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1.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821604

RESUMO

Incorporating conductive materials in scaffolds has shown advantages in regulating adhesion, mitigation, and proliferation of electroactive cells for tissue engineering applications. Among various conductive materials, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have shown great promises in tissue engineering because of their good mechanical properties. However, the broad application of CNTs in tissue engineering is limited by current methods to incorporate CNTs in polymers that require miscible solvents to dissolve CNTs and polymers or CNT surface modification. These methods either limit polymer selections or adversely affect the properties of polymer/CNT composites. Here, we report a novel method to fabricate polymer/CNT composite yarns by electrospinning polycaprolactone/gelatin into a bath of CNT dispersion and extracting electrospun fibers out of the bath. The concentration of CNTs in the bath affects the thermal and mechanical properties and the yarns' degradation behavior. In vitro biological test results show that within a limited range of CNT concentrations in the bath, the yarns exhibit good biocompatibility and the ability to guide cell elongation and alignment. We also report the design and fabrication of a vascular scaffold by knitting the yarns into a textile fabric and combining the textile fabric with gelatin. The scaffold has similar mechanical properties to native vessels and supports cell proliferation. This work demonstrates that the wet electrospun polymer/CNT yarns are good candidates for constructing vascular scaffolds and provides a novel method to incorporate CNTs or other functional materials into biopolymers for tissue engineering applications.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7695, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33833247

RESUMO

Biolistic delivery is widely used for genetic transformation but inconsistency between bombardment samples for transient gene expression analysis often hinders quantitative analyses. We developed a methodology to improve the consistency of biolistic delivery results by using a double-barrel device and a cell counting software. The double-barrel device enables a strategy of incorporating an internal control into each sample, which significantly decreases variance of the results. The cell counting software further reduces errors and increases throughput. The utility of this new platform is demonstrated by optimizing conditions for delivering DNA using the commercial transfection reagent TransIT-2020. In addition, the same approach is applied to test the efficacy of multiple gRNAs for CRISPR-Cas9-mediated gene editing. The novel combination of the bombardment device and analysis method allows simultaneous comparison and optimization of parameters in the biolistic delivery. The platform developed here can be broadly applied to any target samples using biolistics, including animal cells and tissues.

3.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 12(3)2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803303

RESUMO

Cell trapping is a very useful technique in a variety of cell-based assays and cellular research fields. It requires a high-throughput, high-efficiency operation to isolate cells of interest and immobilize the captured cells at specific positions. In this study, a dentate spiral microfluidic structure is proposed for cell trapping. The structure consists of a main spiral channel connecting an inlet and an out and a large number of dentate traps on the side of the channel. The density of the traps is high. When a cell comes across an empty trap, the cell suddenly makes a turn and enters the trap. Once the trap captures enough cells, the trap becomes closed and the following cells pass by the trap. The microfluidic structure is optimized based on the investigation of the influence over the flow. In the demonstration, 4T1 mouse breast cancer cells injected into the chip can be efficiently captured and isolated in the different traps. The cell trapping operates at a very high flow rate (40 µL/s) and a high trapping efficiency (>90%) can be achieved. The proposed high-throughput cell-trapping technique can be adopted in the many applications, including rapid microfluidic cell-based assays and isolation of rare circulating tumor cells from a large volume of blood sample.

