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1.
Chemosphere ; 244: 125493, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050327

RESUMO

Zearalenone (ZEA), as a contaminant commonly found in our daily diet, has been widely studied for its toxicity. However, the exact mechanism underlying ZEA induced reproduction disorders remains unclear. Our study aimed to elucidate the underlying relationship between aberrations in the gut microbiota and the degeneration of the ovarian reserve following exposure to ZEA. Four-week-old mice were treated with different doses (0, 20, 40 µg/kg bw/day) of ZEA for 2 weeks and it was found that the primordial follicles were dramatically decreased when compared to untreated controls. Moreover, we applied metagenomic shotgun sequencing to investigate the effects of ZEA exposure on the population composition and function of gut microbiota. The results showed that the abundance of three susceptible bacterial strains, parabacteroides, bacteroides and lachnospiraceae were increased in a dose-dependent manner after ZEA exposure, whereas the bacterial glycerophospholipid metabolism pathway was greatly suppressed. Of note, utilizing LC/MS we found lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs), important metabolites in the process of glycerophospholipid metabolism, were markedly decreased in the plasma of the ZEA treated mice. In conclusion, our findings here provide evidences that the dysfunction in gut microbiome after ZEA exposure may affect the ovarian reserve.

2.
Curr Drug Deliv ; 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32039682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Owing to the rich anticancer properties of flavonoids, there is the need for their incorporation into delivery vehicles like nanomicelles for safe delivery of the drug into brain tumor microenvironment. OBJECTIVE: This study therefore aimed to prepare the phospholipid-based Labrasol/Pluronic F68 modified nanomicelles loaded with flavonoids (Nano-flavonoids) for the delivery of the drug to target brain tumor. Myricetin, quercetin and fisetin were selected as the initial drugs to evaluate the biodistribution and acute toxicity of the drug delivery vehicles in rats with implanted C6 glioma tumors after oral administration, while the uptake, retention, release in human intestinal Caco-2 cells and the effect on the brain endothelial barrier were investigated in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs). RESULTS: The results demonstrated that Nano-flavonoids loaded with myricetin showed more evenly distributed targeting tissues and enhanced anti-tumor efficiency in vivo without significant cytotoxicity to Caco-2 cells and alteration in the trans epithellal electric resistance (TEER). There was no pathological evidence of renal, hepatic or other organ dysfunction after Nano-flavonoids administration, which showed no significantly influence cytotoxicity to Caco-2 cells. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, Labrasol/F68-NMs loaded with MYR and quercetin could enhance anti-glioma effect in vitro and in vivo, which may be better tools for medical therapy, while the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of Nano-flavonoids may ensure optimal therapeutic benefits.

