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1.
Thorac Cancer ; 2022 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35514130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sleeve lobectomy is recognized as an alternative surgical operation to pneumonectomy because it preserves the most pulmonary function and has a considerable prognosis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the implications of residual status for patients after sleeve lobectomy. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we summarized 58 242 patients who underwent surgeries from 2015 to 2018 in Shanghai Chest Hospital and found 456 eligible patients meeting the criteria. The status of R2 was excluded. The outcomes were overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS). We performed a subgroup analysis to further our investigation. RESULTS: After the propensity score match, the baseline characteristic was balanced between two groups. The survival analysis showed no significant difference of overall survival and recurrence-free survival between R0 and R1 groups (OS: p = 0.053; RFS: p = 0.14). In the multivariate Cox analysis, we found that the margin status was not a dependent risk factor to RFS (p = 0.119) and OS (p = 0.093). In the patients of R1, N stage and age were closely related to OS, but we did not find any significant risk variable in RFS for R1 status. In the subgroup analysis, R1 status may have a worse prognosis on patients with more lymph nodes examination. On further investigation, we demonstrated no differences among the four histological types of margin status. CONCLUSION: In our study, we confirmed that the margin status after sleeve lobectomies was not the risk factor to prognosis. However, patients with more lymph nodes resection should pay attention to the margin status.

2.
Front Neurol ; 13: 860083, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35547390

RESUMO

Background: Neuromyelitis Optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is severe relapsing and disabling autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Its optimal first-line treatment to reduce relapse rate and ameliorate neurological disability remains unclear. We will conduct a prospective, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial to study the safety and effectiveness of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) in treating NMOSD. Methods: The trial is planned to recruit 430 AQP4-IgG seropositive NMOSD patients. It consists of three consecutive stages. The first stage will be carried out in the leading center only and aims to evaluate the safety of hUC-MSCs. Patients will be treated with three different doses of hUC-MSCs: 1, 2, or 5 × 106 MSC/kg·weight for the low-, medium-, and high-dose group, respectively. The second and third stages will be carried out in six centers. The second stage aims to find the optimal dosage. Patients will be 1:1:1:1 randomized into the low-, medium-, high-dose group and the controlled group. The third stage aims to evaluate the effectiveness. Patients will be 1:1 randomized into the optimal dose and the controlled group. The primary endpoint is the first recurrent time and secondary endpoints are the recurrent times, EDSS scores, MRI lesion numbers, OSIS scores, Hauser walking index, and SF-36 scores. Endpoint events and side effects will be evaluated every 3 months for 2 years. Discussion: Although hUC-MSC has shown promising treatment effects of NMOSD in preclinical studies, there is still a lack of well-designed clinical trials to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of hUC-MSC among NMOSD patients. As far as we know, this trial will be the first one to systematically demonstrate the clinical safety and efficacy of hUC-MSC in treating NMOSD and might be able to determine the optimal dose of hUC-MSC for NMOSD patients. Trial registration: The study was registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (CHICTR.org.cn) on 2 March 2016 (registration No. ChiCTR-INR-16008037), and the revised trial protocol (Protocol version 1.2.1) was released on 16 March 2020.

3.
Chemosphere ; 301: 134697, 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35513078

RESUMO

As an important chemical fertilizer, urea can greatly increase crop yields, but it also has negative effects on beneficial arthropods in the agricultural field, such as spiders. Here, we reported that urea application reduced the reproductive performance in Pardosa pseudoannulata, a dominant species of spider in rice fields, which preys on a range of insect pests, based on both field and laboratory studies. In a field test, urea application significantly reduced the egg production of adult and subadult females collected from the urea-treated fields. A laboratory test was set up to further evaluate the impact of urea application on P. pseudoannulata reproduction. In consistent with field test results, the spiders treated by urea for 14 d and 28 d had lower reproduction ability than their control counterparts, with regard to the mating rate, egg production, and egg hatchability. The transcriptomic sequencing of individuals treated by urea for 28 d showed that urea application caused a number of differentially expressed transcripts with several downregulated unigenes related to basic enzymes and several upregulated unigenes involved in stress resistance. The knockdown of a metalloproteinase gene caused a significant decrease in egg production, and the silencing of a carboxylesterase gene significantly reduced both the egg production and egg hatchability. Taken together, the present study found that urea application reduced P. pseudoannulata reproduction ability and the negative impact partially resulted from the downregulation of certain basic enzyme genes. The study provided a fresh view of fertilizers on beneficial arthropods with great potential in the protection of P. pseudoannulata in fields.

