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1.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 227, 2021 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low dietary fiber intake has been shown to disturb the gut microbiome community, damage the mucus barrier, and promote pathogen susceptibility. However, little is known about the temporal response of the gut microbiome to dietary fiber deprivation and the recovery induced by dietary fiber inclusion in pigs. OBJECTIVE: In the present study, temporal responses of ileal and fecal microbiota to dietary fiber deprivation were profiled using an ileum cannulated growing pig model. In addition, the potential of dietary-resistant starch, ß-glucan, and xylan to alleviate gut dysbiosis throughout the gastrointestinal tract, as well as its possible mechanisms were investigated. METHODS: Six cannulated growing pigs were fed a fiber deprivation diet for 35 days. Ileal digesta and feces were collected at days 0, 7, 21, and 35 for 16S rRNA sequencing and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) determination. Another twenty-four healthy growing pigs were assigned to one of four dietary treatments including (1) fiber-free diet, (2) resistant starch diet, (3) ß-glucan diet, and (4) xylan diet. These twenty-four pigs were fed a corresponding diet for 35 days and slaughtered. Gut microbiome and SCFA concentration were profiled along the gastrointestinal tract. RESULTS: Dietary fiber deprivation-induced consistent microbiota extinction, mainly Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, and decreased SCFA concentrations in both ileum and feces. The community structure partially recovered at day 35 compared with baseline while SCFA concentrations remained low. Xylan supplementation alleviated gut dysbiosis by selectively promoting Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum within the large intestine. SCFA concentration increased significantly after xylan supplementation and exhibited a positive association with B. pseudocatenulatum abundance. An elevated abundance of xylan degradation-related enzyme genes was also observed in the gut microbiome after xylan supplementation. In vitro growth assay further verified the xylan utilization capacity of B. pseudocatenulatum. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary fiber deprivation could induce probiotic extinction and loss of the SCFA production while potential pathogen was promoted. Xylan intervention could partially restore dietary fiber deprivation-induced gut dysbiosis through selectively promoting B. pseudocatenulatum and therefore normalizing the gut environment. These findings collectively provide evidence that dietary fiber-driven microbiota metabolism bridges the interplay between microbiome and gut health. Video abstract.

2.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 756299, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795650

RESUMO

Objective: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by gut microbiota dysbiosis, which is also frequently observed in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Whether gut microbiota dysbiosis in IBD patients promotes the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remains unclear. We aimed to explore the role of gut microbiota dysbiosis in the development of NASH in mice with dextran sulfate sodium salt (DSS) induced colitis. Design: Dextran sulfate sodium salt was used to induce colitis, and high fat (HF), in combination with a high-fructose diet, was used to induce NASH in C57BL/6J male mice. Mice were treated with (1%) DSS to induce colitis in cycles, and each cycle consisted of 7 days of DSS administration followed by a 10-day interval. The cycles were repeated throughout the experimental period of 19 weeks. Pathological alterations in colitis and NASH were validated by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), oil red O, Sirius red staining, and immunofluorescence. Gut microbiota was examined by 16S rRNA sequencing, and gene expression profiles of hepatic non-parenchymal cells (NPCs) were detected by RNA sequencing. Results: Dextran sulfate sodium salt administration enhanced the disruption of the gut-vascular barrier and aggravated hepatic inflammation and fibrosis in mice with NASH. DSS-induced colitis was accompanied by gut microbiota dysbiosis, characterized by alteration in the core microbiota composition. Compared with the HF group, the abundance of p_Proteobacteria and g_Bacteroides increased, while that of f_S24-7 decreased in the DSS + HF mice. Specifically, gut microbiota dysbiosis was characterized by enrichment of lipopolysaccharide producing bacteria and decreased abundance of short-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria. Gene expression analysis of liver NPCs indicated that compared with the HF group, genes related to both inflammatory response and angiocrine signaling were altered in the DSS + HF group. The expression levels of inflammation-related and vascular development genes correlated significantly with the abundance of p_Proteobacteria, g_Bacteroides, or f_S24-7 in the gut microbiota, implying that gut microbiota dysbiosis induced by DSS might aggravate hepatic inflammation and fibrosis by altering the gene expression in NPCs. Conclusion: Dextran sulfate sodium salt-induced colitis may promote the progression of liver inflammation and fibrosis by inducing microbiota dysbiosis, which triggers an inflammatory response and disrupts angiocrine signaling in liver NPCs. The abundance of gut microbiota was associated with expression levels of inflammation-related genes in liver NPCs and may serve as a potential marker for the progression of NASH.

