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1.
Ann Work Expo Health ; 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219297

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Numerous states within the USA have legalized cannabis for medical or non-medical (adult/recreational) use. With the increased availability and use of cannabis, occupational and environmental exposures to secondhand cannabis smoke (SHCS) raise concerns over whether non-users may be at risk for a 'contact high', impaired neurocognitive function, harm from irritants and carcinogens in smoke, or potentially failing a cannabis screening test. The extent of health effects from potential occupational exposure to SHCS is unknown. This is a study of occupational exposures to SHCS among law enforcement officers (LEOs) providing security at outdoor concerts on a college campus in a state where adult use of cannabis is legal. METHODS: Investigators evaluated a convenience sample of LEOs' potential exposure to SHCS and symptoms experienced while providing security during two open-air stadium rock-n-roll concerts on consecutive days in July 2018. During each event, full-shift area and LEO personal air samples were collected for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), the psychoactive component of cannabis. Urine (pre- and postevent; n = 58) and blood (postevent; n = 29) were also collected and analyzed for Δ9-THC and two of its metabolites [11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) and 11-nor-hydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (OH-THC)]. Urine samples were analyzed using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled with positive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and results were compared with the Department of Transportation guidelines for urine screening for cannabis. Blood (postevent) samples were also collected and the plasma fraction was tested for Δ9-THC, THC-COOH, and OH-THC using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. LEOs also completed a medical questionnaire asking about symptoms experienced during the concerts. RESULTS: Twenty-nine LEOs participated in the evaluation. Measurable amounts of Δ9-THC were found in area (concentrations ranged from non-detectable to 330 ng m-3) and personal air samples (53-480 ng m-3). Small amounts (<1.0 ng ml-1) of a Δ9-THC metabolite (THC-COOH) were found in the postevent urine of 34% of LEOs. Neither Δ9-THC nor its metabolites were detected in any blood sample. LEOs reported experiencing non-specific symptoms during the concerts, such as burning, itchy, or red eyes (31%); dry mouth (21%); headache (21%); and coughing (21%). CONCLUSIONS: Identification of Δ9-THC in the breathing zone for some LEOs indicates the potential for airborne exposure to the psychoactive component of cannabis. However, the magnitude of these exposures was small compared with those that would result in a dose of Δ9-THC associated with psychotropic effects. Similarly, THC-COOH was found in the postevent urine of some LEOs at concentrations that were orders of magnitude below active use cut-points used during a cannabis screening test (50 ng ml-1). Exposure to SHCS was not high enough to detect concentrations of THC, THC-COOH, to OH-THC in the blood, which could be due to differences between the limits of detection for the tests employed. The ocular and respiratory symptoms reported by LEOs may be related to irritants in SHCS. However, the health effects of SHCS remain unclear, and further research concerning occupational and environmental exposures is warranted.

2.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(4): 880-886, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The FDA is considering a mandated reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes. Clinical trials have been limited by non-study cigarette use (noncompliance), which could mask compensation. The goal of this study was to assess whether compensation occurs when smokers provided with very low nicotine cigarettes cannot access normal nicotine cigarettes. METHODS: In a within-subjects, crossover design, current smokers (n = 16) were confined to a hotel for two 4-night hotel stays during which they were only able to access the research cigarettes provided. The hotel stays offered normal nicotine cigarettes or very low nicotine content (VLNC) cigarettes, in an unblinded design, available for "purchase" via a study bank. RESULTS: In the context of complete compliance with the study cigarettes (n = 16), there was not a significant increase during the VLNC condition for cigarettes smoked per day, expired carbon monoxide, or N-acetyl-S-(cyanoethyl)-l-cysteine (cyanoethyl-MA, metabolite of acrylonitrile). There was a significant nicotine × time interaction on urine N-acetyl-S-(3-hydroxypropyl)-l-cysteine (hydroxypropyl-MA, metabolite of acrolein), driven by an increase in the VLNC condition during the first 24 hours. By the end of the VLNC condition, there was no evidence of compensation across any measure of smoking or smoke exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Among current smokers who exclusively used VLNC cigarettes for 4 days, there was no significant compensatory smoking behavior. IMPACT: These data, combined with the larger body of work, suggest that a mandated reduction in nicotine content is unlikely to result in an increase in smoking behavior to obtain more nicotine.