4.
J Transl Med ; 20(1): 182, 2022 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35449056

RESUMO

Pemphigus is an autoimmune skin disease. Ectopic lymphoid-like structures (ELSs) were found to be commonly present in the pemphigus lesions, presumably supporting in situ desmoglein (Dsg)-specific antibody production. Yet functional phenotypes and the regulators of Lymphoid aggregates in pemphigus lesions remain largely unknown. Herein, we used microarray technology to profile the gene expression in skin lesion infiltrating mononuclear cells (SIMC) from pemphigus patients. On top of that, we compared SIMC dataset to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) dataset to characterize the unique role of SIMC. Functional enrichment results showed that mononuclear cells in skin lesions and peripheral blood both had over-represented IL-17 signaling pathways while neither was characterized by an activation of type I Interferon signaling pathways. Cell-type identification with relative subsets of known RNA transcripts (CIBERSORT) results showed that naïve natural killer cells (NK cells) were significantly more abundant in pemphigus lesions, and their relative abundance positively correlated with B cells abundance. Meanwhile, plasma cells population highly correlated with type 1 macrophages (M1) abundance. In addition, we also identified a lncRNA LINC01588 which might epigenetically regulate T helper 17 cells (Th17)/regulatory T cells (Treg) balance via the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway. Here, we provide the first transcriptomic characterization of lesion infiltrating immune cells which illustrates a distinct interplay network between adaptive and innate immune cells. It helps discover new regulators of local immune response, which potentially will provide a novel path forward to further uncover pemphigus pathological mechanisms and develop targeted therapy.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes , Pênfigo , RNA Longo não Codificante , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Pênfigo/genética , Pênfigo/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
5.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 828403, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35464070