3.
Curr Pharm Des ; 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is one of the most common and deadly cancers worldwide. For most patients diagnosed with mCRC and managed with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)/leucovorin plus oxaliplatin (FOLFOX), the median survival time is still less than 2 years. Small molecule selective vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) inhibitors have been demonstrated to have strong anti-tumour activity in various cancer models. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the efficacy and safety of selective VEGFR inhibitors in management of mCRC. METHODS: A comprehensive search in the PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Ovid MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Springer and Cochrane Central databases was performed for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) focusing on the effect of selective VEGFR inhibitors on mCRC. The primary outcome measures were progression-free survival (PFS) rates, overall survival (OS) rates, complete response (CR), partial response (PR), stable disease (SD), progressive disease (PD), objective response rates (ORRs), disease control rates (DCRs) and adverse effect (AE) rates. The dates of included studies ranged from the inception of the database to January 15, 2020. RESULTS: Twenty-two RCTs were included. A total of 9362 patients met the inclusion criteria. Compared with placebo, selective VEGFR inhibitors significantly increased the PFS rate, SD, PR and DCR, reduced PD, caused more treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs), hypertension, hand-foot skin reaction, diarrhoea, fatigue, and thrombocytopaenia and increased aspartate aminotransferase(AST) concentration. There was no significant difference between selective VEGFR inhibitors and placebo regarding OS rate, CR, ORR, proteinuria, hyperbilirubinaemia or alkaline phosphatase(ALP) concentration. Additionally, compared with FOLFOX4+placebo, FOLFOX4+selective VEGFR inhibitors, clearly reduced PD, and caused more 3-4 AEs, serious AEs, hypertension, hand-foot syndrome, diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, decreased appetite, dehydration, fatigue, dizziness, neutropaenia and thrombocytopaenia. For PFS rate, OS rate, CR, PR, SD, ORR, abdominal pain, peripheral sensory neuropathy, asthaenia, anaemia and hypokalaemia rates, there was no significant difference between FOLFOX4+selective VEGFR inhibitors and FOLFOX4+placebo. However, compared with FOLFOX4+bevacizumab, FOLFOX4+selective VEGFR inhibitors, led to increased hypertension, neutropaenia, fatigue, thrombocytopaenia and asthaenia. There is no clear difference between FOLFOX4+selective VEGFR inhibitors and FOLFOX4+bevacizumab with regard to PFS rate, OS rate, CR, PR, SD, PD, ORR, diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, peripheral neuropathy and abdominal pain rates. Selective VEGFR inhibitors+cetuximab increased PFS and PR and reduced PD compared to cetuximab, but there was no statistical difference between the two groups for OS and SD. CONCLUSION: Compared with placebo or cetuximab, selective VEGFR inhibitors alone or combined with cetuximab seemed to be more efficacious for mCRC respectively; however, the effects were not better than FOLFOX4 alone or when combined with bevacizumab for mCRC. Additionally, selective VEGFR inhibitors were not as safe as placebo or FOLFOX4 alone or in combination with bevacizumab in mCRC.

4.
J ECT ; 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is now an established, safe, and effective treatment for adults with depression. However, specific research in rTMS for use in elderly patients with acute depression is scarce. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of add-on rTMS in a clinical sample of older adults experiencing an acute phase of depression. METHOD: This study examined 114 patients (54 elderly [aged ≥60] and 60 adults [aged 18-59]) with acute depression who were drug free at baseline. They were treated with at least 10 sessions of rTMS for 4 weeks along with 1 antidepressant. Symptoms of depression were measured using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression at baseline and after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment. Clinical improvement and rates of response and remission were compared across groups. RESULTS: Significant improvement was noted after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment in both adult and elderly groups. Higher remission rates were found in adult patients but with no differences in response. The stimulation intensity and course of illness were significant predictors of remission after 4 weeks of rTMS treatment in the elderly. CONCLUSIONS: The add-on rTMS treatment for elderly depression patients is promising with respect to safety and feasibility. This preliminary evidence supports the application of rTMS to this group during acute episodes.

6.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 289: 113391, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917151

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to detect the seasonal expressions of oxytocin (OT), oxytocin receptor (OTR), extracellular signal-regulated kinase1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and phospho-ERK1/2 (pERK1/2) in the epididymis of the wild ground squirrels (Citellus Dauricus Brandt) during the breeding season and non-breeding season. Histological results showed that size, weight, cell number and lumen diameter of epididymis underwent acute seasonal changes, which were all peaked in the breeding season. Immunohistochemical results suggested that strong staining of OT, OTR, ERK1/2, and pERK1/2 were observed in the epithelial layer in the whole epididymis, along with intense OT and OTR signal in smooth muscle cell (Smc) in caudal epididymis in the breeding season. The protein expression levels of OTR, ERK1/2, and pERK1/2 in the epididymis were higher in the breeding season than those of the non-breeding season. Besides, hormone assay revealed that there was no significant serum concentration of OT in these two periods, while epididymal concentration showed higher value in the breeding season. In summary, the identified localization and local concentration of OT in the epididymis in the wild ground squirrel suggested that epididymis may assume as a source of OT, and OT could act via OTR to activate ERK1/2 signaling to regulate seasonal epididymal functions.

