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1.
Food Chem ; 366: 130584, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293541

RESUMO

Monofloral safflower honey (MSH), produced from nectar of the medicinal Carthamus tinctorius L., has been shown with excellent nutritional value and biological activity. However, current MSH authenticity verification is insufficient. Herein, we fully characterized MSH from a metabolomic perspective and proposed a chemical marker for its authentication. Using palynological analysis, we confirmed the botanical origin of MSH. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/Q-TOF-MS) was applied further to compare MSH/safflower components. MSH and safflowers shared 1297 tentatively identified compounds, of which safflomin A was identified as a reliable characteristic indicator. When applied to commercial non-safflower honeys, none tested safflomin A positive. Solid phase extraction coupled UHPLC/Q-TOF-MS method revealed the LOD and LOQ of safflomin A in MSH to be 0.006 and 0.02 mg/kg, respectively, with concentrations ranging from 0.86 to 3.91 mg/kg. Collectively, safflomin A can be applied as a chemical marker for fingerprinting the botanical origin of safflower honey.

2.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1177: 338786, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482889

RESUMO

Biological thiols importantly regulate the intracellular redox activity and metabolic level, but many of the developed probes for biothiols are facing difficulty in effectively distinguishing GSH from Cys/Hcy due to the similarity in mechanism. In this work, despite the previous pattern of "Logic Gate", we reported the concept of "Fluorescence Fusion" for the first time to achieve only one excitation-emission process. The exploited the probe, MZ-NBD, could quickly measure GSH in 10 min with a large Stokes shift (130 nm). Though the reacting mechanism was similar, only GSH could cause the "Fluorescence Fusion" with only one strong fluorescence response while Cys/Hcy caused two peaks. Adjusting the excitation wavelength could hardly split the fused peak into two. Though image recognition by artificial intelligence could easily distinguish the patterns of peaks, here we used the signal-treating method to realize the high selectivity towards GSH. Moreover, MZ-NBD could be utilized for rapid detection of GSH in living MCF-7 cells, which was more suitable for GSH than using the "Logic Gate" strategy. More than introducing a novel probe with the new concept, this work was meaningful as the linker of traditional reaction-based fluorescent probes and potential image recognition by artificial intelligence, thus led to various future researches in inter-disciplines.


Assuntos
Cisteína , Glutationa , Inteligência Artificial , Fluorescência , Corantes Fluorescentes , Glutationa/isolamento & purificação , Homocisteína , Humanos , Células MCF-7
3.
Water Res ; 204: 117609, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509866

RESUMO

Reservoirs have boomed for clean energy in recent decades and interrupted the natural river ecosystem severely. Riverine dissolved organic matter (DOM), which regulates aquatic food web dynamics, water quality, and carbon storage, has been significantly impacted by reservoir construction. However, the vertical evolution of DOM properties and its controlling mechanisms in large reservoirs with hydrological management are not well investigated, limiting the understanding of carbon cycling (e.g., CO2 emissions and carbon burial) in reservoirs. To fill this knowledge gap, multiple complementary techniques including optical spectroscopy and ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry were applied to track composition and property changes of DOM along the vertical profile in a large deep tributary of the world largest Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) during the water-level rising period. The results indicated that middle and bottom water have relatively more terrestrial input and recalcitrant DOM, while surface water has relatively more autochthonous input and labile DOM. Integrated with the comprehensive analysis of DOM chemistry in a high-resolution vertical profile, the primary production and photodegradation in surface water, the density currents induced water intrusion from mainstream to tributaries, in middle water, and the biodegradation in bottom water are main factors controlling the vertical heterogeneity of reservoir DOM during the water-level rising period. This vertical increase of DOM recalcitrance likely contributes to the enhancement of organic carbon burial in TGR during the water-level rising period. All in all, this study provides new insight into the vertical variations of riverine DOM induced by reservoir construction, and emphasizes the important role of reservoir construction in carbon sequestration.