3.
Technol Cancer Res Treat ; 20: 15330338211051552, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34657511

RESUMO

Background: When liver metastasis in patients with breast cancer is diagnosed, treatment is generally palliative and usually consists of systemic therapies only. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) combined with systemic chemotherapy in patients with breast carcinoma liver metastases (BCLM). Methods: From January 2012 to December 2019, HAI catheter systems were implanted under the guide of digital subtract angiography (DSA) in 19 patients with BCLM. All patients received systemic chemotherapy and HAI gemcitabine plus floxuridine (FUDR). Methods: The overall response rate (ORR) of intrahepatic lesions was 73.7%, including 2 patients (10.5%) with complete remission (CR) and 12 patients (63.2%) with partial remission (PR). Additionally, we found that young patients (age < 55 years) had a higher ORR than the older (100% vs 44.4%, P = .011). The median overall survival (mOS) was 13.1 months. Kaplan-Meier survival curves demonstrated that the mOS was not significantly different between patients with < 9 intrahepatic lesions and those with ≥ 9 lesions (13.7 months vs 10.9 months, P = .225). The mOS was 14.3 and 10.6 months for patients without extrahepatic metastases and with extrahepatic metastases, respectively (P = .016). None of the patients had grade 4 toxicity. The grade 3 toxicities included leucopenia, neutropenia and diarrhea. Conclusions: HAI gemcitabine plus FUDR combined with systemic chemotherapy is effective in achieving a high local response and prolonging mOS for patients with BCLM and is associated with a relatively low rate of toxicity.

4.
FASEB J ; 35(11): e21977, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613640

RESUMO

Xylo-oligosaccharide (XOS), which is considered as a potential prebiotic, exhibits multiple beneficial effects on modulation of gut microbiota, strength of intestinal barrier, and inhibition of intestinal inflammation. The objective of this study is to investigate whether XOS protects against Salmonella infection by modulating gut microbiota, enhancing the intestinal barrier, and resisting colonization. C57BL/6 male mice received water supplementation with 5% XOS for 14 days before Salmonella Typhimurium infection. The results showed that XOS suppressed the Salmonella-induced inflammation, but had limited effects on tight junction molecules and mRNA expression of mucus proteins, except for claudin-1 in the colon. Data of 16S rDNA sequencing indicated that XOS modulated gut microbiota composition by significantly stimulating Bifidobacterium animalis (B. animalis), and reducing Salmonella counts. Therefore, the potential protective effects of B. animalis against Salmonella challenge were investigated as well. Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis BB-12 (BB12), which could markedly increase in XOS, was selected to treat mice. Similarly, Salmonella-induced inflammatory reactions were alleviated by BB12 but tight junction molecules and mucin proteins in the colonic tissues were not affected. Administration of BB12 remarkably decreased the copies of Salmonella in cecal digesta post Salmonella infection. Additionally, the decrease concentrations of cecal propionate and total short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in Salmonella-infected mice were reversed by BB12 treatment, and propionate performed a strong inhibitory effect on Salmonella growth in vitro. Besides that, BB12 could directly restrict Salmonella proliferation in vitro. Moreover, BB12 reduced the adhesion ability of Salmonella on the Caco-2 cells model. Our results suggest that XOS could be considered as a candidate of functional food to protect against Salmonella infection by stimulating Bifidobacterium, which then resists Salmonella colonization by maintaining the intestinal SCFAs levels and suppressing adhesibility.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Probióticos , Infecções por Salmonella/tratamento farmacológico , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos , Xilose , Animais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Probióticos/farmacologia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Xilose/análogos & derivados , Xilose/farmacologia , Xilose/uso terapêutico
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(20)2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34681680

