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1.
J Theor Biol ; 508: 110453, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949588

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) is still an important public health issue in Jiangsu province, China. In this study, based on the TB transmission routes and the statistical data of TB cases, we formulate a novel TB epidemic model accounting for the effects of the contaminated environments on TB transmission dynamics. The value of this study lies in two aspects. Mathematically, we define the basic reproduction number, R0, and prove that R0 can be used to govern the threshold dynamics of the model. Epidemiologically, we find that the annual average R0 is 1.13,>1 and TB in Jiangsu is an endemic disease. Therefore, in order to control the TB in Jiangsu efficiently, we must decrease the virus shedding rate or increase the recovery rates, and increase the environmental clearance rate.

2.
Adv Mater ; : e2005531, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002239

RESUMO

Smart and wearable electronics have aroused substantial demand for flexible portable power sources, but it remains a large challenge to realize scalable production of wearable batteries/supercapacitors with high electrochemical performance and remarkable flexibility simultaneously. Here, a scalable approach is developed to prepare wearable solid-state lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) with superior performance enabled by synergetic engineering from materials to device architecture. Nitrogen-doped hierarchical carbon (HC) composed of 1D carbon nanofibers welded with 2D carbon nanosheets is synthesized via a unique self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) technique, which exhibits superior electrochemical performance. Subsequently, inspired by origami, here, wave-shaped LIC punch-cells based on the above materials are designed by employing a compatible and scalable post-imprint technology. Finite elemental analysis (FEA) confirms that the bending stress of the punch-cell can be offset effectively, benefiting from the wave architecture. The wearable solid-state LIC punch-cell exhibits large energy density, long cyclic stability, and superior flexibility. This study demonstrates great promise for scalable fabrication of wearable energy-storage systems.

3.
Cells ; 9(10)2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33003401

RESUMO

The concentration of circulating hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells has not been studied longitudinally. Here, we report that the proportions of Lin-CD34+38- hematopoietic multipotent cells (HMCs) and of Lin-CD34+CD38+ hematopoietic progenitors cells (HPCs) are highly variable between individuals but stable over long periods of time, in both healthy individuals and sickle cell disease (SCD) patients. This suggests that these proportions are regulated by genetic polymorphisms or by epigenetic mechanisms. We also report that in SCD patients treated with hydroxyurea, the proportions of circulating HMCs and HPCs show a strong positive and negative correlation with fetal hemoglobin (HbF) levels, respectively. Titration of 65 cytokines revealed that the plasma concentration of chemokines CCL2, CCL11, CCL17, CCL24, CCL27, and PDGF-BB were highly correlated with the proportion of HMCs and HPCs and that a subset of these cytokines were also correlated with HbF levels. A linear model based on four of these chemokines could explain 80% of the variability in the proportion of circulating HMCs between individuals. The proportion of circulating HMCs and HPCs and the concentration of these chemokines might therefore become useful biomarkers for HbF response to HU in SCD patients. Such markers might become increasingly clinically relevant, as alternative treatment modalities for SCD are becoming available.

4.
Org Lett ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021796

RESUMO

One-pot synthesis of a new doubly boron-doped polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon of 6,12-dimesityl-6,12-dihydro-6,12-diboradibenzo[def,mno]chrysene (MDBDBC) was reported. MDBDBC features a rigid planar electron-deficient core structure and demonstrates good chemical and thermal stabilities. A low-lying LUMO of -3.53 eV, a low locally excited triplet energy of 1.92 eV, as well as green electroluminescence with maximum EQE of 4.9% were found for MDBDBC, suggesting its potential as an n-type unit for future organic light emitting diode applications.

5.
Nat Cell Biol ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020597

RESUMO

PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are abundantly expressed during cardiac hypertrophy. However, their functions and molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we identified a cardiac-hypertrophy-associated piRNA (CHAPIR) that promotes pathological hypertrophy and cardiac remodelling by targeting METTL3-mediated N6-methyladenosine (m6A) methylation of Parp10 mRNA transcripts. CHAPIR deletion markedly attenuates cardiac hypertrophy and restores heart function, while administration of a CHAPIR mimic enhances the pathological hypertrophic response in pressure-overloaded mice. Mechanistically, CHAPIR-PIWIL4 complexes directly interact with METTL3 and block the m6A methylation of Parp10 mRNA transcripts, which upregulates PARP10 expression. The CHAPIR-dependent increase in PARP10 promotes the mono-ADP-ribosylation of GSK3ß and inhibits its kinase activity, which results in the accumulation of nuclear NFATC4 and the progression of pathological hypertrophy. Hence, our findings reveal that a piRNA-mediated RNA epigenetic mechanism is involved in the regulation of cardiac hypertrophy and that the CHAPIR-METTL3-PARP10-NFATC4 signalling axis could be therapeutically targeted for treating pathological hypertrophy and maladaptive cardiac remodelling.