RESUMO

Background and Aim: Evidence about recently proposed data-driven clusters of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is mainly about its prognostic effects and Western populations. We tested the applicability of this clustering approach among the Chinese population. We further investigated the cardiorenal risk profiles among different T2D sub-phenotypes cross-sectionally and before diabetes diagnosis. Methods: With the use of data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (1989-2009), 6,728 participants with available fasting blood samples and completed questionnaires in the 2009 survey were included. Glycemic statuses (normoglycemia, prediabetes, and new-onset T2D) were defined according to the 2020 American Diabetes Association criteria. Data-driven cluster analysis was conducted among new-onset T2D based on five variables: age at onset, body mass index (BMI), hemoglobin A1c, homeostasis model estimates of ß-cell function, and insulin resistance. Linear regression models were used to cross-sectionally examine the differences of cardiorenal risk factors (body fat distribution, blood pressure, lipid profiles, and kidney function) between glycemic statuses. Mixed-effects models were used to explore a maximum of 20-year trajectories of cardiovascular risk factors (body fat distribution and blood pressure) before diabetes diagnosis. Results: Among 557 (8.3%) new-onset T2D, four sub-phenotypes were found, with 57 (10.2%) assigned to the severe insulin-resistant diabetes (SIRD), 72 (12.9%) to the severe insulin-deficient diabetes (SIDD), 167 (30.0%) to the mild obesity-related diabetes (MOD), and 261 (46.9%) to the mild age-related diabetes (MARD). People clustered within different T2D sub-phenotypes had different cardiorenal risk profiles. Three T2D sub-phenotypes (SIRD, SIDD, and MOD) had worse cardiorenal abnormalities, while the risk burden in the MARD sub-phenotype was similar to that in prediabetes. Compared with people with other T2D sub-phenotypes, people in the MOD sub-phenotype had a faster increment in BMI, waist, upper arm circumference, and triceps skinfold up to 10 years before diagnosis. Blood pressure was less distinct in different T2D sub-phenotypes; however, SIDD and MOD clusters had higher blood pressure levels before diabetes diagnosis. Conclusions: Data-driven T2D sub-phenotyping is applicable in the Chinese population. Certain sub-phenotypes such as MARD only have a minor cardiorenal risk burden, and distinct cardiovascular risk development occurs long before diabetes diagnosis. Our findings can help improve early prevention and targeted treatment for diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Resistência à Insulina , Estado Pré-Diabético , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Insulina , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fenótipo
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35410620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) transplantation has been recognized in recent years as an effective strategy for the treatment of ischemic stroke. Several preclinical studies have demonstrated the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of NSPCs therapy. METHOD: We conducted a systematic review of the published literature in Pubmed reporting the use of NSPCs in preclinical studies between 2010 and 2021. Based on the articles reporting data, the key factors affecting efficacy were listed by us. RESULTS: A total of 71 preclinical studies, including 91 treatment arms, were identified. The results showed that several factors could influence the outcomes of NSPCs transplantation, including the type of donor cells, cell dose, time of administration after stroke, delivery route, and anesthetic. Treatment outcomes were measured by infarct volume, behavioral tests, and molecular and cellular level results. CONCLUSION: Most of the preclinical studies reported statistically significant effects and very few adverse reactions. Transplantation of NSPCs for ischemic stroke still needs to be optimized for several key factors. A standardized treatment outcome assessment could ease the translation of evidence in clinical settings.

7.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 414(13): 3959-3970, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35352162

RESUMO

Microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (µPADs) have been widely used in point-of-care testing owing to their simple operation, low volume of the sample required, and the lack of the need for an external force. To obtain accurate semi-quantitative or quantitative results, µPADs need to respond to the challenges posed by differences in reaction conditions. In this paper, multi-layer µPADs are fabricated by the imprinting method for the colorimetric detection of C-reactive protein (CRP). Different lighting conditions and shooting angles of scenes are simulated in image acquisition, and the detection-related performance of µPADs is improved by using a machine learning algorithm. The You Only Look Once (YOLO) model is used to identify the areas of reaction in µPADs. This model can observe an image only once to predict the objects present in it and their locations. The YOLO model trained in this study was able to identify all the reaction areas quickly without incurring any error. These reaction areas were categorized by classification algorithms to determine the risk level of CRP concentration. Multi-layer perceptron, convolutional neural network, and residual network algorithms were used for the classification tasks, where the latter yielded the highest accuracy of 96%. It has a promising application prospect in fast recognition and analysis of µPADs.


Assuntos
Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Proteína C-Reativa , Aprendizado de Máquina , Papel
8.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2464: 153-171, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35258832

RESUMO

Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense) and camelina (Camelina sativa) are nonfood winter oilseed crops that have the potential to contribute to sustainable biofuel production. However, undesired agronomic traits of pennycress and camelina currently hinder broad cultivation of these plants in the field. Recently, genome editing using the CRISPR-Cas technology has been applied to improve poor agronomic traits such as the weedy phenotype of pennycress and the oxidation susceptible lipid profile of camelina. In these works, the CRISPR reagents were introduced into the plants using the Agrobacterium-mediated floral dipping method. For accelerated domestication and value improvements of these winter oilseed crops, DNA-free genome editing platform and easy evaluation method of the CRISPR-Cas reagents are highly desirable. Cell wall-free protoplasts are great material to expand the use of gene engineering tools. In this chapter, we present a step-by-step guide to the mesophyll protoplast isolation from in vitro culture-grown pennycress and soil-grown camelina. The protocol also includes procedures for DNA transfection and protoplast viability test using fluorescein diacetate. With this protocol, we can isolate an average of 6 × 106 cells from pennycress and 3 × 106 cells from camelina per gram of fresh leaf tissues. Using a 7.3 kb plasmid DNA carrying green and red fluorescent protein marker genes, we can achieve an average transfection rate of 40% validated by flow cytometry for both plants.