4.
J Microsc ; 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792928

RESUMO

Three-dimensional (3D) morphology of microparts has an important influence on performance of microassembly system that mainly assembles microparts in millimeter and micron scale. Because 3D morphology of microparts can not be accurately obtained by conventional microscopic vision system, a depth estimation method of surface of micropart in microassembly space based on microscopic vision tomographic scanning (MVTS) images is proposed in this paper. The proposed method uses the positions of pixels with the largest focus values in MVTS image to construct the isodepth contours of surface of micropart and obtains the depth values of micropart's surface at the positions of MVTS by assigning depth values to corresponding isodepth contours. The MVTS images are obtained by MVTS and pixels with the largest focus values in MVTS image are obtained by focus measurement of MVTS images of micropart in microassembly space. On these bases, 3D spatial interpolation method is applied to map depth value of space between adjacent isodepth contours and to obtain depth values of all surface of micropart. Simulation experiments are carried out to verify the proposed method by generating simulated MVTS image array from two simulation objects, and the influence parameters of the proposed method are analyzed. In established experimental setup of microassembly that can realize MVTS, experimental verification for the proposed depth estimation method are carried out by using cone cavity and end jaws of microgripper. 3D morphologies of depth maps of cone cavity and end jaws of microgripper are registered with their respective CAD models using iterative nearest point registration algorithm to quantify accuracy of depth estimation. The research results show that 3D morphology of micropart can be obtained by the proposed method and has better accuracy than those by conventional shape from focus method. This method provides a new way to obtain the morphology of microparts and lays a foundation for improving the accuracy and efficiency of gripping, alignment and approaching microparts in microassembly systems. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

5.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(584)2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692129

RESUMO

Stem cell-derived small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) promote angiogenesis after myocardial infarction (MI). However, the components of sEVs that contribute to these effects and the safety and efficiency of engineered sEV treatment for MI remain unresolved. Here, we observed improved cardiac function, enhanced vascular density, and smaller infarct size in mice treated with the sEVs from hypoxia-preconditioned (HP) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) (HP-sEVs) than in mice treated with normoxia-preconditioned (N) MSCs (N-sEVs). MicroRNA profiling revealed a higher abundance of miR-486-5p in HP-sEVs than in N-sEVs, and miR-486-5p inactivation abolished the benefit of HP-sEV treatment, whereas miR-486-5p up-regulation enhanced the benefit of N-sEV treatment. Matrix metalloproteinase 19 (MMP19) abundance was lower in HP-sEV-treated than N-sEV-treated mouse hearts but was enriched in cardiac fibroblasts (CFs), and Mmp19 was identified as one of the target genes of miR-486-5p. Conditioned medium from CFs that overexpressed miR-486-5p or silenced MMP19 increased the angiogenic activity of endothelial cells; however, medium from CFs that simultaneously overexpressed Mmp19 and miR-486-5p abolished this effect. Mmp19 silencing in CFs reduced the cleavage of extracellular vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Furthermore, miR-486-5p-overexpressing N-sEV treatment promoted angiogenesis and cardiac recovery without increasing arrhythmia complications in a nonhuman primate (NHP) MI model. Collectively, this study highlights the key role of sEV miR-486-5p in promoting cardiac angiogenesis via fibroblastic MMP19-VEGFA cleavage signaling. Delivery of miR-486-5p-engineered sEVs safely enhanced angiogenesis and cardiac function in an NHP MI model and may promote cardiac repair.

6.
IEEE Trans Image Process ; 30: 3405-3418, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33651691

RESUMO

Existing part-aware person re-identification methods typically employ two separate steps: namely, body part detection and part-level feature extraction. However, part detection introduces an additional computational cost and is inherently challenging for low-quality images. Accordingly, in this work, we propose a simple framework named Batch Coherence-Driven Network (BCD-Net) that bypasses body part detection during both the training and testing phases while still learning semantically aligned part features. Our key observation is that the statistics in a batch of images are stable, and therefore that batch-level constraints are robust. First, we introduce a batch coherence-guided channel attention (BCCA) module that highlights the relevant channels for each respective part from the output of a deep backbone model. We investigate channel-part correspondence using a batch of training images, then impose a novel batch-level supervision signal that helps BCCA to identify part-relevant channels. Second, the mean position of a body part is robust and consequently coherent between batches throughout the training process. Accordingly, we introduce a pair of regularization terms based on the semantic consistency between batches. The first term regularizes the high responses of BCD-Net for each part on one batch in order to constrain it within a predefined area, while the second encourages the aggregate of BCD-Net's responses for all parts covering the entire human body. The above constraints guide BCD-Net to learn diverse, complementary, and semantically aligned part-level features. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that BCD-Net consistently achieves state-of-the-art performance on four large-scale ReID benchmarks.

