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1.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(4): 2018-2024, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492207

RESUMO

Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)/poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) modified superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) were synthesized by the thermal decomposition of iron (III) acetylacetonate (Fe(acac)3) in PEG containing PEI. Transferrin (Tf) was employed to functionalize SPIONs. The potential of Tf-SPIONs as brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging contrast agents was explored by using Kunming mice as an animal model. The in vivo experiments revealed that Tf-SPIONs exhibited an enhanced contrast time as compared with the PEG-SPIONs and PEG/PEI-SPIONs. Tf-SPIONs exhibit promising potential for bioimaging applications because of their advantages of dispersibility in water, low cytotoxicity and long circulation time in blood.

3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(38): e17211, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567974

RESUMO

This study aims to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of minimally invasive puncture treatment by positioning the simple bedside for spontaneous cerebellar hemorrhage.From January 2017 to March 2018, the investigators applied simple bedside positioning to perform the intracranial hematoma minimally invasive surgery for 21 patients with cerebellar hemorrhage.For these 21 patients, the bleeding amount and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score before the operation were 18.5 ±â€Š5.0 cc and 9.5 ±â€Š3.3, respectively; 24 hours after the operation, the GCS score was 11.0 ±â€Š4.6. Five patients died within 7 days of the operation and the head computed tomography (CT) was re-examined. It was found that the average bleeding amount was 3.4 ±â€Š0.9 cc, the operation success rate was 76.2%, and the accurate puncture rate was 100%. Six months later, the Modified Rankin Scale (MRS) score was 2.5 ±â€Š2.0. The postoperative recovery was good. The situation shows that patients with favorable outcomes (MRS score 0-2) accounted for 38.1% (8/21), and the fatality rate was 33.3% (7/21).The efficacy of the intracranial hematoma minimally invasive surgery by positioning the simple bedside for spontaneous cerebellar hemorrhage with severe brainstem dysfunction is good.

4.
Opt Lett ; 44(19): 4785-4788, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568442

RESUMO

The enhanced saturable absorption (SA) of a one-dimensional (1D) photonic crystal (PC) made from polymers and graphene composites by spin coating is observed. It shows obvious bandgaps at two wavelengths in transmittance. Femtosecond Z-scan measurement at 515 nm and 1030 nm reveals a distinct enhancement in the effective nonlinear absorption coefficient ßeff for graphene nanoflakes embedded in the PC, when compared with the bulk graphene-polymer composite. The effect is studied in a wide range of laser intensities. Graphene inclusion into a 1D PC remarkably decreases the SA threshold and saturation intensity, providing a desired solution for an advanced all-optical laser mode-locking device.

5.
Phys Rev E ; 100(2-1): 022412, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574664

RESUMO

Riboswitches are RNA-structured elements that modulate gene expression through changing their conformation in response to specific metabolite binding. However, the regulation mechanisms of riboswitches by ligand binding are still not well understood. At present two possible ligand-binding mechanisms have been proposed: conformational selection and induced fit. Based on explicit-solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we have studied the process of the binding of ligands (adenines) to add adenine riboswitch aptamer (AARA) in detail. Our results show that the relative high flexibility of the junction J23 of AARA allows the ligands to be captured by the binding pocket of AARA in a near-native state, which may be driven by hydrophobic and base-stacking interactions. In addition, the binding of a ligand makes the stem P1 and the junction J23 of AARA more stable than in the absence of the ligand. Generally, our analyses show that the ligand-binding process of the add adenine riboswitch may be partially embodied by a conformational selection mechanism.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581094

RESUMO

Discovering driver pathways is an essential task to understand the pathogenesis of cancer and to design precise treatments for cancer patients. Increasing evidences have been indicating that multiple pathways often function cooperatively in carcinogenesis. In this study, we propose an approach called CDPath to discover cooperative driver pathways. CDPath firstly uses Integer Linear Programming to explore driver core modules from mutation profiles by enforcing co-occurrence and functional interaction relations between modules, and by maximizing the mutual exclusivity and coverage within modules. Next, to enforce cooperation of pathways and help the follow-up exact cooperative driver pathways discovery, it performs Markov clustering on pathway-pathway interaction network to cluster pathways. After that, it identifies pathways in different modules but in the same clusters as cooperative driver pathways. We apply CDPath on two TCGA datasets: breast cancer (BRCA) and endometrial cancer (UCEC). The results show that CDPath can identify known (i.e., TP53) and potential driver genes (i.e., SPTBN2). In addition, the identified cooperative driver pathways are related with the target cancer, and they are involved with carcinogenesis and several key biological processes. CDPath can uncover more potential biological associations between pathways (over 100%) and more cooperative driver pathways (over 200%) than competitive approaches.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 698: 134264, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494416