4.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 100: 108097, 2021 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521024

RESUMO

Zearalenone (ZEA) is a secondary metabolite produced by fungi such as Fusarium and Fusarium flavum, which is classified as a mycotoxin. Crops and feed in a humid surrounding are widely polluted by ZEA, which further endangering the healthful aquaculture of poultry and even human health. Up to now, prevention and cure of mycotoxicosis is still a crucial subject of poultry husbandry. Baicalin (BAI) is a flavonoid refined from dried roots of Scutellaria baicalensis possessing the function of hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-atherosclerotic efficacies.etc. But whether Baicalin also has a protective effect against ZEA intoxication is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish a model of ZEA-induced toxic injury in chicks, and then to investigate the way in which Baicalin plays a protective role in the mechanism of ZEA-induced liver and kidney injury in chicks. The results exhibit that Baicalin could not only significantly decrease aspartate aminotransferase (AST) , alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and creatinine (Cre) levels in serum, but also ameliorate ZEA-induced pathologic changes of liver and kidney. Baicalin could also significantly regulate ZEA-induced the changes of catalase (CAT) , malondialdehyde (MDA) , total sulfhydryl group , except for glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) , and inhibit the mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) , interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) with caspase-3 and caspase-11 in the caspase signaling pathway , meanwhile inhibit the cell apoptosis in immunohistochemistry. In summary, we successfully established a model of ZEA-induced liver injury in chicks, and confirm that Baicalin can reduce ZEA-induced liver and kidney injury in chicks. The mechanism of these effects is via inhibiting inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis, which also indicates the potential applicability of Baicalin for the prevention and treatment of ZEA-induced toxicity in chicks.

5.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521699

RESUMO

Etomidate is a potent and rapidly acting anesthetic with high therapeutic index (TI) and superior hemodynamic stability. However, side-effect of suppressing adrenocortical function limits its clinical use. To overcome this side-effect, we designed a novel etomidate analogue EL-0052, aiming to retain beneficial properties of etomidate and avoid its disadvantage of suppressing adrenocortical steroid synthesis. Results exhibited that EL-0052 enhanced GABAA receptors currents with a concentration for 50% of maximal effect (EC50) of 0.98 {plus minus} 0.02 µM, which was about three times more potent than etomidate (3.07 {plus minus} 1.67 µM). Similar to hypnotic potency of etomidate, EL-0052 exhibited loss of righting reflex (LORR) with ED50s of 1.02 (0.93-1.20) mg/kg in rats, and 0.5 (0.45-0.56) mg/kg in dogs. The TI of EL-0052 in rats was 28, higher than 22 of etomidate. There was no significant difference in hypnotic onset time, recovery time and walking time between EL-0052 and etomidate in rats. Both of them had minor effects on mean arterial pressure (MAP) in dogs. EL-0052 had no significant effect on adrenocortical function in dogs even at a high dose (4.3×ED50), whereas etomidate significantly inhibited corticosteroid secretion. The inhibition of cortisol synthesis assay showed that EL-0052 had a weak inhibition on cortisol biosynthesis in human H259 cells with a half inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 1050 {plus minus} 100 nM, which was 2.09 {plus minus} 0.27 nM for etomidate. EL-0052 retains the favorable properties of etomidate, including potent hypnotic effect, rapid onset and recovery, stable hemodynamics and high therapeutic index without suppression of adrenocortical function. Significance Statement The novel etomidate analogue EL-0052 retains the favorable properties of etomidate without suppressing adrenocortical function and provides a new strategy to optimize the structure of etomidate.

6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5445, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521854

RESUMO

Soybean (Glycine max) serves as a major source of protein and edible oils worldwide. The genetic and genomic bases of the adaptation of soybean to tropical regions remain largely unclear. Here, we identify the novel locus Time of Flowering 16 (Tof16), which confers delay flowering and improve yield at low latitudes and determines that it harbors the soybean homolog of LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY). Tof16 and the previously identified J locus genetically additively but independently control yield under short-day conditions. More than 80% accessions in low latitude harbor the mutations of tof16 and j, which suggests that loss of functions of Tof16 and J are the major genetic basis of soybean adaptation into tropics. We suggest that maturity and yield traits can be quantitatively improved by modulating the genetic complexity of various alleles of the LHY homologs, J and E1. Our findings uncover the adaptation trajectory of soybean from its temperate origin to the tropics.