Assuntos
Thlaspi , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , DNA/metabolismo , Protoplastos , Thlaspi/genética , Thlaspi/metabolismo , Transfecção
9.
Environ Technol ; : 1-14, 2022 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35316154

RESUMO

Conventional bioretention filters lack satisfactory performance in nitrogen removal. In this study, we used a mixture of cultivated soil and river sand as the bioretention filter to remove nitrogen pollutants from simulated rainwater runoff. To improve its permeability and nitrogen removal performance, both activated carbon and ceramsite were used as additives. The nitrogen removal processes and its mass accumulation in the modified bioretention filters were studied. The contribution of adsorption and biotransformation processes, together with the effects of percolate rate on nitrogen removal performance was explored. The results showed that an activated carbon layer in the bioretention filters could obviously improve nitrogen removal efficiencies, but its location made no significant difference in nitrogen removal performance. Bioretention filters modified with 20% of ceramsite could achieve the optimal percolate rate and nitrogen removal efficiencies. At given conditions, the average removal efficiencies of ammonium nitrogen (NH3-N), nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), and total nitrogen (TN) by the modified bioretention filter reached 80.27%, 41.48%, and 59.45%, respectively. During the leaching processes, organic nitrogen originated in the filter materials can be mineralised into NH3-N, then be denitrified and completely removed in the anaerobic environment under flooding conditions. Biotransformation in the modified bioretention filters caused a reduction of NH3-N removal efficiency by 15.41% and an increase of NO3-N removal efficiency by 31.03%. The modified bioretention filter can withstand a long-term operation. Compared with NO3-N and TN, the pollutant of NH3-N in rainwater runoff is not easy to form a mass accumulation in the modified bioretention filter.

10.
Analyst ; 147(8): 1678-1687, 2022 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35315859

RESUMO

In this study, we developed a novel magnetic lateral flow assay based on iron oxide decorated with platinum probes (Fe3O4@Pt) for dual-mode detection of gastrin-17 (G-17), which is one of the main biomarkers for early gastric cancer diagnosis. The probe material exhibits both magnetic properties and peroxidase activity. The peroxidase activity enhances the intensity of the brownish coloring of the Fe3O4@Pt probes on the test strip, with a limit of detection of 10 pg mL-1 using the naked eye, which is remarkable for colorimetric lateral flow assays. The magnetic property allows the simple separation and enrichment of the sample, and the signal can be read using a magnetic assay reader for quantitative detection. The linear range for G-17 using the magnetic signal was determined as 10 pg mL-1 to 2200 pg mL-1, and the calculated limit of detection was as low as 3.365 pg mL-1, thereby covering the reference range for G-17. Serum samples were used to validate the test strip, which exhibited high sensitivity, high specificity, and consistency with the results obtained by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The entire inspection process using this method can produce results within 35 min and it is simple to operate without requiring strict experimental conditions. This dual-mode lateral flow test strip provides a simple, rapid, and quantitative strategy for detecting G-17, and it may also be valuable in other portable diagnostic applications.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Gastrinas , Imunoensaio/métodos , Limite de Detecção , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Peroxidase
12.
Stem Cell Rev Rep ; 2022 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35122628

RESUMO

Neural stem cell (NSC) therapies are developing rapidly and have been proposed as a treatment option for various neurological diseases, such as stroke, Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis. However, monitoring transplanted NSCs, exploring their location and migration, and evaluating their efficacy and safety have all become serious and important issues. Two main problems in tracking NSCs have been noted: labeling them for visibility and imaging them. Direct labeling and reporter gene labeling are the two main methods for labeling stem cells. Magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear imaging, including positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, and optical imaging, are the most commonly used imaging techniques. Each has its strengths and weaknesses. Thus, multimodal imaging, which combines two or more imaging methods to complement the advantages and disadvantages of each, has garnered increased attention. Advances in image fusion and nanotechnology, as well as the exploration of new tracers and new imaging modalities have substantially facilitated the development of NSC tracking technology. However, the safety issues related to tracking and long-term tracking of cell viability are still challenges. In this review, we discuss the merits and defects of different labeling and imaging methods, as well as recent advances, challenges and prospects in NSC tracking.