7.
J Math Biol ; 82(4): 31, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33694073

RESUMO

Efflux pumps are a mechanism of intrinsic and evolved resistance in bacteria. If an efflux pump can expel an antibiotic so that its concentration within the cell is below a killing threshold the bacteria are resistant to the antibiotic. Efflux pumps may be specific or they may pump various different substances. This is why many efflux pumps confer multi drug resistance (MDR). In particular over expression of the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump system confers MDR in both Salmonella and Escherichia coli. We consider the complex gene regulation network that controls expression of genes central to controlling the efflux associated genes acrAB and acrEF in Salmonella. We present the first mathematical model of this gene regulatory network in the form of a system of ordinary differential equations. Using a time dependent asymptotic analysis, we examine in detail the behaviour of the efflux system on various different timescales. Asymptotic approximations of the steady states provide an analytical comparison of targets for efflux inhibition.

8.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 413(9): 2429-2445, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712916

RESUMO

Microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (µPADs) have developed rapidly in recent years, because of their advantages, such as small sample volume, rapid detection rates, low cost, and portability. Due to these characteristics, they can be used for in vitro diagnostics in the laboratory, or in the field, for a variety of applications, including food evaluation, disease screening, environmental monitoring, and drug testing. This review will present various detection methods employed by µPADs and their respective applications for the detection of target analytes. These include colorimetry, electrochemistry, chemiluminescence (CL), electrochemiluminescence (ECL), and fluorescence-based methodologies. At the same time, the choice of labeling material and the design of microfluidic channels are also important for detection results. The construction of novel nanocomponents and different smart structures of paper-based devices have improved the performance of µPADs and we will also highlight some of these in this manuscript. Additionally, some key challenges and future prospects for the use of µPADs are briefly discussed.

9.
mBio ; 12(2)2021 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33785633

RESUMO

In the fight against antibiotic resistance, drugs that target resistance mechanisms in bacteria can be used to restore the therapeutic effectiveness of antibiotics. The multidrug resistance efflux complex AcrAB-TolC is the most clinically relevant efflux pump in Enterobacterales and is a target for drug discovery. Inhibition of the pump protein AcrB allows the intracellular accumulation of a wide variety of antibiotics, effectively restoring their therapeutic potency. To facilitate the development of AcrB efflux inhibitors, it is desirable to discover the native substrates of the pump, as these could be chemically modified to become inhibitors. We analyzed the native substrate profile of AcrB in Escherichia coli MG1655 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL1344 using an untargeted metabolomics approach. We analyzed the endo- and exometabolome of the wild-type strain and their respective AcrB loss-of-function mutants (AcrB D408A) to determine the metabolites that are native substrates of AcrB. Although there is 95% homology between the AcrB proteins of S. Typhimurium and E. coli, we observed mostly different metabolic responses in the exometabolomes of the S. Typhimurium and E. coli AcrB D408A mutants relative to those in the wild type, potentially indicating a differential metabolic adaptation to the same mutation in these two species. Additionally, we uncovered metabolite classes that could be involved in virulence of S. Typhimurium and a potential natural substrate of AcrB common to both species.IMPORTANCE Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria pose a global threat to human health. The AcrB efflux pump confers inherent and evolved drug resistance to Enterobacterales, including Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. We provide insights into the physiological role of AcrB: (i) we observe that loss of AcrB function in two highly related species, E. coli and S. Typhimurium, has different biological effects despite AcrB conferring drug resistance to the same groups of antibiotics in both species, and (ii) we identify potential natural substrates of AcrB, some of which are in metabolite classes implicated in the virulence of S. Typhimurium. Molecules that inhibit multidrug efflux potentiate the activity of old, licensed, and new antibiotics. The additional significance of our research is in providing data about the identity of potential natural substrates of AcrB in both species. Data on these will facilitate the discovery of, and/or could be chemically modified to become, new efflux inhibitors.