RESUMO

Phthalate esters (PAEs) have been shown to be ubiquitous in abiotic and biotic environmental compartments; however, information about bioaccumulation behavior and human exposure, both via environmental exposure and the diet, are limited. Herein, we report the concentrations and composition profiles of phthalate esters (PAEs) in biological samples, river water, indoor air, and outdoor air samples collected from an agricultural site in western China. Dibutyl phthalate (DNBP) occupied a relatively high abundance in biological samples, discrepant with the environmental samples in which di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was the dominant congener. Significant correlations (P < 0.05) were observed between the biota and river water samples, indicating that river water heavily influenced PAE accumulation in biological samples. The mean log Bioaccumulation Factors (BAFs) varied from 0.91 to 2.96, which implies that most PAE congeners are not likely to accumulate in organisms. No obvious trends were observed between log octanol-water partition coefficient (KOW) and log BAF values, nor between log octanol-air partition coefficient (KOW) and biota-air accumulation factors (BAAFs). Nevertheless, the calculated log air-water partitioning factors (AWPFs) of diethyl phthalate (DEP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) were similar to predicted values whereas those for diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), DNBP and DEHP were significantly higher. The estimated daily intakes of PAEs via food ingestion and environmental exposure were 15, 9.4 and 1.2 ng/kg-bw/day in toddlers, children and adults, respectively, laying at the low end of the reported data and well below the reference dose.

8.
Sci Total Environ ; 698: 134275, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505352

RESUMO

With the pollution of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) became increasingly serious, the researches focused on removal of PFASs by adsorption-photocatalysis method has attracted considerable attention. To make the catalyst TiO2 disperse uniformly as quantum dots onto hydrophobic surface which was liable to attract perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were used in this work, which not only connected the hydrophilic TiCl3 to the hydrophobic sulfonated graphene (SG) nanosheets, but also behaved as the molecular template for controlled nucleation and growth of the nanostructured TiO2. After 3D SG-TiO2 QD nanosheets were fabricated, a series of 3D SG-TiO2 QD aerogels were self-assembled by ice-template. TiO2 uniformly distributed on the surface of SG aerogel at QD size level (2-3 nm) and the size of TiO2 could be effectively regulated by concentration of SDS. Compared with aggregated TiO2 material, 3D SG-TiO2 QD aerogels owned higher adsorption and photocatalytic performance. Benefiting from the hydrophobic surface of 3D SG as well as dispersed TiO2 QDs, 3D SG-TiO2 QD could enrich PFOA instantaneously (0.0381/s) and photocatalytic decomposed them effectively (1.898 E-4/s). PFOA degradation by hole and hydroxyl radicals proceeded via a stepwise mechanism. The column made of 3D SG-TiO2 QD could remove PFOA persistently in cycles of permeation. 3D SG-TiO2 QD possessed powerful adsorption-photocatalytic decomposition capability of PFOA and steady reusability performance. The present work highlights the individual roles and synergistic effect of TiO2 QD and 3D SG for effectively removing PFOA.

9.
Sci Total Environ ; 698: 134175, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518786

RESUMO

Although jarosite and visible light are important factors for the formation of acid mine drainage (AMD), the effects of combined jarosite and visible light on chalcopyrite biodissolution have not been explored until now. In order to fill this knowledge gap, the combined effects of jarosite and visible light on chalcopyrite dissolution mediated by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans were investigated. The results indicated that jarosite and visible light could significantly accelerate chalcopyrite biodissolution, thus releasing more copper ions, iron ions and producing more acid. This in turn suggests enhanced generation of AMD under these conditions. Biodissolution results, mineral surface morphology, mineralogical phase and elemental composition analyses revealed that the promotion of chalcopyrite dissolution by additional jarosite and visible light was mainly attributed to the acceleration of ferric iron/ferrous iron cycling and the inhibition of the formation of a passivation layer (jarosite and Sn2-/S0) on the surface of chalcopyrite. This study provides a better understanding of the effects of jarosite and visible light on chalcopyrite biodissolution. In the future, the influences of jarosite and visible light on chalcopyrite dissolution should be considered in AMD evaluation to ensure reliability.