7.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 143: 112087, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474339

RESUMO

Stress during pregnancy is not only detrimental to a woman's own physical and mental health, but can also cause changes in the intrauterine environment and even have an impact on later growth and development, this study was designed to understand the changes of gut microbiota in the maternal and offspring caused by prenatal chronic stress, and to explore the regulatory effect of LBP on gut microbiota, and then to improve the emotional damage caused by prenatal chronic stress in the offspring. A rat model of prenatal chronic stress was made and used LBP to intervene by gavage. Fresh feces of offspring were collected, the concentration of microbial metabolites were tested by ELISA. Illumina MiSeqPE300 sequencing technology was used to determine the sequence of 16S rRNA V3-V4 of microorganisms. On the PND 42, the emotional function of offspring were tested by open-field test (OFT), sucrose preference test (SPT) and tail of suspend test (TST). Results indicated that stress factors increased the plasma corticosterone level of rats during pregnancy and they appeared depressive behaviors. The body weight of offspring during prenatal chronic stress was lower than the control group, and the plasma corticosterone level was increased. Prenatal chronic stress had a significant impact on emotional performance of the offspring on OFT, SPT and TST. Alpha diversity of gut microbiota and microbiota composition in offspring of prenatal chronic stress was attenuated and some relationships existed between these parameters. LBP treatment reduced offspring's plasma corticosterone level and improved their body weight, changed the emotional function, increased the diversity of gut microbiota. Collectively, these findings disclose that prenatal chronic stress not only causes emotional injury on the offspring, but also changes the gut microbiota of the mother and offspring; LBP may regulate the intestinal flora of the mother, then reducing the influence of stress factors on the emotional injury of offspring.

8.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 190: 11-18, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478791

RESUMO

The development of advanced energy storage systems, such as rechargeable batteries and supercapacitors (SCs), is one of the great challenges related to energy demand with the rapid development of world economy. Herein, a three-dimensional hierarchical porous lignin-derived carbon/WO3 (HPC/WO3) was prepared by carbonization and solvothermal process. This electrode material for supercapacitor can be operated at a wide voltage window range of -0.4 V to 1.0 V. More importantly, 3HPC/WO3 with ultrahigh mass loading (~3.56 mg cm-2) has excellent specific capacitance of 432 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1 and cycling stability of 86.6% after 10,000 cycles at 10 A g-1. The as-assembled asymmetrical supercapacitor shows an energy density of 34.2 W h kg-1 at a power density of 237 W kg-1 and energy density of 16 W h kg-1 at a power density is 14,300 W kg-1. A solid-state planar micro-supercapacitor (MSC) was fabricated using HPC/WO3 nanocomposites. Moreover, the calculated specific capacity of MSC was 20 mF cm-2 in polyvinyl alcohol-sulfuric acid gel electrolyte. Overall, through the reasonable design of HPC/WO3 nanocomposite materials and the efficient assembly of MSCs, the performance of the device was greatly improved, thus providing a clear strategy for the development of energy storage devices.

9.
Math Biosci Eng ; 18(5): 6961-6977, 2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517566

RESUMO

This paper elucidates that the AIDS/HIV incidence rate differences exist among different population and regions, especially among the old and college students. Due to the effect of age, the AIDS incidence peak in males aged 20-35 years and 50 years old both in Chongqing and Shenzhen, and the incidence rate and increasing spread in males was higher than that of females under period effect. In the local population in Chongqing and Shenzhen, the incidence rate of males in over 40, below and in the whole age groups are predicted to increase sharply in the future six years, while in females, the incidence rates among over 40-year-old and the whole age groups were predicted to increase as well. The incidence rate among homosexually transmitted patients reaches the peak in the 20-35, the incidence rate of patients transmitted through heterosexual reaches the peak around 50-year-old. Under the effect of period, AIDS/HIV incidence rate of patients transmitted through sexual routes showed an upward trend both in Chongqing and Shenzhen. The incidence rate of patients aged between 41 and 70 years old presents with an upward trend in the future six years. The results show great differences exist in the AIDS/HIV incidence between males and females, therefore it is necessary to take specific measures respectively.