3.
J Cell Physiol ; 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020591

RESUMO

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to dysregulate and involve in the pathology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Nonetheless, the functional role of lncRNA T cell leukemia/lymphoma 6 (TCL6) and its underlying mechanism in HCC remain unclear. Herein, we analyzed the expression of TCL6 and elucidated its mechanistic involvement in HCC. Bioinformatics analyses indicated TCL6 was evidently downregulated in HCC tissues compared with normal controls. TCL6 was downregulated while microRNA-106a-5p (miR-106a-5p) was upregulated in HCC cell lines. Moreover, knockdown or overexpression of TCL6 significantly raised or diminished the expression level of miR-106a-5p in HCC cells, similar to the effect of miR-106a-5p on TCL6 expression. Functionally, TCL6 inhibited the proliferative, migratory, and invasive potentials of HCC cells as analyzed by cell counting kit-8, scratch wound healing, and transwell assays, respectively. Conversely, miR-106a-5p exerted an opposite effect on the proliferative, migratory, and invasive potentials of HCC. RNA immune precipitation and luciferase reporter assays revealed TCL6 directly bound to miR-106a-5p and luciferase reporter assay verified phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) was a target gene of miR-106a-5p. Mechanistically, TCL6 knockdown evidently reduced PTEN expression at both messenger RNA and protein levels, and miR-106a-5p inhibitor partially rescued this reduction effect in HCC cells. Additionally, western blot assays demonstrated miR-106a-5p downregulation or TCL6 overexpression promoted the protein level of PTEN, and suppressed the phosphorylation level of AKT, the protein level of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Collectively, these results revealed TCL6 as a tumor-suppressive lncRNA regulates PI3K/AKT signaling pathway via directly binding to miR-106a-5p in HCC. This mechanism provides a theoretical basis for HCC pathogenesis and a potential therapeutic strategy for HCC treatment.

5.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(3): 659-667, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31988072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Monitoring population-level toxicant exposures from smokeless tobacco (SLT) use is important for assessing population health risks due to product use. In this study, we assessed tobacco biomarkers of exposure (BOE) among SLT users from the Wave 1 (2013-2014) of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study. METHODS: Urinary biospecimens were collected from adults ages 18 and older. Biomarkers of nicotine, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), volatile organic compounds (VOC), metals, and inorganic arsenic were analyzed and reported among exclusive current established SLT users in comparison with exclusive current established cigarette smokers, dual SLT and cigarette users, and never tobacco users. RESULTS: In general, SLT users (n = 448) have significantly higher concentrations of BOE to nicotine, TSNAs, and PAHs compared with never tobacco users; significant dose-response relationships between frequency of SLT use and biomarker concentrations were also reported among exclusive SLT daily users. Exclusive SLT daily users have higher geometric mean concentrations of total nicotine equivalent-2 (TNE2) and TSNAs than exclusive cigarette daily smokers. In contrast, geometric mean concentrations of PAHs and VOCs were substantially lower among exclusive SLT daily users than exclusive cigarette daily smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Our study produced a comprehensive assessment of SLT product use and 52 biomarkers of tobacco exposure. Compared with cigarette smokers, SLT users experience greater concentrations of some tobacco toxicants, including nicotine and TSNAs. IMPACT: Our data add information on the risk assessment of exposure to SLT-related toxicants. High levels of harmful constituents in SLT remain a health concern.

6.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(3): 650-658, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is little information on human exposure to carcinogens and other toxicants related to opiate use, alone or in combination with tobacco. METHODS: Among male participants of the Golestan Cohort Study in Northeast Iran, we studied 28 never users of either opiates or tobacco, 33 exclusive cigarette smokers, 23 exclusive users of smoked opiates, and 30 opiate users who also smoked cigarettes (dual users; 21 smoked opiates and 9 ingested them). We quantified urinary concentrations of 39 exposure biomarkers, including tobacco alkaloids, tobacco-specific nitrosamines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and volatile organic compounds (VOC), and used decomposition to parse out the share of the biomarker concentrations explained by opiate use and nicotine dose. RESULTS: Dual users had the highest concentrations of all biomarkers, but exclusive cigarette smokers and exclusive opiate users had substantially higher concentrations of PAH and VOC biomarkers than never users of either product. Decomposition analysis showed that opiate use contributed a larger part of the PAH concentrations than nicotine dose, and the sum of 2- and 3-hydroxyphenanthrene (∑2,3-phe) resulted almost completely from opiate use. Concentrations of most VOC biomarkers were explained by both nicotine dose and opiate use. Two acrylamide metabolites, a 1,3-butadiene metabolite and a dimethylformamide metabolite, were more strongly explained by opiate use. Acrylamide metabolites and ∑2,3-phe were significantly higher in opiate smokers than opiate eaters; other biomarkers did not vary by the route of opiate intake. CONCLUSIONS: Both cigarette smokers and opiate users (by smoking or ingestion) were exposed to many toxicants and carcinogens. IMPACT: This high exposure, particularly among dual opiate and cigarette users, can have a substantial global public health impact.