13.
Thorac Cancer ; 13(3): 284-295, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35023311

RESUMO

There have been significant advancements in medical techniques in the present epoch, with the emergence of some novel operative substitutes. However, the treatment of tracheal defects still faces tremendous challenges and there is, as yet, no consensus on tracheal and carinal reconstruction. In addition, surgical outcomes vary in different individuals, which results in an ambiguous future for tracheal surgery. Although transplantation was once an effective and promising method, it is limited by a shortage of donors and immune rejection. The development of bioengineering has provided an alternative for the treatment of tracheal defects, but this discipline is full of ethical controversy and hindered by limited cognition in this area. Meanwhile, progression of this technique is blocked by a deficiency in ideal materials. The trachea together with the carina is still the last unpaired organ in thoracic surgery and propososal of a favorable scheme to remove this dilemma is urgently required. In this review, four main tracheal reconstruction methods, especially surgical techniques, are evaluated, and a thorough interpretation conducted.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Traqueia , Aloenxertos/cirurgia , Bioengenharia , Humanos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Traqueia/cirurgia , Transplante Autólogo
14.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 27: 412-426, 2022 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35036054

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) transplantation has been a promising therapeutic strategy for repairing heart tissues post-myocardial infarction (MI). Nevertheless, its therapeutic efficacy remains low, which is mainly ascribed to the low viability of transplanted MSCs. Recently, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to participate in diverse physiological and pathological processes, but little is known about their role in MSC survival. Using unbiased transcriptome profiling of hypoxia-preconditioned MSCs (HP-MSCs) and normoxic MSCs (N-MSCs), we identified a lncRNA named lung cancer-associated transcript 1 (LUCAT1) under hypoxia. LUCAT1 knockdown reduced the survival of engrafted MSCs and decreased the MSC-based therapeutic potency, as shown by impaired cardiac function, reduced cardiomyocyte survival, and increased fibrosis post-MI. Conversely, LUCAT1 overexpression had the opposite results. Mechanistically, LUCAT1 bound with and recruited jumonji domain-containing 6 (JMJD6) to the promoter of forkhead box Q1 (FOXQ1), which demethylated FOXQ1 at H4R3me2(s) and H3R2me2(a), thus downregulating Bax expression and upregulating Bcl-2 expression to attenuate MSC apoptosis. Therefore, our findings revealed the protective effects of LUCAT1 on MSC apoptosis and demonstrated that the LUCAT1-mediated JMJD6-FOXQ1 pathway might represent a novel target to potentiate the therapeutic effect of MSC-based therapy for ischemic cardiovascular diseases.

15.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 28(16): 1850-1857, 2022 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583386

RESUMO

AIMS: Data on the lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) incidence across different cardiovascular health (CVH) categories are scarce. Moreover, it remains unclear whether a genetic predisposition modifies this association. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using data from the prospective population-based Rotterdam Study, a CVH score (body mass index, blood pressure, total cholesterol, smoking status, diet, and physical activity) was calculated and further categorized at baseline. Genetic predisposition to T2D was assessed and divided into tertiles by creating a genetic risk score (GRS). We estimated the lifetime risk for T2D within different CVH and GRS categories. Among 5993 individuals free of T2D at baseline [mean (standard deviation) age, 69.1 (8.5) years; 58% female], 869 individuals developed T2D during follow-up. At age 55 years, the remaining lifetime risk of T2D was 22.6% (95% CI: 19.4-25.8) for ideal, 28.3% (25.8-30.8) for intermediate, and 32.6% (29.0-36.2) for poor CVH. After further stratification by GRS tertiles, the lifetime risk for T2D was still the lowest for ideal CVH in the lowest GRS tertiles [21.5% (13.7-29.3)], in the second GRS tertile [20.8% (15.9-25.8)], and in the highest tertile [23.5% (18.5-28.6)] when compared with poor and intermediate CVH. CONCLUSION: Our results highlight the importance of favourable CVH in preventing T2D among middle-aged individuals regardless of their genetic predisposition.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Sistema Cardiovascular , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
16.
Biotechnol Bioeng ; 119(2): 347-360, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34859425