10.
Analyst ; 146(5): 1514-1528, 2021 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33595550

RESUMO

Recently, lateral flow assay (LFA) for nucleic acid detection has drawn increasing attention in the point-of-care testing fields. Due to its rapidity, easy implementation, and low equipment requirement, it is well suited for use in rapid diagnosis, food authentication, and environmental monitoring under source-limited conditions. This review will discuss two main research directions of lateral flow nucleic acid tests. The first one is the incorporation of isothermal amplification methods with LFA, which ensures an ultra-high testing sensitivity under non-laboratory conditions. The two most commonly used methodologies will be discussed, namely Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) and Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA), and some novel methods with special properties will also be introduced. The second research direction is the development of novel labeling materials. It endeavors to increase the sensitivity and quantifiability of LFA testing, where signals can be read and analyzed by portable devices. These methods are compared in terms of limits of detection, detection times, and quantifiabilities. It is anticipated that future research on lateral flow nucleic acid tests will focus on the integration of the whole testing process into a microfluidic system and the combination with molecular diagnostic tools such as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats to facilitate a rapid and accurate test.

11.
Anal Chem ; 93(7): 3626-3634, 2021 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557514

RESUMO

Multimodal lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) has shown promise for improving both the flexibility and practicability of point-of-care test. We report here a facile, in situ growth method for preparing multifunctional core-shell-shell nano-sunflowers with a unique combination of color-magnetic-Raman properties. The use of Fe3O4 nanobeads with high saturation magnetization as the magnetic core allowed for robust magnetic signal strength-even after successive coatings of polydopamine and gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). Carefully selected 4-mercaptobenzonitrile molecules not only contributed to the growth of the Au NP shell but also generated a strong, surface-enhanced Raman scattering signal. The resulting nanomaterials were successfully used in the construction of multimodal LFIA with one qualitative and two alternative quantitative detection modes of different sensitivity levels. The limit of detection for the paradigm target-human chorionic gonadotropin-was 10 mIU/mL in color mode, 1.2 mIU/mL in magnetic mode, and 0.2 mIU/mL in Raman mode.

12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4014, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597551

RESUMO

Deep learning is an emerging tool, which is regularly used for disease diagnosis in the medical field. A new research direction has been developed for the detection of early-stage gastric cancer. The computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems reduce the mortality rate due to their effectiveness. In this study, we proposed a new method for feature extraction using a stacked sparse autoencoder to extract the discriminative features from the unlabeled data of breath samples. A Softmax classifier was then integrated to the proposed method of feature extraction, to classify gastric cancer from the breath samples. Precisely, we identified fifty peaks in each spectrum to distinguish the EGC, AGC, and healthy persons. This CAD system reduces the distance between the input and output by learning the features and preserve the structure of the input data set of breath samples. The features were extracted from the unlabeled data of the breath samples. After the completion of unsupervised training, autoencoders with Softmax classifier were cascaded to develop a deep stacked sparse autoencoder neural network. In last, fine-tuning of the developed neural network was carried out with labeled training data to make the model more reliable and repeatable. The proposed deep stacked sparse autoencoder neural network architecture exhibits excellent results, with an overall accuracy of 98.7% for advanced gastric cancer classification and 97.3% for early gastric cancer detection using breath analysis. Moreover, the developed model produces an excellent result for recall, precision, and f score value, making it suitable for clinical application.