6.
Laryngoscope ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016340

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The individualized risk of airway obstruction after head and neck cancer surgery is unclear, especially oral and oropharyngeal cancer. The study aimed to establish an individualized predictive model for the necessity of temporary tracheotomy in these patients. METHODS: Patients who underwent oral and oropharyngeal cancer surgery from 1999 to 2019 were retrospectively reviewed. A nomogram was developed and validated in patients treated from 1999 to 2009 and 2010 to 2019, respectively. RESULTS: In total, 1551 patients were included. Oropharyngeal cancer, large tumor, midline crossing, preoperative radiation, mandibulectomy, flap reconstruction, and neck dissection were independent risk factors of postoperative airway obstruction in the training group (n = 707). A nomogram incorporating these factors had a C-index of 0.931 and was validated in the testing group (n = 844) (C-index, 0.918). Good calibration curves were observed in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: The nomogram successfully predicted the individual risk of postoperative airway obstruction for patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancer. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4. Laryngoscope, 2020.

7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(12): 126403, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016751

RESUMO

For conventional topological phases, the boundary gapless modes are determined by bulk topological invariants. Based on developing an analytic method to solve higher-order boundary modes, we present PT-invariant 2D topological insulators and 3D topological semimetals that go beyond this bulk-boundary correspondence framework. With unchanged bulk topological invariants, their first-order boundaries undergo transitions separating different phases with second-order boundary zero modes. For the 2D topological insulator, the helical edge modes appear at the transition point for two second-order topological insulator phases with diagonal and off-diagonal corner zero modes, respectively. Accordingly, for the 3D topological semimetal, the criticality corresponds to surface helical Fermi arcs of a Dirac semimetal phase. Interestingly, we find that the 3D system generically belongs to a novel second-order nodal-line semimetal phase, possessing gapped surfaces but a pair of diagonal or off-diagonal hinge Fermi arcs.

8.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 15(1): 302, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028372

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to identify the incidence rate of Acute kidney injury (AKI) in our center and predict in-hospital mortality and long-term survival after heart transplantation (HTx). METHODS: This single-center, retrospective study from October 2009 and March 2020 analyzed the pre-, intra-, and postoperative characteristics of 95 patients who underwent HTx. AKI was defined according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria. Risk factors were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression models. The log-rank test was used to compare long-term survival. RESULTS: Thirty-three (34.7%) patients developed AKI. The mortality in hospital in HTx patients with and without AKI were 21.21 and 6.45%, respectively (P < 0.05). Recipients in AKI who required renal replacement therapy (RRT) had a hospital mortality rate of 43.75% compared to 6.45% in those without AKI or RRT (P < 0.0001). A long cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time (OR:11.393, 95% CI: 2.183 to 59.465, P = 0.0039) was positively related to the occurrence of AKI. A high intraoperative urine volume (OR: 0.031, 95% CI: 0.005 to 0.212, P = 0.0004) was negatively correlated with AKI. AKI requiring RRT (OR, 11.348; 95% CI, 2.418-53.267, P = 0.002) was a risk factor for mortality in hospital. Overall survival in patients without AKI at 1 and 3 years was not different from that in patients with AKI (P = 0.096). CONCLUSIONS: AKI is common after HTx. AKI requiring RRT could contribute powerful prognostic information to predict mortality in hospital. A long CPB time and low intraoperative urine volume are associated with the occurrence of AKI.

9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22290, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether time of day has impact on outcomes after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) remains controversial. However, there are no evidence syntheses describing the impact of time differences on outcomes from OHCA. METHODS: A meta-analysis of cohort studies exploring the association between time of day and survival in patients with OHCA was performed. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled using a random-effects model. RESULTS: Ten studies involving 252,848 patients and 24,646 survivals were included. Patients with night-time OHCA had significantly lower short-term survival compared to patients with daytime OHCA (OR, 1.20; 1.07-1.36; P < .001). The relationship between temporal differences and survival was consistent in most subgroups. For long-term survival, it remained unclear whether night-time was associated with reduced OHCA survival at 12 months (OR, 1.47; 0.71-3.06; P < .001). Three studies including 183,129 patients examined the association between weekend and survival in OHCA patients. Survival did not differ on weekends compared to weekdays (OR, 1.00; 0.9 7-1.04; P = .918). CONCLUSIONS: Night-time is associated with a lower survival in OHCA patients. However, similar findings are not observed in OHCA patients on weekends. Caution is required in interpretation of these results accounting for high level of heterogeneity and large, well designed, randomized trials are warranted.