RESUMO

Effective cancer therapies should reshape immunosuppression and trigger antitumor immunity. Previously, we developed a novel cryo-thermal therapy through applying local rapid cooling followed by rapid heating of tumor tissue. It could not only ablate local tumors, but also, subsequently, induce systemic long-term antitumor immunity. Hyperthermia can induce the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) to stimulate antitumor immunity. We examine whether EVs are released after cryo-thermal therapy and whether they could improve the efficacy of cryo-thermal therapy in the 4T1 model. In this study, serum extracellular vesicles (sEVs) are isolated and characterized 3 h after cryo-thermal therapy of subcutaneous tumors. sEV phagocytosis is observed in vitro and in vivo by using laser confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. After cryo-thermal therapy, sEVs are administered to mice via the tail vein, and changes in immune cells are investigated by using flow cytometry. After cryo-thermal therapy, a large number of sEVs are released to the periphery carrying danger signals and tumor antigens, and these sEVs could be phagocytosed by peripheral blood monocytes and differentiated macrophages. After cryo-thermal therapy, supplementation with sEVs released after treatment promotes the differentiation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), monocytes into macrophages and CD4+ T cells into the Th1 subtype, as well as prolonging the long-term survival of the 4T1 subcutaneous tumor-bearing mice. sEVs released after cryo-thermal tumor treatment could clinically serve as an adjuvant in subsequent cryo-thermal therapy to improve the therapeutic effects on malignant tumors.

6.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 184, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alteration of the gut microbiota may contribute to the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major bioactive constituent of green tea, is known to be beneficial in IBD alleviation. However, it is unclear whether the gut microbiota exerts an effect when EGCG attenuates IBD. RESULTS: We first explored the effect of oral or rectal EGCG delivery on the DSS-induced murine colitis. Our results revealed that anti-inflammatory effect and colonic barrier integrity were enhanced by oral, but not rectal, EGCG. We observed a distinct EGCG-mediated alteration in the gut microbiome by increasing Akkermansia abundance and butyrate production. Next, we demonstrated that the EGCG pre-supplementation induced similar beneficial outcomes to oral EGCG administration. Prophylactic EGCG attenuated colitis and significantly enriched short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs)-producing bacteria such as Akkermansia and SCFAs production in DSS-induced mice. To validate these discoveries, we performed fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and sterile fecal filtrate (SFF) to inoculate DSS-treated mice. Microbiota from EGCG-dosed mice alleviated the colitis over microbiota from control mice and SFF shown by superiorly anti-inflammatory effect and colonic barrier integrity, and also enriched bacteria such as Akkermansia and SCFAs. Collectively, the attenuation of colitis by oral EGCG suggests an intimate involvement of SCFAs-producing bacteria Akkermansia, and SCFAs, which was further demonstrated by prophylaxis and FMT. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first data indicating that oral EGCG ameliorated the colonic inflammation in a gut microbiota-dependent manner. Our findings provide novel insights into EGCG-mediated remission of IBD and EGCG as a potential modulator for gut microbiota to prevent and treat IBD. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Colite , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfato de Dextrana , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Homeostase , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Chá
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34576115

RESUMO

Immunotherapy has emerged as a therapeutic pillar in tumor treatment, but only a minority of patients get benefit. Overcoming the limitations of immunosuppressive environment is effective for immunotherapy. Moreover, host T cell activation and longevity within tumor are required for the long-term efficacy. In our previous study, a novel cryo-thermal therapy was developed to improve long-term survival in B16F10 melanoma and s.q. 4T1 breast cancer mouse models. We determined that cryo-thermal therapy induced Th1-dominant CD4+ T cell differentiation and the downregulation of Tregs in B16F10 model, contributing to tumor-specific and long-lasting immune protection. However, whether cryo-thermal therapy can affect the differentiation and function of T cells in a s.q. 4T1 model remains unknown. In this study, we also found that cryo-thermal therapy induced Th1-dominant differentiation of CD4+ T cells and the downregulation of effector Tregs. In particular, cryo-thermal therapy drove the fragility of Tregs and impaired their function. Furthermore, we discovered the downregulated level of serum tumor necrosis factor-α at the late stage after cryo-thermal therapy which played an important role in driving Treg fragility. Our findings revealed that cryo-thermal therapy could reprogram the suppressive environment and induce strong and durable antitumor immunity, which facilitate the development of combination strategies in immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Crioterapia , Regulação para Baixo , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Imunossupressão , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Metástase Neoplásica , Testes de Neutralização , Fenótipo , Ablação por Radiofrequência , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
8.
Food Funct ; 12(21): 10459-10469, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550161