7.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(1): 103-111, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) are a group of hazardous substances produced during combustion of tobacco or high-temperature cooking of meats. 2-Amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC) is a major carcinogenic HAA in tobacco smoke. METHODS: Urinary AαC, used as a marker of AαC exposure, was analyzed on spot urine samples from adult participants of the 2013-2014 cycle of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (N = 1,792). AαC was measured using isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Exclusive combusted tobacco smokers were differentiated from nonusers of tobacco products through both self-report and serum cotinine data. RESULTS: Among exclusive smokers, sample-weighted median urinary AαC was 40 times higher than nonusers. Sample-weighted regression models showed that urinary AαC increased significantly with serum cotinine among both exclusive tobacco users and nonusers with secondhand smoke exposure. Among nonusers, eating beef cooked at high temperature was associated with a significant increase in urinary AαC, whereas consuming vegetables was associated with decreased AαC. In addition, smoking one-half pack of cigarettes per day was associated with a significant increase of 23.6 pg AαC/mL calculated at geometric mean of AαC, controlling for potential confounders. In comparison, increase in AαC attributable to consuming the 99th percentile of beef cooked at high temperature was 0.99 pg AαC/mL. CONCLUSIONS: Both exclusive smokers and nonusers of tobacco in the general U.S. population are exposed to AαC from tobacco smoke, with additional, lesser contributions from certain dietary components. IMPACT: AαC is an important biomarker that is associated with tobacco smoke exposure.

8.
N Engl J Med ; 382(8): 697-705, 2020 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The causative agents for the current national outbreak of electronic-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) have not been established. Detection of toxicants in bronchoalveolar-lavage (BAL) fluid from patients with EVALI can provide direct information on exposure within the lung. METHODS: BAL fluids were collected from 51 patients with EVALI in 16 states and from 99 healthy participants who were part of an ongoing study of smoking involving nonsmokers, exclusive users of e-cigarettes or vaping products, and exclusive cigarette smokers that was initiated in 2015. Using the BAL fluid, we performed isotope dilution mass spectrometry to measure several priority toxicants: vitamin E acetate, plant oils, medium-chain triglyceride oil, coconut oil, petroleum distillates, and diluent terpenes. RESULTS: State and local health departments assigned EVALI case status as confirmed for 25 patients and as probable for 26 patients. Vitamin E acetate was identified in BAL fluid obtained from 48 of 51 case patients (94%) in 16 states but not in such fluid obtained from the healthy comparator group. No other priority toxicants were found in BAL fluid from the case patients or the comparator group, except for coconut oil and limonene, which were found in 1 patient each. Among the case patients for whom laboratory or epidemiologic data were available, 47 of 50 (94%) had detectable tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or its metabolites in BAL fluid or had reported vaping THC products in the 90 days before the onset of illness. Nicotine or its metabolites were detected in 30 of 47 of the case patients (64%). CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin E acetate was associated with EVALI in a convenience sample of 51 patients in 16 states across the United States. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute and others.).


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/patologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Vitamina E/análise , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Fumar Cigarros , Óleo de Coco/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Limoneno/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Mater Chem B ; 8(3): 558-567, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854433

RESUMO

The use of bone tissue engineering scaffolds has become a promising potential treatment for bone defects as they expedite bone healing. A carbon nanotube-hydroxyapatite (CNT-HA) composite can accelerate the growth of cells. However, the molecular organized arrangement of organic and inorganic components is one of the most important biochemical phenomena in the formation of bones. This study aimed to prepare ordered CNT-HA scaffolds by applying agarose gel electrophoresis to imitate a biomimetic parallel pattern of collagens and hydroxyapatite hydrogel scaffolds (AG-Col-o-CNT). Significant improvements were presented in the mechanical properties of the scaffolds and cell growth in vitro or in vivo. The results showed that the AG-Col-o-CNT scaffolds accelerated the proliferation and differentiation of bone mesenchymal stem cell lines. In addition, the bone defects were repaired when the scaffolds were transplanted after 28 and 56 days in vivo. The superior performance of the ordered AG-Col-o-CNT scaffolds indicates that they have an enormous potential for bone tissue engineering.