10.
Ophthalmology ; 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543351

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare wear of standard, adjustable, and ready-made glasses among children. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled, open-label, noninferiority trial. PARTICIPANTS: Students aged 11 to 16 years with presenting visual acuity (VA) ≤6/12 in both eyes, correctable to ≥6/7.5, subjective spherical equivalent refractive error (SER) ≤-1.0 diopters (D), astigmatism and anisometropia both <2.00 D, and no other ocular abnormalities. METHODS: Participants were randomly allocated (1:1:1) to standard glasses, ready-made glasses, or adjustable glasses based on self-refraction. We recorded glasses wear on twice-weekly covert evaluation by head teachers (primary outcome), self-reported and investigator-observed wear, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) (not prespecified), children's satisfaction, and value attributed to glasses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Proportion of glasses wear on twice-weekly covert evaluation by head teachers over 2 months. RESULTS: Among 379 eligible participants, 127 were allocated to standard glasses (mean age, 13.7 years; standard deviation [SD], 1.0 years; 54.3% were male), 125 to ready-made (mean age, 13.6; SD, 0.83; 45.6%), and 127 to adjustable (mean age, 13.4 years; SD, 0.85; 54.3%). Mean wear proportion of adjustable glasses was significantly lower than for standard glasses (45% vs. 58%; P = 0.01), although the adjusted difference (90% confidence interval [CI], -19.0% to -3.0%) did not meet the prespecified inferiority threshold of 20%. Self-reported (90.2% vs. 84.8%, P = 0.64) and investigator-observed (44.1% vs. 33.9%, P = 0.89) wear did not differ between standard and adjustable glasses, nor did satisfaction with (P = 0.97) or value attributed to study glasses (P = 0.55) or increase in quality of life (5.53 [SD, 4.47] vs. 5.68 [SD, 4.34] on a 100-point scale, P > 0.30). Best-corrected visual acuity with adjustable glasses was better (P < 0.001) than with standard glasses. Change in power of study lenses at the end of the study (adjustable: 0.65 D, 95% CI, 0.52-0.79; standard, 0.01 D; 95% CI, -0.006 to 0.03, P < 0.001) was greater for adjustable glasses, although interobserver variation in power measurements may explain this. Lens scratches and frame damage were more common with adjustable glasses, whereas lens breakage was less common than for standard glasses. CONCLUSIONS: Proportion of wear was lower with adjustable glasses, although VA was better and measures of satisfaction and quality of life were not inferior to standard glasses.

11.
J Cell Physiol ; 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544245

RESUMO

Esophageal cancer (EC) is the world's eighth most common malignant neoplasm and is ranked as the sixth leading cause of death related to cancer. Aberrant microRNA (miRNA) expression has been reported to be associated with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. However, the molecular mechanism of miR-204-5p in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of miR-204-5p in ESCC. In the present study, we found that miR-204-5p could affect ESCC proliferation, invasion, apoptosis, and cell cycle in cell and mouse models. A dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-204-5p expression was negatively correlated with interleukin-11 (IL-11) expression. IL-11 overexpression reversed the suppressive effects of miR-204-5p in the cell lines. These results indicated that miR-204-5p functions as a tumor suppressor by directly targeting IL-11 in ESCC.

12.
J Vis Exp ; (151)2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545320

RESUMO

3D printing has been widely applied in the medical field since the 1980s, especially in surgery, such as preoperative simulation, anatomical learning and surgical training. This raises the possibility of using 3D printing to construct a neurosurgical implant. Our previous works took the construction of the burr hole ring as an example, described the process of using softwares like computer aided design (CAD), Pro/Engineer (Pro/E) and 3D printer to construct physical products. That is, a total of three steps are required, the drawing of 2D-image, the construction of 3D-image of burr hole ring, and using a 3D printer to print the physical model of burr hole ring. This protocol shows that the burr hole ring made of carbon fiber can be rapidly and accurately molded by 3D printing. It indicated that both CAD and Pro/E softwares can be used to construct the burr hole ring via integrating with the clinical imaging data and further applied 3D printing to make the individual consumables.

13.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 103(4): 636-641, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473776

RESUMO

Livestock and poultry manure containing high levels of copper and zinc have led to contamination of farmland and products which could have an impact on human health. Biochar is an inexpensive and efficient heavy metal absorbent. In the present study, we have used biochar to mitigate the effects of heavy metals on the growth of wheat seedlings. The study showed that the effects of heavy metals on wheat seedlings growth were mitigated by increasing exposure to biochar. Compared to the control group, the germination potential, germination rate, germination index and vigor index of wheat seedlings with supplemented biochar increased significantly. Moreover, the specific activity of catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase decreased and chlorophyll contents increased, which promote wheat growth and suggests that the addition of biochar could reduce the effects of heavy metals on wheat seedlings.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550119