RESUMO

Fiber ingestion during the suckling period is helpful for gut development and probiotic colonization. Xylooligosaccharides (Xos) and xylan (Xyl) were selected to investigate the effects of different polymerization degree fiber ingestion on the growth performance and microbiota fermentation capacity of pre- and post-weanling piglets. An in vitro fermentation trial was also conducted to verify the microbial fermentation capacity of weanling piglet fecal microbiota. Results showed that Xos and Xyl ingestion had no significant effect on the piglet body weight and D-lactate level in the plasma at 21 d during the suckling period. After weaning, piglets in the Xyl group had a lower average daily gain (ADG) (P < 0.05), vitro dry matter (DM) fermentability (P < 0.05) and activity of xylanase (P < 0.05) than the control and Xos groups. The Xos group had no significant difference in the ADG when compared with the control group, but a significantly lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) (P < 0.05) than the control group, which means a high feed efficiency in the Xos group. The highest carbohydrate digestion and absorption ability of fecal microbiota (P < 0.05) was found in the Xos group. Meanwhile, the Xos group had the highest butyrate production ability (P < 0.05) and activity of xylanase (P < 0.05) during in vitro fermentation. The ingestion of Xyl during the suckling period had negative effects on the feed efficiency and hindgut fermentation capacity of weanling piglets. Xylooligosaccharide ingestion to suckling piglets improves growth performance and feed efficiency after weaning through increasing the fermentation capacity of microbiota and fiber-degrading enzyme secretion.

9.
Contrast Media Mol Imaging ; 2021: 2529936, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34377103

RESUMO

This study was to explore the risk factors and prognosis of early neurological deterioration (END) after intravenous thrombolysis in patients with cerebral ischemic stroke (CIS) with the guidance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) under the compressed sensing-MRI (CSMRI) algorithm. 187 patients with CIS in the hospital were selected and grouped into a deterioration group and a control group according to whether they had END. The CSMRI algorithm was constructed and compared with digital television (DTV) algorithm and Bayesian compressed sensing (BCS) algorithm. It was found that the reconstruction time of CSMRI algorithm in platform I (1134.9 s) and platform II (2615.8 s) was visibly lower than that of DTV algorithm (2634.6 s, 3963.4 s) and BCS algorithm (5631.5 s, 7412.3 s), showing statistically obvious differences (P < 0.05). In addition, the reconstruction efficiency of the CSMRI algorithm was the best. After 4 hours of intravenous thrombolysis, the stroke scale score (12.3 scores) of the deterioration group was much higher than that of the control group (8.4 scores) (P < 0.05). The occlusion of responsible great vessel in the deterioration group (30 cases, 83.33%) was obviously higher in contrast to that in the control group (74 cases, 49%) (P < 0.05). Stroke scale score and occlusion of responsible great vessel were risk factors for EBD after intravenous thrombolysis.

10.
Am J Transl Res ; 13(7): 7743-7755, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34377251

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the impact of an improved prehospital emergency medical service system (EMSS) on the time management of chest pain (CP) patients in the Emergency Department in our hospital and define the role of the improved prehospital EMSS in the treatment of CP patients. METHODS: All patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing coronary artery stent placement (CASP) in our hospital from August 2011 to December 2012 were included in this study, and were randomly divided into a study group (SG) and control group (COG) by the random number table method. The critical time periods [e.g., time to dispatch ambulance upon the receipt of the call to 120, time from hospital entrance to the Emergency Department, time from arrival at hospital to: first treatment, to first electrocardiogram (ECG), to monitoring of vital signs, to establishment of venous access device (VAD), and to entrance to catheter room in the two groups were sorted out for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Improved prehospital EMSS can markedly shorten the time to dispatch ambulance upon the receipt of the call to 120, time from hospital entrance to the Emergency Department, and time to first treatment, time to first ECG, to monitoring of vital signs, to establishment of VAD, and to entrance to the catheter room; it also prolonged the 5-year survival rate (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Improved prehospital EMSS can significantly improve the time management of CP patients in the Emergency Department.