10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(45): 1040-1041, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725707

RESUMO

CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), state and local health departments, and multiple public health and clinical partners are investigating a national outbreak of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI). Based on data collected as of October 15, 2019, 86% of 867 EVALI patients reported using tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-containing products in the 3 months preceding symptom onset (1). Analyses of THC-containing product samples by FDA and state public health laboratories have identified potentially harmful constituents in these products, such as vitamin E acetate, medium chain triglyceride oil (MCT oil), and other lipids (2,3) (personal communication, D.T. Heitkemper, FDA Forensic Chemistry Center, November 2019). Vitamin E acetate, in particular, might be used as an additive in the production of e-cigarette, or vaping, products; it also can be used as a thickening agent in THC products (4). Inhalation of vitamin E acetate might impair lung function (5-7).


Assuntos
Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Surtos de Doenças , Lesão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Onco Targets Ther ; 12: 8751-8763, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31749621

RESUMO

Background: The anticancer effects of cordyceps on various tumors have been reported. However, little is known about the role of selenium (Se)-enriched Cordyceps militaris in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, the effects of Se-enriched Cordyceps militaris on cell proliferation, cell apoptosis and cell cycle in NSCLC cell line NCI-H292 and A549 were investigated. Methods: CCK-8 assay was used to determine the appropriate concentrations of Se-enriched Cordyceps militaris in NSCLC (namely NCI-H292 and A549) cells. Colony formation assay, flow cytometric and Hoechst 33342 staining assays, and flow cytometric analysis were separately employed to assess the effect of increased Se-enriched Cordyceps militaris on NSCLC cell viability, cell apoptosis and cell-cycle distribution. Finally, the qPCR and Western blot assays were, respectively, applied to evaluate the effects of Se-enriched Cordyceps militaris on the expression of pro-apoptotic member BAX and the anti-apoptotic member BCL-2, as well as of G2/M cell cycle regulatory proteins CDK1 and cyclin B1. Results: The concentration of Se-enriched Cordyceps militaris was 0, 4, 8, 12 mg/mL for NCI-H292 cells, and 0, 12.5, 25, 50 mg/mL for A549 cells. NSCLC cells treated with increased Se-enriched Cordyceps militaris showed the inhibited cell viability. Se-enriched Cordyceps militaris induced NSCLC cell apoptosis in concentration-dependent manner. Consistently, Se-enriched Cordyceps militaris diminished the ratio of anti-apoptotic member BCL-2 and pro-apoptotic member BAX at mRNA and protein levels in NSCLC cells. The percentage in G2/M phase was increased in NSCLC cells treated with increased Se-enriched Cordyceps militaris. Downregulation of G2/M cell cycle regulatory proteins CDK1 and cyclin B1 at mRNA and protein levels in NSCLC cells further confirmed the effects of Se-enriched Cordyceps militaris on cell cycle. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the inhibitory role of Se-enriched Cordyceps militaris in cell proliferation and its facilitating role in cell apoptosis and cell cycle in NSCLC cells, suggesting an alternative therapeutic strategy for NSCLC treatment.

12.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 222(5): 816-823, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) conventions regularly bring together thousands of users around the world. In these environments, secondhand exposures to high concentrations of e-cigarette emissions are prevalent. Some biomarkers for tobacco smoke exposure may be used to characterize secondhand e-cigarette exposures in such an environment. METHODS: Participants who did not use any tobacco product attended four separate e-cigarette events for approximately six hours. Urine and saliva samples were collected from participants prior to the event, immediately after the event, 4-h after the event, and the next morning (first void). Urine samples from 34 participants were analyzed for cotinine, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, S-(3-hydroxypropyl)-N-acetylcysteine (3-HPMA), S-carboxyethyl-N-acetylcysteine (CEMA), select tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), and 8-isoprostane. Saliva samples were analyzed for cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine. RESULTS: Data from 28 of 34 participants were used in the data analysis. Creatinine-adjusted urinary cotinine concentrations increased up to 13-fold and peaked 4-h after completed exposure (range of adjusted geometric means [AGMs] = 0.352-2.31 µg/g creatinine). Salivary cotinine concentrations were also the highest 4-h after completed exposure (range of AGMs = 0.0373-0.167 ng/mL). Salivary cotinine and creatinine-corrected concentrations of urinary cotinine, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, CEMA, and 3-HPMA varied significantly across sampling times. Urinary and salivary cotinine, urinary trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, and urinary 3-HPMA concentrations also varied significantly across events. CONCLUSION: Secondhand e-cigarette exposures lasting six hours resulted in significant changes in exposure biomarker concentrations of both nicotine and acrolein but did not change exposure to tobacco-specific nitrosamines. Additional research is needed to understand the relationship between biomarker concentrations and environmental concentrations of toxicants in e-cigarette emissions.