7.
Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi ; 23(1): 29-35, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that ASPM is a tumorigenesis associated protein, mutations in ASPM can lead to MCPH. This study mainly explores the relationship between the ASPM expression of lung adenocarcinoma and the development and prognosis of lung cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the expression of abnormal spindle-like microcephaly-associated protein (ASPM) in lung adenocarcinoma and the development and prognosis in lung cancer. METHODS: A total of 90 cases of lung adenocarcinoma tissue specimens and 90 cases of benign pulmonary lesions were collected, the expression of ASPM was detected by immunohistochemical technique, and the expression of ASPM in 12 pairs of tissues was detected by real-time quantity polymerase chain reaction and western blot. RESULTS: (1) The expression of ASPM in the tissue specimens of benign pulmonary lesions was negative while the expression level of ASPM in lung adenocarcinoma was significantly higher than lung tissue of benign pulmonary lesions (P<0.05). (2) The expression level of ASPM has no remarkable difference in lung adenocarcinoma with lymph node development and the lung cancer without lymph node development, there was no statistically significant (P<0.05). (3) The ASPM expression level in the tumor's size ≥4 cm was significantly higher than than of the size<4 cm (P<0.05). (4) Hierarchical analysis results show that T stage is related to ASPM expression level (P<0.05). (5) The high expression level of ASPM in lung adenocarcinoma was significantly positively correlated with the poor prognosis (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: (1) The expression level of ASPM in lung cancer is obviously increased and closely related to the progress of lung adenocarcinoma. (2) The expression level of ASPM in lung adenocarcinoma was significantly positively correlated with poor prognosis (P<0.05). (3) Detection of the expression level of ASPM in lung adenocarcinoma help to predict the prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma in advance.

9.
Schizophr Res ; 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31956007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been shown to be effective in schizophrenia (SZ), particularly in drug-refractory cases or when rapid symptom relief is needed. However, its precise mechanisms of action remain largely unclear. To clarify the mechanisms underlying modified electroconvulsive therapy (mECT) for SZ, we conducted a longitudinal cohort study evaluating functional connectivity of the thalamus before and after mECT treatment using sub-regions of thalamus as regions of interest (ROIs). METHODS: Twenty-one SZ individuals taking only antipsychotics (DSZ group) for 4 weeks and 21 SZ patients receiving a regular course of mECT combining with antipsychotics (MSZ group) were observed in parallel. All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging scans at baseline (t1) and follow-up (t2, ~4 weeks) time points. Data were compared to a matched healthy control group (HC group) consisting of 23 persons who were only scanned at baseline. Group differences in changes of thalamic functional connectivity between two SZ groups over time, as well as in functional connectivity among two SZ groups and HC group were assessed. RESULTS: Significant interaction of group by time was found in functional connectivity of the right thalamus to right putamen during the course of about 4-week treatment. Post-hoc analysis showed a significantly enhanced functional connectivity of the right thalamus to right putamen in the MSZ group contrasting to the DSZ group. In addition, a decreased and an increased functional connectivity of the thalamus to sensory cortex were observed within the MSZ and DSZ group after 4-week treatment trial, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that changes in functional connectivity of the thalamus may be associated with the brain mechanisms of mECT for schizophrenia.