11.
Int J Phytoremediation ; : 1-17, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461783

RESUMO

To solve the problem of harvesting microalgae during heavy metal adsorption, six different carriers were selected in this study to compare the adsorption behavior of microalgae after immobilization. The results of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and adsorption showed chitosan as a carrier showed the best immobilization effect and adsorption advantages after immobilizing microalgae. The optimal immobilized carrier-chitosan was obtained under the following conditions of chitosan: acetic acid (2:40), microalgae concentration (108 cells mL-1), and immobilization time (18 h). The optimal adsorption conditions were as follows: temperature: 30 °C, pH: 7.0, adsorption dose: 1.5 g L-1, initial ion concentration: 40 mg L-1. The adsorption capacity of metal ions can reach 37.1 mg g-1 Cr(VI), 25.98 mg g-1 Cu(II), 25.06 mg g-1 Pb(II), and 24.62 mg g-1 Cd(II), respectively. The desorption efficiency in 0.5 mol L-1 NaOH desorption solution reached 90.01%. After five adsorption-desorption cycles, excluding chitosan (∼70%), the adsorption efficiency of other adsorbents decreased with an increase in the recycling times. Chitosan was a suitable carrier for the immobilization of Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectra analysis showed that groups belonging to the microalgae were detected after the microalgae in different carriers, indicating that the microalgae were immobilized with the carriers. At the same time, the energy spectrum changed before and after adsorption indicated the specific functional groups of microalgae played an important role in the adsorption process. The kinetic and isothermal model data showed that the adsorption process was mainly chemical adsorption and homogeneous monolayer adsorption. Moreover, X-ray diffraction showed the interlayer peak strength decreased significantly, indicating that the interlayer structure was stretched after Cr(VI) ion exchange. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed that the Cr adsorption process involves the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Novelty statement The application of immobilization technology in various aspects of microalgae has attracted the attention of researchers. At present, the research report mainly focuses on the parameter optimization of microalgae immobilized by the carrier, but there are few reports on the comparison of different carriers for microalgae immobilization and the study on the adsorption mechanism of heavy metals by the optimal carrier for microalgae immobilization. In this study, six different carriers were selected to compare the effects of microalgae immobilization, and the optimal carrier was obtained. To further explore the optimal synthesis parameters of the suitable carrier, the optimal adsorption parameters for heavy metals, desorption efficiency, and recycling effect, explore the adsorption mechanism, and provide a feasible basis and theoretical guidance for the extensive application of microalgae immobilization technology in the industry.

12.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 35(9): e23935, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neutral-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) are associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and many diseases, but there are few data about the reference interval (RI) of NLR, LMR, and PLR. METHODS: The neutrophil count, lymphocyte count, monocyte count, and platelet count of 404,272 Chinese healthy adults (>18 years old) were measured by Sysmex XE-2100 automatic hematology analyzer, and NLR, LMR, and PLR were calculated. According to CLSI C28-A3, the nonparametric 95% percentile interval is defined as the reference interval. RESULTS: The results of Mann-Whitney U test showed that NLR (p < .001) in male was significantly higher than that in female; LMR (p < .001) and PLR (p < .001) in male were significantly lower than that in female. Kruskal-Wallis H test showed that there were significant differences in NLR, LMR, and PLR among different genders and age groups (p < .001). The linear graph showed that the reference upper limit of NLR and PLR increased with age and the reference upper limit of LMR decreases with age in male population. In female population, the reference upper limit of NLR in 50-59 group, LMR in >80 group, and PLR in 70-79 group appeared a trough; the reference upper limit of NLR in >80 group, LMR in 50-59 group, and PLR in 40-49 group appeared peak. CONCLUSION: The establishment of RI for NLR, LMR, and PLR in Chinese healthy adults according to gender and age will promote the standardization of clinical application.