RESUMO

Nanomaterials, especially superparamagnetic nanomaterials, have recently played essential roles in point-of-care testing due to their intrinsic magnetic, electrochemical, and optical properties. The inherent superparamagnetism of magnetic nanoparticles makes them highly sensitive for quantitative detection. Among the various magnetic detection technologies, frequency mixing technology (FMT) technology is an emerging detection technique in the nanomedical field. FMT sensors have high potential for development in the field of biomedical quantitative detection due to their simple structure, and they are not limited to the materials used. In particular, they can be applied for large-scale disease screening, early tumor marker detection, and low-dose drug detection. This review summarizes the principles of FMT and recent advances in the fields of immunoadsorption, lateral flow assay detection, magnetic imaging, and magnetic nanoparticles recognition. The advantages and limitations of FMT sensors for robust, ultrasensitive biosensing are highlighted. Finally, the future requirements and challenges in the development of this technology are described. This review provides further insights for researchers to inspire the future development of FMT by integration into biosensing and devices with a broad field of applications in analytical sensing and clinical usage.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Biomédica/métodos , Radiação Eletromagnética , Nanopartículas de Magnetita , Testes Imediatos , Animais , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Coelhos
17.
IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell ; 44(3): 1474-1488, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946381

RESUMO

Part-level representations are important for robust person re-identification (ReID), but in practice feature quality suffers due to the body part misalignment problem. In this paper, we present a robust, compact, and easy-to-use method called the Multi-task Part-aware Network (MPN), which is designed to extract semantically aligned part-level features from pedestrian images. MPN solves the body part misalignment problem via multi-task learning (MTL) in the training stage. More specifically, it builds one main task (MT) and one auxiliary task (AT) for each body part on the top of the same backbone model. The ATs are equipped with a coarse prior of the body part locations for training images. ATs then transfer the concept of the body parts to the MTs via optimizing the MT parameters to identify part-relevant channels from the backbone model. Concept transfer is accomplished by means of two novel alignment strategies: namely, parameter space alignment via hard parameter sharing and feature space alignment in a class-wise manner. With the aid of the learned high-quality parameters, MTs can independently extract semantically aligned part-level features from relevant channels in the testing stage. MPN has three key advantages: 1) it does not need to conduct body part detection in the inference stage; 2) its model is very compact and efficient for both training and testing; 3) in the training stage, it requires only coarse priors of body part locations, which are easy to obtain. Systematic experiments on four large-scale ReID databases demonstrate that MPN consistently outperforms state-of-the-art approaches by significant margins.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Pedestres , Algoritmos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos
18.
Math Biosci Eng ; 19(1): 287-308, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34902992

RESUMO

With the rapid development of the high-speed train industry, the high-speed train control system has now been exposed to a complicated network environment full of dangers. This paper provides a speculative parallel data detection algorithm to rapidly detect the potential threats and ensure data transmission security in the railway network. At first, the structure of the high-speed train control data received by the railway control center was analyzed and divided tentatively into small chunks to eliminate the inside dependencies. Then the traditional threat detection algorithm based on deterministic finite automaton was reformed by the speculative parallel optimization so that the inline relationship's influences that affected the data detection order could be avoided. At last, the speculative parallel detection algorithm would inspect the divided data chunks on a distributed platform. With the help of both the speculative parallel technique and the distributed platform, the detection deficiency for train control data was improved significantly. The results showed that the proposed algorithm exhibited better performance and scalability when compared with the traditional, non-parallel detection method, and massive train control data could be inspected and processed promptly. Now it has been proved by practical use that the proposed algorithm was stable and reliable. Our local train control center was able to quickly detect the anomaly and make a fast response during the train control data transmission by adopting the proposed algorithm.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Segurança Computacional
19.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 779365, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34899612