10.
J Neurosci Res ; 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510531

RESUMO

Cognitive impairments are characteristics of patients with white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), and hypoperfusion is currently a relatively recognized mechanism of WMHs. Brain activity is closely coupled to the regulation of local blood flow. This study aimed to investigate the abnormal local brain activity of patients with WMHs from the viewpoint of the static amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (sALFF) and dynamic amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (dALFF). Seventy-four patients with WMHs and 35 healthy controls (HCs) were included. Based on the Fazekas scale, patients with WMHs were further divided into a mild WMH group (n = 33, Fazekas score 1-2) and moderate-severe WMH group (n = 41, Fazekas score 3-6). The sALFF and dALFF values were calculated separately and neuropsychological tests including the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), Trail Making Test (TMT), and Boston Naming Test (BNT) were completed by all participants. Patients with WMHs showed increased sALFF and dALFF values in the bilateral thalamus and decreased performance in the MoCA test, AVLT-immediate, AVLT-delay, AVLT-recognition, TMT-A, and BNT. The dALFF values in the bilateral thalamus was correlated with the MoCA in HCs. The sALFF values in the bilateral thalamus correlated with TMT-B in patients with WMHs. Patients with WMHs showed abnormal brain activity and decreased functional stability of the bilateral thalamus, which may be a potential mechanism of decreased executive function.

11.
Cancer Biomark ; 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511489

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore the exact molecular mechanisms underline osteosarcoma (OS) patients with lung metastases. METHODS: The differentially expressed gene (DEG) as well as differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) for OS lung metastases were deeply investigated with two independent sources of databases (GEO dataset and clinical participants); The enriched biological processes and signaling pathways were explored; the miRNAs-mRNAs network was constructed; the functions of potential DEGs and DEMs were also verified with external analysis. RESULTS: The OS patients with lung metastases displayed 323 DEGs as C-C motif chemokine ligand 3 (CCL3), sorting nexin 10 (SNX10), alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M), carboxypeptidase E (CPE), Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor 4 (RAPGEF4), PDZ domain containing 2 (PDZD2), calpain 10 (CAPN10), four and a half LIM domains 2 (FHL2), alkaline phosphatase, biomineralization associated (ALPL), interleukin 6 (IL6), solute carrier family 26 member 1 (SLC26A1) as well as smoothened, frizzled class receptor (SMO) were significant differentially expressed. At the same time, 21 DEMs were potential for the progress of OS lung metastasis with hsa-miR-638, hsa-miR-451, hsa-miR-486-5p, hsa-miR-134 and hsa-miR-648 were significant distinct. It could been shown that hsa-miR-638 manipulated the largest number of target genes. The functions of hsa-miR-638 and target mRNAs for the development of lung metastasis in OS could be confirmed by quantitative Real-time PCR analysis. CONCLUSION: This integrated study hypothesized several miRNA dependent signaling pathway for OS patients with lung metastases and initiated a potential strategy for better understanding the lung metastases in clinic.