10.
Neurosci Lett ; 718: 134745, 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most studies assessing brain-personality mechanisms have used Western personality questionnaires. However, Western personality questionnaires may not objectively reflect the personality characteristics of individuals in Eastern cultures such as China. Hence, we adopted the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and the Chinese localized scale, FPPI, to explore the brain mechanisms differences of typical yin and typical yang personalities of individuals in China. METHODS: 30 typical yin personality participants (TYI) and 34 typical yang personality participants (TYA) were enrolled according to the FPPI. The group differences of the functional brain networks among 90 specific brain regions were mapped using fMRI data and then analyzed by the conventional network metrics (CNM) and frequency subgraph mining (FSM). RESULTS: The CNM and FSM differences between two typical personality groups were traced to the frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices. The yin group, reflecting the rich emotions and feelings of individuals, showed higher betweenness centrality (BCi) and nodal efficiency (Ei) values in putamen and middle frontal gyrus. The yang group, reflecting active behaviors and tendency to adapting to the changing surroundings, showed higher BCi and Ei values in precuneus, posterior cingulate gyrus, and inferior parietal lobule, brain areas in the default mode network (DMN). CONCLUSION: These results supplied evidence for the neurobiological differences between typical yin and typical yang personality participants based on Chinese culture. These results also provide a new perspective to help researchers understand brain mechanism differences between yin and yang personality groups in the Chinese culture.

11.
Interv Neuroradiol ; : 1591019919896940, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924102

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Diabetes mellitus indicated poor clinical prognosis for patients with acute ischemic stroke. Furthermore, diabetes mellitus could also impact the hemostatic system, while its influence on the histological composition of thrombus is unclear. METHODS: Consecutive patients with retrieved clots were included. Histologic staining for thrombus included hematoxylin and eosin, Martius Scarlet Blue, immunohistochemistry for von Willebrand factor. The differences in clot composition were compared according to diabetes mellitus history or hyperglycemia (≥7.8 mmol/L) on admission. RESULTS: A total of 52 patients were included; half of them were diagnosed as diabetes mellitus previously. Diabetic patients showed higher serum glucose on admission (8.90 vs. 7.40, p = 0.012). The baseline characteristics (expect smoking history and thrombus location), procedural, and clinical outcomes were similar between diabetic patients and nondiabetic patients. As for histologic composition, thrombus in patients with diagnosed diabetes mellitus had more fibrin (44.2% vs. 28.3%, p = 0.004) and fewer red blood cells (26.0% vs. 42.9%, p = 0.013) and equivalent content of platelets (24.0% vs. 21.5%, p = 0.694) and von Willebrand factor (0.041 vs. 0.031, p = 0.234) than patients without diabetes mellitus. However, there was no statistical difference in the content of red blood cells (41.6% vs. 27.3%, p = 0.105), fibrin (37.6% vs. 34.3%, p = 0.627), platelets (21.2% vs. 24.2%, p = 0.498), and von Willebrand factor (0.038 vs. 0.034, p = 0.284) between patients with or without hyperglycemia on admission. CONCLUSION: Clots in diabetic patients had more fibrin and fewer erythrocyte components compared with patients without diabetes mellitus, while hyperglycemia on admission did not show association with clot composition. Further studies are needed to confirm these results.

12.
J Fish Biol ; 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919843

RESUMO

Bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix have been two economically important aquaculture species in China for centuries. In the past decades, bighead and silver carp have been introduced from the Yangtze River to many river systems in China, including the Pearl River, in annual, large-scale, stocking activities to enhance wild fisheries. Nonetheless, few studies have assessed the ecological or genetic impacts of such introductions on native conspecific fish populations. An mtDNA D-loop segment of 978 bp from 213 bighead carp samples from 9 populations and a 975 bp segment from 204 silver carp samples from 10 populations were obtained to evaluate genetic diversity and population integrity. Results from a haplotype network analysis revealed that most haplotypes of the Pearl River clustered with those of Yangtze River origin and only a small proportion were distinct, suggesting that both the native Pearl River bighead and silver carp populations are currently dominated by genetic material from the Yangtze River. The genetic diversity of Pearl River populations is high in both species because of this inter-population gene flow, but the diversity of native Pearl River populations is low. To preserve the native genetic diversity, stocking of non-native fingerlings should cease immediately and native Pearl River bighead and silver carp fish farms should be established. This research demonstrates the danger to native biodiversity across China because of the substantial, ongoing stock-enhancement activities without prior genetic assessment.