RESUMO

Copper ions are physiologically essential for life, but also hazardous materials causing a series of neurodegenerative diseases. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) detection method has attracted large amount focus as a potential strategy to develop Cu2+ ion sensor. However, relatively low photocurrent signals with poor anti-disturbance ability and the limited concentration range have prevented its practical applications. Here, we designed a WO3/CdS heterojunction photoanode for the PEC determination of Cu2+ in aqueous solution through a simple two-step chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The obtained WO3/CdS photoanode had a nanoplate morphology and showed an enhanced photo responsivity with a photocurrent density of 1.5 mA/cm2 at 1.23 V vs RHE under illumination. Naturally, it exhibited a low detection limit (0.06 µM) and wider range (0.5 µM-1 mM) for Cu2+ PEC detection firstly, suggesting that WO3/CdS heterojunction photoanode is promising tool to monitor copper pollution in natural environment.

15.
Doc Ophthalmol ; 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31552568

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare and correlate retinal microcirculation and function in patients with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR). METHODS: Thirty-three healthy controls (33 eyes), 36 diabetic patients with no clinically detectable retinopathy (NDR, 36 eyes) and 101 patients (101 eyes) with NPDR (35 mild NPDR, 34 moderate NPDR, 32 severe NPDR) were involved in the study. We used optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) to quantify the macular vessel density (VD) of superficial capillary plexus (SCP), deep capillary plexus (DCP) and foveal density in a 300 µm region around foveal avascular zone. Retinal function was assessed by a mydriasis-free, full-field flicker electroretinogram (FERG) recording device, and the amplitudes and implicit time were recorded. The association between microvascular parameters and FERG results was analyzed with stepwise multiple linear regression model. RESULTS: Decreased amplitudes and delayed implicit time, as well as lower parafoveal/perifoveal VD in both SCP and DCP, were found in NDR group and NPDR groups compared with the control group (all p < 0.05). Specifically, the FERG parameters and microvascular indices were comparable between NDR group and mild NPDR group (all p > 0.05). However, compared to mild NPDR, the reduction in FERG amplitude was more pronounced than the reduction in parafoveal VD (both SCP and DCP) in severe NPDR. Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses showed that delayed implicit time was significantly correlated with increased age and decreased VD of parafoveal region in both SCP and DCP in patients with NPDR. Meanwhile, decreased amplitude was significantly associated with decreased VD of parafoveal region in both SCP and DCP in patients with NPDR. CONCLUSION: Macular VD in both superficial and deep capillary plexus correlated with ERG implicit time and amplitude in mild-to-severe NPDR. OCTA and FERG may both be useful in detection of preclinical DR and early DR, but once the disease deteriorates, FERG may be more sensitive to discern progression of DR.

16.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31552575

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In addition to standard TNM N staging, lymph node ratio (LNR) and log odds of metastatic lymph node (LODDS) staging methods have been developed for cancer staging. We compared the prognostic performance of the total number of lymph nodes examined (TNLE), number of metastatic lymph node (NMLN), LNR, and LODDS in prostate cancer. METHODS: Data from 1400 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer between 2004 and 2009 who underwent lymphadenectomy were extracted from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database. Kaplan-Meier methods and multivariable Cox regression analysis were used to evaluate the prognostic value of different lymph node staging schemes in patients with lymph node metastasis. RESULTS: Univariate analysis showed that age, T stage, radiotherapy history, Gleason score, LNR classification, LODDS classification, and NMLN except TNLE classification were significant prognostic factors for overall survival. In multivariate analysis, LNR classification, LODDS classification, and NMLN but TNLE classification remained significant prognostic factors for overall survival. LNR classification had the highest C-index (0.672; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.609-0.734) and the lowest Akaike information criterion (AIC) (4057.018), indicating the best prognostic performance. Scatter plots showed that LODDS increased with increasing LNR, exhibiting a strong overall correlation between these two lymph node staging methods (r2 = 0.9072). LNR and LODDS generally increased with increasing NMLN, although the correlation was relatively low. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that LNR and LODDS may be better predictors of overall survival than the AJCC/UICC N category in patients undergoing curative surgery for prostate cancer.