12.
Obes Facts ; : 1-9, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515192

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The concentration of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25OHD3) in the serum of obese people is low and often accompanied by symptoms of low fertility. Therefore, vitamin D is recommended as a potential treatment option. However, after clinical trials, it was found that vitamin D cannot effectively increase the concentration of 25OHD3 in the serum of obese people. How obesity causes low 25OHD3 concentration and low fertility is unclear. METHODS: We analyzed the physiological and pathological changes in obese mice induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) and the changes in mice after supplementing with 25OHD3. RESULTS: The concentration of 25OHD3 in the serum of obese mice induced by HFD was significantly reduced, and these mice showed liver hypertrophy accompanied by abnormal liver injury, testicular hypertrophy, low testosterone levels, high leptin levels, and low sperm motility. The mRNA and protein expression of CYP2R1 of hydroxylated vitamin D3 was significantly reduced; CYP11A1 and CYP11A2, which synthesize testosterone, were significantly reduced. After supplementing with 25OHD3, there was an increase in serum 25OHD3 concentration, testosterone level, and sperm motility, but it cannot improve the degree of obesity, CYP2R1 expression, and liver damage. CONCLUSION: Our research shows that there is a metabolic interference mediated by 25OHD3 and testosterone between obesity and low sperm motility. The results of this study can provide a scientific basis for studying the mechanism of 25OHD3 and hormone regulation and treating obese people with low sperm motility.

13.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479967

RESUMO

Background: IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common primary glomerulonephritis worldwide. Circulating immune complexes form that are prone to deposition in the mesangium, where they trigger glomerular inflammation. A growing body of evidence suggests that dysregulated expression of microRNAs in IgAN may play a significant role in establishing the disease phenotype. Methods: We generated single miR-23b-3p(miR-23b) knockout mice using CRISPR-Cas9. Results: In humans, miR-23b levels are downregulated in kidney biopsies and sera of patients with IgAN, and serum miR-23b levels are negatively correlated with serum IgA1 levels. We show that miR-23b-/- mice develop an IgAN-like phenotype of mesangial IgA and C3 deposition associated with development of albuminuria, hypertension, an elevated serum creatinine, and dysregulated mucosal IgA synthesis. Dysregulation of IgA production is likely mediated by the loss of miR-23b mediated suppression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase in mucosal B cells. In addition, we show that loss of miR-23b increases the susceptibility of the kidney to progressive fibrosis through loss of regulation of expression of gremlin 2 and IgA accumulation through downregulation of the transferrin receptor. Conclusions: Our findings suggest an indispensable role for miR-23b in kidney disease, and in particular, IgAN. miR-23b may in the future offer a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of IgAN.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465088

RESUMO

Strong coupling between emitters and cavities underlies many of the current strategies aiming at generating and controlling quantum states at room temperature. Recent experiments reveal strong coupling between two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) and individual plasmonic structures; however, the coupling strength is quite limited (<200 meV), and the active control of the coupling strength is challenging. Here, we demonstrate the active tuning of plexcitonic coupling in monolayer WS2 coupled to a plasmonic nanocavity by immersing into a mixed solution of dichloromethane (DCM) and ethanol. By adjusting the mixture ratio, continuous tuning of the Rabi splitting energy ranged from 183 meV (in ethanol) to 273 meV (in DCM) is achieved. The results are mainly attributed to the remarkable increase of the neutral exciton density in monolayer WS2 as the concentration of DCM is increased. It offers an important stepping stone toward a further study on plexcitonic coupling in layered materials, along with potential applications in quantum information processing and nonlinear optical materials.

15.
Plant Cell ; 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469582

RESUMO

Verticillium wilt is a severe plant disease that causes massive losses in multiple crops. Increasing the plant resistance to Verticillium wilt is a critical challenge worldwide. Here, we report that the hemibiotrophic Verticillium dahliae (V. dahliae)-secreted Asp f2-like protein VDAL causes leaf wilting when applied to cotton leaves in vitro but enhances the resistance to V. dahliae when overexpressed in Arabidopsis or cotton without affecting the plant growth and development. VDAL protein interacts with Arabidopsis E3 ligases PUB25 and PUB26 (PUBs) and is ubiquitinated by PUBs in vitro. However, VDAL is not degraded by PUB25 or PUB26 in planta. Besides, the pub25 pub26 double mutant shows higher resistance to V. dahliae than the wild type. PUBs interact with the transcription factor MYB6 in a yeast two-hybrid screen. MYB6 promotes plant resistance to Verticillium wilt while PUBs ubiquitinate MYB6 and mediate its degradation. VDAL competes with MYB6 for binding to PUBs, and the role of VDAL in increasing Verticillium wilt resistance depends on MYB6. Taken together, these results suggest that plants evolute a strategy to utilize the invaded effector protein VDAL to resist the V. dahliae infection without causing a hypersensitive response (HR); alternatively, hemibiotrophic pathogens may use some effectors to keep plant cells alive during its infection in order to take nutrients from host cells. This study provides the molecular mechanism for plants increasing disease resistance when overexpressing some effector proteins without inducing HR, and may promote searching for more genes from pathogenic fungi or bacteria to engineer plant disease resistance.