13.
Environ Int ; 151: 106448, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lead (Pb) is known to induce detrimental health effects in exposed populations, including hematotoxicity and genotoxicity. Complete blood count (CBC) is a cost-effective and easy way to determine toxicity, and variations in proportion of different types of leukocytes: neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) are further evidence of hematotoxicity. However, few studies have been conducted to systematically evaluate effects of occupational Pb exposure on NLR and LMR, and their associations with genotoxicity. OBJECTIVES: Our study was aimed to systematically assess the effects of current occupational Pb exposure on NLR and LMR, and their associations with genotoxicity. METHODS: Our investigation was performed on 1176 workers from a newly built battery factory in North China. The workers had just entered their current job position in recent years and most of them had no previous history of occupational exposure to Pb. Blood lead levels (BLLs) and leukocytes indices were detected for all participants. Cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay (MN; n = 675) and alkaline comet assay (% tail DNA; n = 869) were used to assess genotoxicity. Multivariate linear and Poisson regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between leukocytes indices, genotoxic biomarkers and BLLs with adjustment for covariates. Spearman correlation and mediation analyses were used to investigate relationships between NLR and genotoxicity. RESULTS: Among all the exposed workers, NLR increased with increasing BLLs. However, WBC and LMR did not change significantly. Significant and dose-dependent increases in both MN frequencies and % tail DNA were observed among groups with different exposure doses. Compared with the normal NLR group (1.48 ≤ NLR < 4.58), the high NLR group (NLR ≥ 4.58) had higher % tail DNA. In addition, there was a significant and positive association between NLR and % tail DNA among all the workers, and % tail DNA mediated 15% of the effect of Pb on increasing NLR. CONCLUSION: Our large-scale population study shows that Pb exposure increased NLR and induced genotoxicity. There was an association between elevated NLR and DNA damage. In addition, the mediation effect of % tail DNA on the relationship between BLLs and NLR provided mechanistic evidence that certain mechanisms, e.g. inflammation, may be involved in elevation of NLR from Pb exposure. Therefore, NLR may be a convenient and sensitive biomarker for indication of Pb toxicity. Further studies are needed to validate the proposed mechanism and NLR as a biomarker.

14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(6)2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495363

RESUMO

As all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO) are widely accepted in treating acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), deescalating toxicity becomes a research hotspot. Here, we evaluated whether chemotherapy could be replaced or reduced by ATO in APL patients at different risks. After achieving complete remission with ATRA-ATO-based induction therapy, patients were randomized (1:1) into ATO and non-ATO groups for consolidation: ATRA-ATO versus ATRA-anthracycline for low-/intermediate-risk patients, or ATRA-ATO-anthracycline versus ATRA-anthracycline-cytarabine for high-risk patients. The primary end point was to assess disease-free survival (DFS) at 3 y by a noninferiority margin of -5%; 855 patients were enrolled with a median follow-up of 54.9 mo, and 658 of 755 patients could be evaluated at 3 y. In the ATO group, 96.1% (319/332) achieved 3-y DFS, compared to 92.6% (302/326) in the non-ATO group. The difference was 3.45% (95% CI -0.07 to 6.97), confirming noninferiority (P < 0.001). Using the Kaplan-Meier method, the estimated 7-y DFS was 95.7% (95% CI 93.6 to 97.9) in ATO and 92.6% (95% CI 89.8 to 95.4) in non-ATO groups (P = 0.066). Concerning secondary end points, the 7-y cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) was significantly lower in ATO (2.2% [95% CI 1.1 to 4.2]) than in non-ATO group (6.1% [95% CI 3.9 to 9.5], P = 0.011). In addition, grade 3 to 4 hematological toxicities were significantly reduced in the ATO group during consolidation. Hence, ATRA-ATO in both chemotherapy-replacing and -reducing settings in consolidation is not inferior to ATRA-chemotherapy (https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/, NCT01987297).