17.
Mol Hum Reprod ; 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553448

RESUMO

Baicalin, a traditional Chinese medicinal monomer whose chemical structure is known, can be used to treat female infertility. However, the effect of baicalin on embryonic development is unknown. This study investigated the effects of baicalin on in-vitro development of parthenogenetically activated (PA) and in-vitro fertilised (IVF) pig embryos and the underlying mechanisms involved. Treatment with 0.1 µg/mL baicalin significantly improved (p<0.05) the in-vitro developmental capacity of PA pig embryos by reducing the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and apoptosis and increasing the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and ATP level. mRNA and protein expression of SHH and GLI1, which are related to the sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathway, in PA pig embryos at the 2-cell stage, were significantly higher in the baicalin-treated group than in the control group. To confirm that the SHH signaling pathway is involved in the mechanism by which baicalin improves embryonic development, we treated embryos with baicalin in the absence or presence of cyclopamine, an inhibitor of this pathway. Cyclopamine abolished the effects of baicalin on in-vitro embryonic development. In conclusion, Baicalin improves the in-vitro developmental capacity of PA and IVF pig embryos by inhibiting ROS production and apoptosis, regulating mitochondrial activity and activating SHH signaling.

18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(19)2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554196

RESUMO

Under the dynamic working conditions of a star sensor, motion blur of the star will appear due to its energy dispersion during imaging, leading to the degradation of the star centroid accuracy and attitude accuracy of the star sensor. To address this, a restoration method of a blurred star image for a star sensor under dynamic conditions is presented in this paper. First, a kinematic model of the star centroid and the degradation function of blurred star image under different conditions are analyzed. Then, an improved curvature filtering method based on energy function is proposed to remove the noise and improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the star image. Finally, the Richardson Lucy algorithm is used and the termination condition of the iterative equation is established by using the star centroid coordinates in three consecutive frames of restored images to ensure the restoration effect of the blurred star image and the accuracy of the star centroid coordinates. Under the dynamic condition of 0~4°/s, the proposed algorithm can effectively improve the signal-to-noise ratio of a blurred star image and maintain an error of the star centroid coordinates that is less than 0.1 pixels, which meets the requirement for high centroid accuracy.

19.
Acta Otolaryngol ; : 1-5, 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556768

RESUMO

Background: Head and neck haemangiomas in the pharynx and larynx are rare, and the injection of bleomycin is currently one of the effective treatments. However, data on the therapeutic efficacy of this treatment are scarce. Objectives: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of bleomycin injection in the treatment of laryngopharyngeal haemangioma in adults and determine factors affecting efficacy. Materials and Methods: The clinical data of 42 adult patients with laryngopharyngeal haemangioma treated by intralesional bleomycin injection were retrospectively analysed to evaluate the clinical efficacy. Two groups (haemangioma reduction <50% and haemangioma reduction ≥50%) were compared to analyse factors affecting efficacy. Results: Seventy-five injections were administered to 42 patients: 34 (34/42 81%) patients with a haemangioma reduction ≥50% and 8 (8/42 19%) with a haemangioma reduction <50%. There was no difference in age, sex, haemangioma shape or number of operations between the two groups, but there was a significant difference in the base area of the haemangioma. Conclusions and Significance: Intralesional bleomycin injection is effective for the treatment of laryngopharyngeal haemangioma in adults. The base area of the haemangioma affects the therapeutic efficacy.

20.
Genet Epidemiol ; 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502714

RESUMO

Experimental, observational, and clinical trials support a critical role of folate one-carbon metabolism (FOCM) in colorectal cancer (CRC) development. In this report, we focus on understanding the relationship between common genetic variants and metabolites of FOCM. We conducted a genome-wide association study of FOCM biomarkers among 1,788 unaffected (without CRC) individuals of European ancestry from the Colon Cancer Family Registry. Twelve metabolites, including 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, vitamin B2 (flavin mononucleotide and riboflavin), vitamin B6 (4-pyridoxic acid, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine), total homocysteine, methionine, S-adenosylmethionine, S-adenosylhomocysteine, cystathionine, and creatinine were measured from plasma using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) or LC-MS/MS. For each individual biomarker, we estimated genotype array-specific associations followed by a fixed-effect meta-analysis. We identified the variant rs35976024 (at 2p11.2 and intronic of ATOH8) associated with total homocysteine (p = 4.9 × 10-8 ). We found a group of six highly correlated variants on chromosome 15q14 associated with cystathionine (all p < 5 × 10-8 ), with the most significant variant rs28391580 (p = 2.8 × 10-8 ). Two variants (rs139435405 and rs149119426) on chromosome 14q13 showed significant (p < 5 × 10-8 ) associations with S-adenosylhomocysteine. These three biomarkers with significant associations are closely involved in homocysteine metabolism. Furthermore, when assessing the principal components (PCs) derived from seven individual biomarkers, we identified the variant rs12665366 (at 6p25.3 and intronic of EXOC2) associated with the first PC (p = 2.3 × 10-8 ). Our data suggest that common genetic variants may play an important role in FOCM, particularly in homocysteine metabolism.

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