10.
Zootaxa ; 4819(1): zootaxa.4819.1.7, 2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055674

RESUMO

The taxonomic validity of the controversial taxon, Amolops nepalicus Yang, 1991, is evaluated based on the examination of its holotype, along with topotypic A. marmoratus (Blyth, 1855) and A. afghanus (Günther, 1858), and other related congeners. Morphological comparison shows the holotype of A. nepalicus differs from its senior synonym A. marmoratus and all recognized species, supporting its valid species status. We provide a detailed redescription of the holotype based on a robust morphometric dataset and expanded comparisons with recognized congeners from the Pan-Himalayas and Southeast Asia. In addition, we discuss the remaining suspicious records of A. cf. afghanus in Nepal and China based on available specimens, and comment on the validity of two remaining junior synonyms of A. marmoratus, namely Ixalus argus Annandale, 1912 and Rana latopalmata Boulenger, 1882, suggesting that they may represent subjective synonyms of A. gerbillus (Annandale, 1912) and A. panhai Matsui and Nabhitabhata, 2006, respectively.

11.
Cell Metab ; 32(4): 561-574.e7, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027675

RESUMO

Aberrant redox signaling underlies the pathophysiology of many chronic metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methodologies aimed at rebalancing systemic redox homeostasis have had limited success. A noninvasive, sustained approach would enable the long-term control of redox signaling for the treatment of T2D. We report that static magnetic and electric fields (sBE) noninvasively modulate the systemic GSH-to-GSSG redox couple to promote a healthier systemic redox environment that is reducing. Strikingly, when applied to mouse models of T2D, sBE rapidly ameliorates insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in as few as 3 days with no observed adverse effects. Scavenging paramagnetic byproducts of oxygen metabolism with SOD2 in hepatic mitochondria fully abolishes these insulin sensitizing effects, demonstrating that mitochondrial superoxide mediates induction of these therapeutic changes. Our findings introduce a remarkable redox-modulating phenomenon that exploits endogenous electromagneto-receptive mechanisms for the noninvasive treatment of T2D, and potentially other redox-related diseases.

12.
Otol Neurotol ; 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065598

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Determine if vestibular schwannoma (VS) shape and MRI texture features predict significant enlargement after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case review. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Fifty-three patients were selected who underwent SRS and had a contrast-enhanced T1 sequence planning MRI scan and a follow-up contrast enhanced T1 MRI available for review. Median follow-up of 6.5 months (interquartile range/IQR, 5.9-7.4). Median pretreatment tumor volume was 1,006 mm (IQR, 465-1,794). INTERVENTION(S): Stereotactic radiosurgery. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Texture and shape features from the SRS planning scans were extracted and used to train a linear support vector machine binary classifier to predict post-SRS enlargement >20% of the pretreatment volume. Sensitivity, specificity, area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve (AUC), and positive likelihood ratio were computed. A stratified analysis based on pretreatment tumor volume greater or less than the median volume was also performed. RESULTS: The model had a sensitivity of 92%, specificity of 65%, AUC of 0.75, and a positive likelihood ratio of 2.6 (95% CI 1.4-5.0) for predicting post-SRS enlargement of >20%. In the larger tumor subgroup, the model had a sensitivity of 87%, specificity of 73%, AUC of 0.76, and a positive likelihood ratio of 3.2 (95% CI 1.2-8.5). In the smaller tumor subgroup, the model had a sensitivity of 95%, specificity of 50%, AUC of 0.65, and a positive likelihood ratio of 1.9 (95% CI 0.8-4.3). CONCLUSIONS: VS shape and texture features may be useful inputs for machine learning models that predict VS enlargement after SRS.