15.
Molecules ; 26(3)2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494541

RESUMO

Catechol is a key constituent in mussel adhesive proteins and is responsible for strong adhesive property and crosslinking formation. Plant-based polyphenols are also capable of chemical interactions similar to those of catechol and are inherently antimicrobial. This review reports a series of catechol-based antimicrobial polymers classified according to their antimicrobial mechanisms. Catechol is utilized as a surface anchoring group for adhering monomers and polymers of known antimicrobial properties onto various types of surfaces. Additionally, catechol's ability to form strong complexes with metal ions and nanoparticles was utilized to sequester these antimicrobial agents into coatings and polymer matrices. During catechol oxidation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) is generated as a byproduct, and the use of the generated ROS for antimicrobial applications was also introduced. Finally, polymers that utilized the innate antimicrobial property of halogenated catechols and polyphenols were reviewed.

16.
Environ Pollut ; 271: 116329, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370612

RESUMO

Limited data were on the acute respiratory responses in the elderly in response to personal exposure of particulate matter (PM). In order to evaluate the changes of airway inflammation and pulmonary functions in the elderly in response to individual exposure of particles (PM1.0, PM2.5 and PM10), we analyzed 43 elderly subjects with either asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or Asthma COPD Overlap (ACO) and 40 age-matched subjects without asthma nor COPD in an urban community in Shanghai, China. Data were collected at the baseline and in 6 follow-ups from August 2016 to December 2018, once every 3 months except for the last twice with a 6-month interval. In each follow-up, pulmonary functions, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), 7-day continuous personal exposure to airborne particles were measured. Multivariate linear mixed effect regression models were applied to investigate the quantitative changes of pulmonary functions and FeNO in two respective groups. The results showed that on average 4.7 follow-up visits were completed in each participant. In subjects with CRDs, an inter-quartile range (IQR) increase of personal exposure to PM1.0, PM2.5 and PM10 was significantly associated with an average increase of FeNO(Lag1) of 6.7 ppb (95%CI 1.2, 9.9 ppb), 6.2 ppb (95%CI 1.5, 12.0 ppb) and 5.6 ppb (95%CI 1.5, 11.0 ppb), respectively, and an average decrease of FEV1(Lag2) of -3.6 L (95%CI -6.0, -1.1 L), -3.6 L (95%CI -6.4, -0.8 L) and -3.2 L (95%CI -5.8, -0.6 L), respectively, in the single-pollutant model. These associations remained consistent in the two-pollutant models adjusting for gaseous air pollutants. Stratified analysis showed that subjects with lower BMI, females and non-allergies were more sensitive to particle exposure. No robust significant effects were observed in the subjects without CRDs. Our study provided data on the susceptibility of the elderly with CRDs to particle exposure of PM1.0 and PM2.5, and the modification effects by BMI, gender and history of allergies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise
17.
J Environ Manage ; 278(Pt 2): 111556, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137685

RESUMO

The Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used for exploring the sources and retention dynamics of phosphorus nutrient in the river system of the Yong River Basin, China. The performance of the SWAT model was assessed. The retention dynamics of phosphorus nutrient in the river continuum and the factors contributing to those patterns were studied. The results showed that an average of 1828 tons of TP entered the river network of the Yong River Basin annually and in-stream processes trapped 1161 tons yr-1 of TP in the watercourse, which accounted for 63.5% of the annual TP inputs. The TP retention rates in the river network ranged from 3.08 to 63.43 mg m-2 day-1. An average of 666.9 tons of TP was delivered from the estuary to the East China Sea annually. The unit area riverine exports of TP ranged from 102.21 to 244.00 kg km-2 yr-1. The river network is a net sink for TP and is going through a phosphorus accumulation phase. The results confirm that the river system has a considerable phosphorus retention capacity that is highly variable on a spatiotemporal scale. Because of the cumulative effect of continued phosphorus removal along the entire flow path, the retention fractions of phosphorus removed from all streams at the basin scale is considerably higher than that of an individual river portion. The variations of hydrological regimes, water surface area, unit area inputs of phosphorus, and the concentrations of suspended sediments have a great influence on phosphorus retention.