16.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(31): 5152-5170, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497441

RESUMO

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infects approximately 50% of all humans globally. Persistent H. pylori infection causes multiple gastric and extragastric diseases, indicating the importance of early diagnosis and timely treatment. H. pylori eradication produces dramatic changes in the gastric mucosa, resulting in restored function. Consequently, to better understand the importance of H. pylori eradication and clarify the subsequent recovery of gastric mucosal functions after eradication, we summarize histological, endoscopic, and gastric microbiota changes to assess the therapeutic effects on the gastric mucosa.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Microbiota , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Mucosa Gástrica , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Estômago
17.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 1034, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465887

RESUMO

COVID-19 has caused numerous infections with diverse clinical symptoms. To identify human genetic variants contributing to the clinical development of COVID-19, we genotyped 1457 (598/859 with severe/mild symptoms) and sequenced 1141 (severe/mild: 474/667) patients of Chinese ancestry. We further incorporated 1401 genotyped and 948 sequenced ancestry-matched population controls, and tested genome-wide association on 1072 severe cases versus 3875 mild or population controls, followed by trans-ethnic meta-analysis with summary statistics of 3199 hospitalized cases and 897,488 population controls from the COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative. We identified three significant signals outside the well-established 3p21.31 locus: an intronic variant in FOXP4-AS1 (rs1853837, odds ratio OR = 1.28, P = 2.51 × 10-10, allele frequencies in Chinese/European AF = 0.345/0.105), a frameshift insertion in ABO (rs8176719, OR = 1.19, P = 8.98 × 10-9, AF = 0.422/0.395) and a Chinese-specific intronic variant in MEF2B (rs74490654, OR = 8.73, P = 1.22 × 10-8, AF = 0.004/0). These findings highlight an important role of the adaptive immunity and the ABO blood-group system in protection from developing severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/etnologia , COVID-19/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Íntrons/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505240

RESUMO

Ambient ozone becomes one of significant environmental threats to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in recent decades. To date, however, few systematic analyses have been performed to quantify ozone-attributable disease burden, globally and regionally. In this study, we aimed to comprehensively depict the global trend of ozone-related COPD premature deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). We derived estimates of COPD burden attributable to ambient ozone for 204 countries and territories during 1990-2019 from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. We examined the number of deaths and DALYs, as well as age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) and DALYs rate (ASDR) by sex, socio-demographic index (SDI), countries, and regions. Population attributable fractions (PAFs) were adopted to identify age groups vulnerable to ozone-related COPD. Estimated annual percentage changes (EAPCs) were calculated to assess the temporal trend of ozone-attributable COPD burden (e.g., ASMR and ASDR) between 1990 and 2019, using generalized linear models. Spearman rank correlation was applied to measure the relationships of estimated ASMR, ASDR, and EAPC with SDI. In 2019, COPD attributable to ambient ozone gave rise to 365.22 (95% uncertainty interval: 174.93 to 564.27) thousand deaths and 6.21 (2.99 to 9.63) million DALYs globally, representing a corresponding increase of 76.11% and 56.37% versus 1990. During 1990-2019, however, a yearly decline of 1.07% (0.81 to 1.33) was observed for ASMR and 1.30% (1.07 to 1.52) for ASDR. Considerable gender inequality continues in ozone-attributable COPD burden, with much greater impacts among men, and the gap is enlarged with the increase of age. In all age groups, the fractional contribution of ozone to COPD burden exhibited an overall increasing trend globally for both deaths (8.22% in 1990 versus 11.13% in 2019) and DALYs (6.70% in 1990 versus 8.34% in 2019). The burden of COPD caused by ambient ozone varied substantially by geographical and socioeconomic regions. In 2019, the greatest ASMR and ASDR were seen in South Asia, followed by East Asia and Central Sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the clear drop of age-standardized rates (EAPC<0) in high, high-middle, and middle SDI regions, ASMR and ASDR in low and low-middle SDI regions continuously raised between 1990 and 2019. Higher SDI was found to be associated with lower EAPCs in ASMR (rs=-0.4405, p<0.001) and ASDR (rs=-0.4510, p<0.001). Although the global ASMR and ASDR of COPD attributable to ambient ozone have decreased from 1990 to 2019, there has been an unnegligible increase in some low and low-middle SDI regions such as Southeast Asia, South Asia, and Andean Latin America. Findings may have some implications for formulating targeted plans and policies for future COPD prevention and ambient ozone management in different regions.