13.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 9(10)2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066489

RESUMO

Salvia sclarea essential oil is used as an aromatic therapy for dysmenorrhea. Sclareol-one of the natural products isolated from S. sclarea-displays anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities; however, researchers have not yet evaluated the mechanism related to the pain-relieving effect of sclareol. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the potential effect of sclareol in ex vivo and in vivo dysmenorrhea models, as well as its possible mechanism. In the ex vivo study of uterine tissue from Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, the uterine contraction amplitude was observed and recorded. In the in vivo study, we measured the uterine contraction pressure of SD rats and performed writhing tests on mice. The uterine tissues from the writhing test subjects were collected and analyzed by Western blot. The results demonstrated that sclareol inhibited prostaglandin (PG) F2α-, oxytocin-, acetylcholine-, carbachol-, KCl-, and Bay K 8644-induced uterine contraction and possessed an analgesic effect in the writhing test. Sclareol affects the Ca2+ level and regulates oxytocin receptor (OTR), myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p-p38, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and phospho-myosin light chain 20 (p-MLC20) protein expression. Integrating these results, we suggest that sclareol is a potential alternative supplement for dysmenorrhea.

14.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 11(1): 440, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs) from the human umbilical cord have been studied extensively due to their immunomodulatory functions. Large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BKCa channels) channels are involved in many inflammatory responses, but their involvement in the anti-inflammatory activity of WJ-MSCs is unknown. The underlying molecular mechanism, through which BKCa channels mediate the immunomodulation of WJ-MSC, which may include changes in exosomes proteomics, has not yet been clarified. METHODS: Alizarin staining, Oil Red O staining, and flow cytometry were used to identify WJ-MSCs, which were isolated from human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly. BKCa channels were detected in WJ-MSCs using western blotting, real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR), and electrophysiology, and cytokine expression was examined using real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Exosomes were characterized using transmission electron microscopy and nanoparticle tracking analysis. Proteomics analysis was performed to explore exosomal proteomic profiles. RESULTS: The cells derived from human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly were identified as MSCs. BKCa channels were detected in the isolated WJ-MSCs, and the expression of these channels increased after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. BKCa channels blockade in LPS-treated WJ-MSCs induced apoptosis and decreased interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression. Furthermore, THP-1 cells (human monocytic cell line) stimulated with LPS/interferon gamma (IFN-γ) produced more anti-inflammatory cytokines after treatment with exosomes derived from BKCa channel-knockdown WJ-MSCs (si-exo). We also observed altered expression of mitochondrial ATP synthase alpha subunit (ATP5A1), filamin B, and other proteins in si-exo, which might increase the anti-inflammatory activity of macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: Our study described the functional expression of BKCa channels in WJ-MSCs, and BKCa channels regulated the immunomodulatory properties of WJ-MSCs by affecting the exosomal protein profiles during the inflammatory response.

15.
Genome Res ; 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060171

RESUMO

The advances of large-scale genomics studies have enabled compilation of cell type-specific, genome-wide DNA functional elements at high resolution. With the growing volume of functional annotation data and sequencing variants, existing variant annotation algorithms lack the efficiency and scalability to process big genomic data, particularly when annotating whole genome sequencing variants against a huge database with billions of genomic features. Here, we develop VarNote to rapidly annotate genome-scale variants in large and complex functional annotation resources. Equipped with a novel index system and a parallel random-sweep searching algorithm, VarNote shows substantial performance improvements (two to three orders of magnitude) over existing algorithms at different scales. It supports both region-based and allele-specific annotations, and introduces advanced functions for the flexible extraction of annotations. By integrating massive base-wise and context-dependent annotations in the VarNote framework, we introduce three efficient and accurate pipelines to prioritize the causal regulatory variants for common diseases, Mendelian disorders and cancers.

16.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 7199-7214, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33061376

RESUMO

The ongoing biomedical nanotechnology has intrigued increasingly intense interests in cerium oxide nanoparticles, ceria nanoparticles or nano-ceria (CeO2-NPs). Their remarkable vacancy-oxygen defect (VO) facilitates the redox process and catalytic activity. The verification has illustrated that CeO2-NPs, a nanozyme based on inorganic nanoparticles, can achieve the anti-inflammatory effect, cancer resistance, and angiogenesis. Also, they can well complement other materials in tissue engineering (TE). Pertinent to the properties of CeO2-NPs and the pragmatic biosynthesis methods, this review will emphasize the recent application of CeO2-NPs to orthopedic biomedicine, in particular, the bone tissue engineering (BTE). The presentation, assessment, and outlook of the orthopedic potential and shortcomings of CeO2-NPs in this review expect to provide reference values for the future research and development of therapeutic agents based on CeO2-NPs.