13.
Bioconjug Chem ; 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977189

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which is one of the three major cancers, has attracted growing attention due to its high mortality, health care cost, and circumscribed therapeutic methods. Hence, the development of a fast, accurate, and flexible method to detect α-fetoprotein (AFP), the specific marker of HCC, is significant for diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Here, we constructed a novel SERS biosensing platform combining the target-responsive DNA hydrogel for the sensitive detection of AFP. The linker strand in DNA hydrogel is an aptamer that can specifically recognize AFP and accurately control the release of immunoglobulin G (IgG) encapsulated in hydrogel. In the presence of AFP, the hydrogels were disentangled and the IgG was released. Thereafter, the released IgG was captured by SERS probes and biofunctional magnetic beads through formation of sandwich-like structures, resulting in the signal of Raman tags decreasing in the supernatant after magnetic separation. Due to the ultrahigh sensitivity of the SERS biosensor, the proposed method has a wide detection linear range (50 pg/mL to 0.5 µg/mL) and a detection limit down to 50 pg/mL. Moreover, the sequence of the linker strand in the DNA hydrogel can be specifically encoded into a new aptamer that responds to other cancer markers. This convenient and inexpensive detection method provides a new strategy for the detection of tumor markers.

14.
Steroids ; 154: 108533, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678133

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study roles oflncRNA-MALAT1 and miR-214 in steroid-induced avascular necrosis of the femoral head (SANFH). METHODS: MALAT1, miR-214 andosteogenic-relatedgenes(Runx2, ALP, andOCN)expressions were determined in SANFH tissue samples and human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) by RT-qPCR. BMSCs were verifiedbyflowcytometry. The ATF4 level was determined by western blotting and RT-qPCR. Osteogenesis inducedbyosteogenic medium (OM) in BMSCs and dexamethasone (DEX) was used to inhibit osteogenesis. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was measured and ALP staining and alizarin red staining were conducted for evaluation of osteogenic differentiation. MTT assay was used for cell proliferation. The dual luciferase reporter assay was used to confirm binding between MALAT1 and miR-214, as well as miR-214 and ATF4. RESULTS: MALAT1 was down-regulated and miR-214 was up-regulated in SANFH tissues. DEX inhibited osteogenic differentiation of BMSC in a dose-dependent manner, leading to decreased MALAT1, increased miR-214, as well as reduced ALP activity and decreased expression of RUNX2, ALP and OCN. Either overexpression of MALAT1 or inhibition of miR-214 improved DEX-induced inhibition of BMSC osteogenic differentiation. The overexpression of miR-214 reversed the effects by MALAT1. MALAT1 directly sponged miR-214 and miR-214 directly targeted ATF4. CONCLUSION: MALAT1 was down-regulated, while miR-214 was elevated in SANFH tissues. MALAT1 promoted osteogenesis differentiation by sponging miR-214 to upregulate ATF4.

15.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(1): 229-236, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630263

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the safety and efficacy of radioactive iodine-125 seed implantation (RISI) for the treatment of thoracic tumors. METHODS: Clinical patients with primary or metastatic tumors in the chest treated with RISI were analyzed. The RISI process included the following stages: preoperative planning, template design and 3D printing, CT-guided RISI assisted by a template, and postoperative dosimetric verification. The prescribed dose was ≥ 80 Gy. The main analytic measures were the local control (LC) rate and toxicity. RESULTS: From April 2015 to July 2018, a total of 92 patients, including 41 with lung cancer and 51 with lung metastases, were analyzed. The median lesion diameter was 5 cm. The median postoperative D90 was 142.6 Gy. The median follow-up was 10.7 months. The overall survival rates at 1 year and 3 years were 59.7% and 22.2%, respectively. The LC rates at 1 year and 3 years were 64.9% and 32.8%, respectively. The LC rates at 3 years for patients with D90 < 140 Gy and D90 > 140 Gy were 23.1% and 54.3%, respectively (P = 0.014). The LC rate of metastatic lung cancer was more favorable than that of primary lung cancer. The multivariate analyses showed that the dose and lesion type were independent factors for LC (P < 0.05). No factors were related to OS. The incidence of pneumothorax and hemoptysis was 35.8% and 3.2%, respectively. Few cases of radiotherapy-related toxicity effects were observed. CONCLUSIONS: RISI may be safe and efficacious and is associated with few complications during the treatment of thoracic tumors. If patients need local treatment and surgery or radiotherapy is not available, RISI could be considered.