Assuntos
Contagem de Leucócitos/estatística & dados numéricos , Contagem de Linfócitos/estatística & dados numéricos , Monócitos , Neutrófilos , Contagem de Plaquetas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/sangue , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores Sexuais
13.
Nanotechnology ; 32(47)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315143

RESUMO

Intrinsic two-dimensional (2D) magnetic materials own strong long-range magnetism while their characteristics of the ultrathin thickness and smooth surface provide an ideal platform for manipulating the magnetic properties at 2D limit. This makes them to be potential candidates in various spintronic applications compared to their corresponding bulk counterparts. The discovery of magnetic ordering in 2D CrI3and Gr2Ge2Te6nanostructures stimulated tremendous research interest in both experimental and theoretical studies on various intrinsic magnets at 2D limit. This review gives a comprehensive overview of the recent progress on the emergent 2D magnets and heterostructures. Firstly, several kinds of typical 2D magnetic materials discovered in the last few years and their fabrication methods are summarized in detail. Secondly, the current strategies for manipulating magnetic properties in 2D materials are further discussed. Then, the recent advances on the construction of representative van der Waals magnetic heterostructures and their respective performance are provided. With the hope of motivating the researchers in this area, we finally offered the challenges and outlook on 2D magnetism.

14.
Mol Neurobiol ; 58(10): 5163-5177, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34263426

RESUMO

Accumulating evidences indicate that long non-coding RNA nuclear paraspeckle assembly transcript 1 (NEAT1) promotes the progression of glioma. In this study, we postulated that NEAT1 may act as a miR-128-3p sponge. Relative levels of NEAT1 and miR-128-3p expression in human glioma samples and GBM cells were detected using quantitative real-time PCR. By means of CCK-8 assays, transwell assays, and flow cytometric analysis, the biological functions of miR-128-3p and NEAT1 were investigated in U87MG and U251MG human GBM cell lines with stable miR-128-3p and NEAT1 knockdown or overexpression. The luciferase reports, RNA pull-down assay, and RNA immunoprecipitation assay were conducted to determine the relevance of NEAT1 and miR-128-3p in glioma. As a result, high expression of NEAT1 and lack of miR-128-3p were observed in glioma specimens and cells. By binding to anti-oncogene miR-128-3p in the nucleus, NEAT1 enhanced tumorigenesis and glioma development. Further experiments suggested that ITGA5 expression was increased in glioma tissues and was found to be connected with miR-128-3p. Additionally, NEAT1 facilitated ITGA5 expression via competitively binding to miR-128-3p. For this reason, ITGA5 would not be decomposed by miR-128-3p and could activate FAK signaling pathway, thereby promoting cell growth. Collectively, these results indicated that the NEAT1/miR-128-3p/ITGA5 axis was involved in glioma initiation and progression, and might offer a potential novel strategy for treatment of glioma.

15.
Anim Nutr ; 7(2): 346-355, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34258422

RESUMO

Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) possesses various nutritional and biological benefits for mammals, whereas its effects on neonatal gut microbiota and barrier integrity remained unclear. This study investigated the effects of MFGM administration on microbial compositions and intestinal barrier functions of neonatal piglets. Sixteen newborn piglets were randomly allocated into a CON group or MFGM group, orally administered with saline or MFGM solution (1 g/kg body weight) respectively during the first postnatal week, and all piglets were breastfed during the whole neonatal period. The present study found that the MFGM oral administration during the first postnatal week increased the plasma immunoglobulin (Ig) G level, body weight and average daily gain of piglets (P < 0.05) on 21 d. Additionally, MFGM administration enriched fecal SCFA-producing bacteria (Ruminococ aceae_UCG-002, Ruminococ aceae_UCG-010, Ruminococ aceae_UCG-004, Ruminococ aceae_UCG-014 and [Ruminococcus]_gauvrearuii_group), SCFA concentrations (acetate, propionate and butyrate; P < 0.05) and their receptor (G-protein coupled receptor 41, GPR41). Furthermore, MFGM administration promoted intestinal villus morphology (P < 0.05) and barrier functions by upregulating genes of tight junctions (E-cadherin, claudin-1, occludin and zonula occludin 1 [ZO-1]), mucins (mucin-13 and mucin-20) and interleukin (IL)-22 (P < 0.05). Positive correlation was found between the beneficial microbes and SCFA levels pairwise with the intestinal barrier genes (P < 0.05). In conclusion, orally administrating MFGM during the first postnatal week stimulated SCFA-producing bacteria colonization and SCFA generation, enhanced intestinal barrier functions and consequently improved growth performance of neonatal piglets on 21 d. Our findings will provide new insights about MFGM intervention for microbial colonization and intestinal development of neonates during their early life.