17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 6287545, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33062689

RESUMO

An increasing number of patients infected with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are observed worldwide. However, it is challenging to identify NTM lung diseases from pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) due to considerable overlap in classic manifestations and clinical and radiographic characteristics. This study quantifies both cavitary and bronchiectasis regions in CT images and explores a machine learning approach for the differentiation of NTM lung diseases and PTB. It involves 116 patients and 103 quantitative features. After the selection of informative features, a linear support vector machine performs disease classification, and simultaneously, discriminative features are recognized. Experimental results indicate that bronchiectasis is relatively more informative, and two features are figured out due to promising prediction performance (area under the curve, 0.84 ± 0.06; accuracy, 0.85 ± 0.06; sensitivity, 0.88 ± 0.07; and specificity, 0.80 ± 0.12). This study provides insight into machine learning-based identification of NTM lung diseases from PTB, and more importantly, it makes early and quick diagnosis of NTM lung diseases possible that can facilitate lung disease management and treatment planning.

18.
J Immunol Res ; 2020: 2847316, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33062719

RESUMO

Objectives: The COVID-19 epidemic triggered by coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is rapidly spreading around the globe. This study is aimed at finding out the suspected or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in Hubei province, China. We also investigated symptoms, medications, life quality, and psychological issues of IBD patients under the ongoing pandemic. Methods: We conducted a self-reported questionnaire survey via an online survey platform. SARS-CoV-2 infection-related data was collected from IBD patients. The status quo of medications and symptoms of the subjects were investigated. Life quality, depression, and anxiety were measured by clinical questionnaires and rated on scoring systems. Results: A total of 204 IBD patients from Hubei province were included in this study. No suspected or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection case was found in this study. As a result of city shutdown, two-thirds of the patients (138/204) in our series reported difficulty in accessing medicines and nearly half of them (73/138) had to discontinue medications. Apart from gastrointestinal symptoms, systemic symptoms were common while respiratory symptoms were rare in the cohort. Though their quality of life was not significantly lowered, depression and anxiety were problems that seriously affected them during the COVID-19 epidemic. Conclusions: Inaccessibility to medications is a serious problem for IBD patients after city shutdown. Efforts have to be made to address the problems of drug withdrawal and psychological issues that IBD patients suffer from during the COVID-19 outbreak.

19.
Food Funct ; 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063083

RESUMO

In this study, a high fat diet induced obesity mouse model (DIO) was used to investigate the modulatory effect of high purity conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the intestinal microbiota. CLA was prepared by a simulated moving bed chromatography system and its influence on the gut microbes was analyzed by 16S amplicon V3-V4 region analysis. We observed a significant increase in the bacterial biodiversity and the abundance of genera of butyrate- and acetate-producing bacteria. After taking CLA for 6 weeks, the abundance of Bacteroides in the intestines of mice greatly increased, while the abundance of Firmicutes decreased. The corresponding decrease in the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio reflected a positive modulatory effect of CLA on the intestinal microbiota. In addition, KEGG pathways for the nucleotide metabolism, metabolism of terpenoids and polyketides and lipid metabolism were among the most differentially expressed genes after CLA intervention. The current study revealed that CLA can be used as a functional food component with potential therapeutic value to prevent obesity-related metabolic disorders by manipulating the intestinal microbiota.

20.
Transgenic Res ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029720

RESUMO

SULT2A8 is a male-predominant and liver-specific mouse cytosolic sulfotransferase (SULT) that sulfonates 7α-hydroxyl (7α-OH) bile acids in vitro. Sulfonation regulates bile acid homeostasis, which in turn regulates cholesterol and energy metabolism. Using the Sult2a8-heterozygous (HT) mouse model created earlier in our laboratory, we aimed to investigate the physiological role of SULT2A8 in sulfonating 7α-OH bile acids and its impact on energy metabolism in vivo under both fed and energy-deprivation conditions. Disruption of one allele of the Sult2a8 gene in male HT mice resulted in losing ~ 50% of the 7α-OH sulfonating activity compared to wild-type (WT) control, but no significant change in female HT mice. Under the fed condition comparing the levels of hepatic and biliary bile acids as well as plasma/serum energy metabolites, HT mice displayed a profile similar to that of WT mice, suggesting that the Sult2a8-haplodeficient mice conducted normal energy metabolism. However, after 48-h fasting, a significant decrease in plasma cholesterol level was found in male HT mice but without any significant reduction in female HT mice. Of interest, in male Sult2a8-haplodeficient mice, an increase of the hepatic taurine-conjugated cholic acid level was noted but no noticeable change in other tested bile acids after fasting. Taken together, SULT2A8 is a male-specific and key hepatic SULT in metabolizing 7α-OH primary bile acids. During energy deprivation, SULT2A8 is required to maintain the bile acid and cholesterol metabolism, suggesting SULT is a potential therapeutic target for controlling metabolic diseases.

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