Assuntos
Radioisótopos do Iodo/administração & dosagem , Impressão Tridimensional , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Neoplasias Torácicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Torácicas/radioterapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Radioisótopos do Iodo/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Plant J ; 101(2): 334-351, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559658

RESUMO

Despite of important functions of strigolactones (SLs) and karrikins (KARs) in plant development, plant-parasite and plant-fungi interactions, their roles in soybean-rhizobia interaction remain elusive. SL/KAR signaling genes GmMAX2a, GmD14s, and GmKAIs are activated by rhizobia infection. GmMAX2a restored atmax2 root hair defects and soybean root hairs were changed in GmMAX2a overexpression (GmMAX2a-OE) or knockdown (GmMAX2a-KD) mutants. GmMAX2a-KD gave fewer, whereas GmMAX2a-OE produced more nodules than GUS hairy roots. Mutation of GmMAX2a in its KD or OE transgenic hairy roots affected the rhizobia infection-induced increases in early nodulation gene expression. Both mutant hairy roots also displayed the altered auxin, jasmonate and abscisic acid levels, as further verified by transcriptomic analyses of their synthetic genes. Overexpression of an auxin synthetic gene GmYUC2a also affected SL and KAR signaling genes. GmMAX2a physically interacted with SL/KAR receptors GmD14s, GmKAIs, and GmD14Ls with different binding affinities, depending on variations in the critical amino acids, forming active D14/KAI-SCFMAX2 complexes. The knockdown mutant roots of the nodule-specifically expressing GmKAIs and GmD14Ls gave fewer nodules, with altered expression of several early nodulation genes. The expression levels of GmKAIs, and GmD14Ls were markedly changed in GmMAX2a mutant roots, so did their target repressor genes GmD53s and GmSMAX1s. Thus, SL and KAR signaling were involved in soybean-rhizobia interaction and nodulation partly through interactions with hormones, and this may explain the different effects of MXA2 orthologs on legume determinate and indeterminate nodulation. The study provides fresh insights into the roles of GmMAX2-mediated SL/KAR signaling in soybean root hair and nodule formation.

17.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 52(1): 87-95, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31552575

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In addition to standard TNM N staging, lymph node ratio (LNR) and log odds of metastatic lymph node (LODDS) staging methods have been developed for cancer staging. We compared the prognostic performance of the total number of lymph nodes examined (TNLE), number of metastatic lymph node (NMLN), LNR, and LODDS in prostate cancer. METHODS: Data from 1400 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer between 2004 and 2009 who underwent lymphadenectomy were extracted from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database. Kaplan-Meier methods and multivariable Cox regression analysis were used to evaluate the prognostic value of different lymph node staging schemes in patients with lymph node metastasis. RESULTS: Univariate analysis showed that age, T stage, radiotherapy history, Gleason score, LNR classification, LODDS classification, and NMLN except TNLE classification were significant prognostic factors for overall survival. In multivariate analysis, LNR classification, LODDS classification, and NMLN but TNLE classification remained significant prognostic factors for overall survival. LNR classification had the highest C-index (0.672; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.609-0.734) and the lowest Akaike information criterion (AIC) (4057.018), indicating the best prognostic performance. Scatter plots showed that LODDS increased with increasing LNR, exhibiting a strong overall correlation between these two lymph node staging methods (r2 = 0.9072). LNR and LODDS generally increased with increasing NMLN, although the correlation was relatively low. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that LNR and LODDS may be better predictors of overall survival than the AJCC/UICC N category in patients undergoing curative surgery for prostate cancer.