19.
Curr Biol ; 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496220

RESUMO

Embryogenesis of flowering plants is initiated by polarization of the zygote, a prerequisite for correct axis formation in the embryo. The daughter cells of the asymmetric zygote division form the pro-embryo and the mostly extra-embryonic suspensor.1 The suspensor plays a pivotal role in nutrient and hormone transport and rapid growth of the embryo.2,3 Zygote polarization is controlled by a MITOGEN-ACTIVATING PROTEIN (MAP) kinase signaling pathway including the MAPKK kinase (MAP3K) YODA (YDA)4 and the upstream membrane-associated proteins BRASINOSTEROID SIGNALING KINASE 1 (BSK1) and BSK2.5,6 Furthermore, suspensor development is controlled by cysteine-rich peptides of the EMBRYO SURROUNDING FACTOR 1 (ESF1) family.7 While they act genetically upstream of YDA, the corresponding receptor to perceive these potential ligands is unknown. In other developmental processes, such as stomata development, YDA activity is controlled by receptor kinases of the ERECTA family (ERf).8-12 While the receptor kinases upstream of BSK1/2 in the embryo have so far not been identified,1 YDA is in part activated by the sperm cell-derived BSK family member SHORT SUSPENSOR (SSP) that represents a naturally occurring, constitutively active variant of BSK1.5,13 It has been speculated that SSP might be a paternal component of a parental tug-of-war controlling resource allocation toward the embryo.2,13 Here, we show that in addition to SSP, the receptor kinase ERECTA plays a crucial role in zygote polarization as a maternally contributed part of the embryonic YDA pathway. We conclude that two independent parental contributions initiate zygote polarization and control embryo development.

20.
ACS Nano ; 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498859

RESUMO

Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an energy-efficient desalination technique. However, the maximum desalination capacity of conventional carbon-based CDI systems is approximately 20 mg g-1, which is too low for practical applications. Therefore, the focus of research on CDI has shifted to the development of faradic electrochemical deionization systems using electrodes based on faradic materials which have a significantly higher ion-storage capacity than carbon-based electrodes. In addition to the common symmetrical CDI system, there has also been extensive research on innovative systems to maximize the performance of faradic electrode materials. Research has focused primarily on faradic reactions and faradic electrode materials. However, the correlation between faradic electrode materials and the various electrochemical deionization system architectures, i.e., hybrid capacitive deionization, rocking-chair capacitive deionization, and dual-ion intercalation electrochemical desalination, remains relatively unexplored. This has inhibited the design of specific faradic electrode materials based on the characteristics of individual faradic electrochemical desalination systems. In this review, we have characterized faradic electrode materials based on both their material category and the electrochemical desalination system in which they were utilized. We expect that the detailed analysis of the properties, advantages, and challenges of the individual systems will establish a fundamental correlation between CDI systems and electrode materials that will facilitate future developments in this field.

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