prenatal use of glucocorticoids were protective factors against death in very preterm infants (P<0.05), and 1-minute Apgar score ≤3 was a risk factor for death in very preterm infants (P<0.05); high gestational age and high birth weight were protective factors against serious complications in very preterm infants who survived (P<0.05), while 5-minute Apgar score ≤3 and maternal chorioamnionitis were risk factors for serious complications in very preterm infants who survived (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The survival rate is closely associated with gestational age in very preterm infants. A low 1-minute Apgar score (≤3) may increase the risk of death in very preterm infants, while high gestational age, high birth weight, and prenatal use of glucocorticoids are associated with the reduced risk of death. A low 5-minute Apgar score (≤3) and maternal chorioamnionitis may increase the risk of serious complications in these infants, while high gestational age and high birth weight may reduce the risk of serious complications.


Assuntos
Doenças do Prematuro , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520372

RESUMO

This article addresses the safety-critical containment maneuvering of multiple underactuated autonomous surface vehicles (ASVs) in the presence of multiple stationary/moving obstacles. In a complex marine environment, every ASV suffers from model uncertainties, external disturbances, and input constraints. A safety-critical control method is proposed for achieving a collision-free containment formation. Specifically, a fixed-time extended state observer is employed for estimating the model uncertainties and external disturbances. By estimating lumped disturbances in fixed time, nominal containment maneuvering control laws are designed in an Earth-fixed reference frame. Input-to-state safe control barrier functions (ISSf-CBFs) are constructed for mapping safety constraints on states to constraints on control inputs. A distributed quadratic optimization problem with the norm of control inputs as the objective function and ISSf-CBFs as constraints is formulated. A recurrent neural network-based neurodynamic optimization approach is adopted to solve the quadratic optimization problem for computing the forces and moments within the safety and input constraints in real time. It is proven that the error signals in the closed-loop control system are uniformly ultimately bounded and the multi-ASVs system is guaranteed for input-to-state safety. Simulation results are elaborated to substantiate the effectiveness of the proposed safety-critical control method for ASVs based on neurodynamic optimization with control barrier functions.

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