18.
Nutr Cancer ; 72(2): 293-319, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267795

RESUMO

Background: Rhus chinensis Mill is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) mostly used to treat several cancer types. Although previous studies have found that certain ingredients of R. chinensis such as flavonoids can inhibit tumor cell proliferation [e.g. colorectal cancer (CRC)], systematic research on the mechanism underlying anticancer effect of active compounds like triterpenoids (TER) is lacking.Study Design: Herein, the concept of "network pharmacology primarily based on active compounds" was applied to explore the anticancer mechanisms of TER extract from R. chinensis. In this regard, potential targets and pathways of glycolysis and glutaminolysis form the basis for the anti-CRC effect of triterpenoids. Network pharmacology was used to predict several key proteins in the metabolic pathways, which were further verified via western blot and metabolomics methods.Results: Our results showed that the total TER in R. chinensis remarkably inhibited the proliferation and apoptosis of SW620 cells. The top 4 compounds of TER (viz., betulinic acid-BTA, betulonic acid-BTOA, betulin-BT, and semialactic acid-SA) were confirmed through the detection of UPLC-MS and analysis of cell proliferation assays. Mechanistically, this study revealed that TER plays an anti-CRC role through key targets, such as ENO1, ALDOA, PFKFB3, PKM2, and LDHA, as well as key glycolytic and glutaminolytic pathways.Conclusion: Collectively, these results have provided new insights into the mechanism underlying anti-CRC effect of triterpenoids extract obtained from R. chinensis, mainly through combination of compositional quantitative analysis, network pharmacology, and experimental verification.

19.
Sci Total Environ ; 707: 135804, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862431

RESUMO

In recent years, Criegee chemistry has become an important research focus due to its relevance in regulating concentrations of tropospheric OH radicals, hydroperoxides, sulfates, nitrates, and aerosols. However, to date, its interface behavior remains poorly understood. Thus, in this study, we used the Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (BOMD) simulation method to explore the reaction mechanisms between Criegee intermediates (CIs) and methylsulfonic acid (MSA) at the air-water interface, then compared the observed behaviors with those in the gas phase. The addition of Criegee intermediates to MSA is nearly a barrierless reaction and follows a loop-structure mechanism in the gas phase. The high rate constants indicate that the Criegee intermediates and MSA reactions are the main acid removal channels. At the water's surface, the interaction of Criegee intermediates with MSA includes three main channels: 1) direct addition reaction, 2) H2O-mediated hydroperoxide formation, and 3) MSA-mediated Criegee hydration. These reaction channels follow a loop-structure or a stepwise mechanism and proceed at the picosecond time-scale. The results of this work broaden our understanding of Criegee atmospheric behaviors in polluted urban and marine areas, which in turn will aid in developing more effective pollution control measures.

20.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 149: 111843, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726272

RESUMO

In this paper, the hydrothermally grown ZnO nanowire array (NWs) was modified by Au nanoparticles (NPs) and CdS quantum dots (QDs) to construct a high-performance photoelectrochemical (PEC) electrode. The aligned ZnO NWs, which decorated Au NPs and CdS QDs have the effective light absorption range from UV to visible region. This hybrid structure provided a self-powered PEC electrode with a favorable energy-band configuration for fast charge separation and transportation. Meanwhile, the Au NPs and CdS QDs also made increase of the surface area to improve the immobilization of the analytes. After assembling aptamer as recognition element, this composite nanoarray was further developed as a self-powered PEC biosensor by synergizing above multiple enhancement factors. The PEC aptasensor exhibited a rapid response in a wide linear range of 10-107 CFU/mL with the detection limit as low as 1.125 CFU/mL to Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7). This approach would offer an alternative PEC transduction for fast environment monitoring and clinical diagnosis related to pathogenic bacteria.

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