RESUMO

Context: Long-acting recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) has transformed growth hormone deficiency (GHD) treatment. However, the possibility and rationality for flexible time regimen are pending. Objective: We studied the efficacy of biweekly versus weekly PEGylated rhGH (PEG-rhGH) therapy in GHD children. Design Setting and Patients: This multicenter, phase IV trial with a non-inferiority threshold ≥20% enrolled 585 Tanner stage I GHD children. Intervention: Subjects randomly received 0.20 mg/kg once-weekly or biweekly PEG-rhGH, or 0.25 mg/kg.w rhGH once daily for 26 weeks. Main Outcome Measure: The primary outcome was height SD scores for chronological age (HtSDSCA) at week 26 and safety measurements including adverse events (AEs), IGF-2, and IGFBP-2 changes. Results: At week 26, the median HtSDSCA changed from -2.75, -2.82, and -2.78 to -2.31, -2.43, and -2.28 with weekly and biweekly PEG-rhGH, and daily rhGH, respectively. The difference in HtSDSCA was 0.17 ± 0.28 between weekly and biweekly PEG-rhGH, and 0.17 ± 0.27 between daily rhGH and biweekly PEG-rhGH, failing the non-inferiority threshold. Nevertheless, the height velocity of children receiving biweekly PEG-rhGH reached 76.42%-90.34% and 76.08%-90.60% that of children receiving weekly PEG-rhGH and daily rhGH, respectively. The rate of AEs was comparable among the groups. No statistical difference was observed in IGF-2 and IGFBP-2 levels among the groups. IGFBP-2 levels decreased over time in all groups, with no notable difference in IGF-2 and IGFBP-2 changes among the three treatment groups. Conclusions: Although notably promoted height velocity, biweekly PEG-rhGH failed the non-inferiority threshold as compared with either weekly PEG-rhGH or daily rhGH. Compared with short-term rhGH, long-acting PEG-rhGH did not significantly increase tumor-associated IGF-2 and IGFBP-2 expressions. Clinical Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov, identifier NCT02976675.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Crescimento/tratamento farmacológico , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/administração & dosagem , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Esquema de Medicação , Nanismo Hipofisário/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos de Equivalência como Asunto , Feminino , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/deficiência , Humanos , Masculino , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 773419, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34956270

RESUMO

Modern maize exhibits a significantly different phenotype than its wild progenitor teosinte despite many genetic similarities. Of the many subspecies of Zea mays identified as teosinte, Zea mays ssp. parviglumis is the most closely related to domesticated maize. Understanding teosinte genes and their regulations can provide great insights into the maize domestication process and facilitate breeding for future crop improvement. However, a protocol of genetic transformation, which is essential for gene functional analyses, is not available in teosinte. In this study, we report the establishment of a robust callus induction and regeneration protocol using whorl segments of seedlings germinated from mature seeds of Zea parviglumis. We also report, for the first time, the production of fertile, transgenic teosinte plants using the particle bombardment. Using herbicide resistance genes such as mutant acetolactate synthase (Als) or bialaphos resistance (bar) as selectable markers, we achieved an average transformation frequency of 4.17% (percentage of independent transgenic events in total bombarded explants that produced callus). Expression of visual marker genes of red fluorescent protein tdTomato and ß-glucuronidase (gus) could be detected in bombarded callus culture and in T1 and T2 progeny plants. The protocol established in this work provides a major enabling technology for research toward the understanding of this important plant in crop domestication.

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