17.
Food Funct ; 12(16): 7260-7270, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34165467

RESUMO

The benefits of galactooligosaccharides (GOS) in neonates have been confirmed. However, the effects of nutritional programming by maternal GOS intervention on microbial colonization and intestinal development in the offspring remain unclear. In the present study, late gestational sows were fed with GOS (10 g d-1 added into the diet) or not until parturition, and the performances, immune status, microbiota composition and intestinal barriers in their piglets on day 21 were compared. GOS supplementation in pregnant sows improved their litter characteristics and the growth performance of their piglets during the neonatal stage (day 21), and elevated the plasma IgA levels in both sows and their piglets (P < 0.05). GOS intervention enriched fecal Alloprevotella and Ruminoclostridium_1 in gestational sows and vertically increased fecal Alloprevotella and Ruminococcaceae in their piglets (P < 0.05). Moreover, maternal GOS intervention increased fecal acetate (P < 0.05) and improved the intestinal barriers of their piglets by upregulating intestinal tight junctions (Occludin, Claudin-1, ZO-1), the goblet cell number and Mucin-2 (P < 0.05), which correlated positively with the colonized microbiota (P < 0.05). In summary, GOS supplementation for sows during late gestation nutritionally programmed maternal specific microbes and IgA of their offspring. This neonatal programming showed positive potential in promoting the intestinal barriers, immune defense, and growth performance of the piglets. Our findings provide evidence for maternal nutritional programming in neonates and insights for future application of GOS in maternal-neonatal nutrition.

18.
Microorganisms ; 9(5)2021 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065679

RESUMO

Non-digestible polysaccharides are of great significance to human and animal intestinal health. Cellulose, arabinoxylan, ß-glucan and glucomannan were selected in the present study to investigate the fermentation characteristics and fiber-degrading enzyme kinetics by inoculating pig fecal microbiota in vitro. Our results showed that fermentation of arabinoxylan and ß-glucan produced the highest amount of acetate and lactate, respectively. The abundance of Prevotella_9 was the highest in ß-glucan group and positively correlated with lactate and acetate. Glucomannan fermentation produced the highest amount of butyrate, and the abundance of Lachnospiraceae_XPB_1014_group and Bacteroides were the lowest. A significant negative correlation was found between Lachnospiraceae_XPB_1014_group, Bacteroides and butyrate. Exo-ß-1,4-xylanase had the highest activity at 24 h during arabinoxylan fermentation. The activity of ß-glucosidase and ß-mannosidase at 36 h were higher than those at 15 h in the glucomannan group. The abundance of Prevotella_9 was positively correlated with ß-glucosidase while Lachnospiraceae_XPB_1014_group and Bacteroides were negatively correlated with ß-xylosidase. Our findings demonstrated the ß-glucan and arabinoxylan promote proliferation of Prevotella_9, with the preference to secret ß-glucosidase, ß-mannosidase and the potential to produce lactate and acetate. Butyrate production can be improved by inhibiting the proliferation of Lachnospiraceae_XPB_1014_group and Bacteroides, which have the lack of potential to secret ß-xylosidase.

19.
J Immunol Res ; 2021: 6658324, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34095321

RESUMO

Primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS) is an autoimmune disease that invades lacrimal glands, salivary glands, and other exocrine glands, but its pathogenic mechanism is still unclear. CD4+CD8+ double-positive T (DPT) cells have been discovered in recent years to play an important role in autoimmune diseases and viral infections, but the frequency and significance of DPT in primary Sjogren's syndrome are still unclear. This study detected the frequency of DPT in the peripheral blood of patients with pSS and detected the clinical indicators and cytokines in patients. We then analyzed the correlation between DPT and clinical indicators, cytokines, and disease activity scores. The results showed that the peripheral DPT frequency of pSS patients was significantly higher than that of healthy controls. The peripheral DPT frequency was negatively correlated with ESR, IgA, and IgG, and peripheral DPT frequency was positively correlated with anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Analysis of DPT and pSS disease activity scores found that DPT frequency had a negative correlation with ESSDAI and SSDAI. This study suggests that peripheral DPT may play a protective role in pSS. The frequency of peripheral DPT cells can be used as an indicator for disease activity. Regulating the expression of peripheral DPT cells is expected to become a new strategy for treatment of pSS.

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