Assuntos
Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Nitrogênio/análise , Nutrientes , Fósforo/análise , Solo , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
18.
Chemosphere ; 263: 128044, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297059

RESUMO

Proteins in extracellular polymeric substances play a vital role in adsorbing organic contaminants in biological wastewater treatment processes, but there is still lack of a fast and effective approach to monitor their interaction. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) was used to investigate the binding and viscoelastic properties of ciprofloxacin (CIP) on extracellular proteins from activated sludge by a two-step sequential deposition method. A saturated viscoelastic monolayer of proteins was formed on the crystal by injecting 500 mg L-1 extracellular proteins. Binding of CIP with the extracellular proteins film followed the pseudo-first-order kinetic equation and Langmuir model, with the maximum binding capacity of 172.4 mg g-1. The binding mass, energy dissipation, and reaction rate constant increased with increasing CIP concentration. A strong binding was obtained at pH 5, suggesting electrostatic interactions as the dominating binding mechanism. Cations inhibited CIP binding with extracellular proteins, probably due to cations competition. Two binding periods were distinguished according to the viscoelastic properties of CIP layer: viscous binding in the initial period and elastic towards binding saturation. Results highlighted QCM-D as an effective and real-time technique to evaluate the role of extracellular proteins in contaminants removal.


Assuntos
Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas , Esgotos , Ciprofloxacino , Proteínas , Quartzo , Técnicas de Microbalança de Cristal de Quartzo
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375249

RESUMO

The contradiction between the supply and demand of public medical resources in China is serious. On the basis of the "graded diagnosis and treatment" model, the Chinese government divides the medical grade and adjusts the allocation of medical facilities so as to alleviate the adverse impact of these issues on residents' health. Although the government tries to guide residents' medical treatment according to the level of medical facilities, there are differences between residents' medical treatment mode and policy rules in reality. Therefore, it is of great significance to explore spatial differences in accessibility to medical services for residents on the basis of the actual medical behavior. This article takes Shaanxi province as the research area, and uses the improved node cost network analysis method with the space-time distance model and the two-step floating catchment area method, respectively, to analyze the spatial differences of accessibility to three-level medical services and evaluate the equity of accessibility in different areas and groups in Shaanxi. Results showed that the overall level of accessibility to primary medical services in the province is good, and spatial distribution is balanced; the polarization of accessibility to secondary and tertiary medical services is a serious issue, and within the research area, a band-shaped multicore spatial structure was formed with the built-up areas of various cities as high-level centers of accessibility. Provincial residents have poor equity to access three-level medical services, and the equity of accessibility to primary medical services is better than that to highly specialized medical services. There is no obvious gap between accessibility to three-level medical services for the aging and the nonaging populations in Shaanxi, but the unfair phenomenon between agricultural and the nonagricultural populations is prominent. In addition, this article found that the improvement in traffic conditions can produce space-time convergence and effectively weaken spatial deprivation. Therefore, developing public transportation is an effective approach to improve the equity of accessibility to medical services.


Assuntos
Instalações de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Área Programática de Saúde , China , Cidades , Análise Espacial
20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(22)2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227991

RESUMO

With the rapid development of MEMS, the demand for metal microstructure is increasing. Micro electrochemical milling technology (MECM) is capable of manufacturing micro metallic devices or components based on the principle of electrochemical anode dissolution. To improve the capacity of MECM, this paper presents a compound method named ultrasonic vibration-assisted micro electrochemical milling technology (UA-MECM). Firstly, the simulation and mathematical model of UA-MECM process is established to explain the mechanism of ultrasonic vibration on micro electrochemical milling. Then, the effects of ultrasonic parameters, electrical parameters and feedrate on machining localization and surface quality are discussed considering sets of experiments. The surface roughness was effectively reduced from Ra 0.83 to Ra 0.26 µm with the addition of ultrasonic vibration. It turns out that ultrasonic vibration can obviously improve machining precision, efficiency and quality. Finally, two- and three-dimensional microstructures with good surface quality were successful fabricated. It shows that ultrasonic vibration-assisted electrochemical milling technology has excellent machining performance, which has potential and broad industrial application prospects.

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