13.
Environ Int ; 127: 495-502, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981020

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Few studies have comprehensively characterized toxic chemicals related to waterpipe use and secondhand waterpipe exposure. This cross-sectional study investigated biomarkers of toxicants associated with waterpipe use and passive waterpipe exposure among employees at waterpipe venues. METHOD: We collected urine specimens from employees in waterpipe venues from Istanbul, Turkey and Moscow, Russia, and identified waterpipe and cigarette smoking status based on self-report. The final sample included 110 employees. Biomarkers of exposure to sixty chemicals (metals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nicotine, and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAAs)) were quantified in the participants' urine. RESULTS: Participants who reported using waterpipe had higher urinary manganese (geometric mean ratio (GMR): 2.42, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16, 5.07) than never/former waterpipe or cigarette smokers. Being exposed to more hours of secondhand smoke from waterpipes was associated with higher concentrations of cobalt (GMR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.75). Participants involved in lighting waterpipes had higher urinary cobalt (GMR: 1.43, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.86), cesium (GMR: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.48), molybdenum (GMR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.93), 1-hydroxypyrene (GMR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.80), and several VOC metabolites. CONCLUSION: Waterpipe tobacco users and nonsmoking employees of waterpipe venues had higher urinary concentrations of several toxic metals including manganese and cobalt as well as of VOCs, in a distinct signature compared to cigarette smoke. Employees involved in lighting waterpipes may have higher exposure to multiple toxic chemicals compared to other employees.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise , Tabaco para Cachimbos de Água , Fumar Cachimbo de Água , Adulto , Biomarcadores/análise , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Substâncias Perigosas/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Nicotina/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Adulto Jovem
14.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(5): 943-953, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30733305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the diverse cigar market and limited data on biomarker patterns by cigar type, we compared biomarkers of nicotine and tobacco toxicants among cigar smokers and other groups. METHODS: Using Wave 1 urinary biomarker data from 5,604 adults in the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study, we compared geometric mean concentrations among cigar-only smokers (all cigars and separately for traditional, cigarillo, and filtered cigars), cigarette-only smokers, dual cigar/cigarette smokers, and never users of tobacco. We calculated geometric mean ratios comparing groups with never users adjusting for sex, age, race/ethnicity, education and creatinine. RESULTS: Some day cigar-only smokers had lower biomarker concentrations than every day cigar-only smokers, but higher than never users. Every day cigar-only smokers (n = 61) had lower TNE-2 (cotinine+trans-3'-hydroxycotinine) compared to every day cigarette-only (n = 2217; P < 0.0001) and dual cigar/cigarette smokers (n = 601; P < 0.0001). Several biomarkers, including NNAL (NNK metabolite) and CYMA (metabolite of acrylonitrile), were comparable in these groups. In exploratory analyses, every day filtered cigar-only (n = 7) smokers had higher biomarker concentrations compared with every day traditional cigar-only smokers (n = 12) and cigarillo-only smokers (n = 24). Every day smokers of each cigar type were similar to exclusive cigarette smokers. For some biomarkers, particularly for every day filtered cigar-only smokers, concentrations were higher. CONCLUSIONS: For some biomarkers, every day cigar-only smokers were comparable with every day cigarette-only smokers. Exploratory analyses suggest that biomarkers vary by cigar type with every day filtered cigar-only smokers having the highest concentrations. IMPACT: High exposure to harmful constituents among cigar smokers is a continuing health issue.

15.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(2): 337-347, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30622099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: How carcinogen exposure varies across users of different, particularly noncigarette, tobacco products remains poorly understood. METHODS: We randomly selected 165 participants of the Golestan Cohort Study from northeastern Iran: 60 never users of any tobacco, 35 exclusive cigarette, 40 exclusive (78% daily) waterpipe, and 30 exclusive smokeless tobacco (nass) users. We measured concentrations of 39 biomarkers of exposure in 4 chemical classes in baseline urine samples: tobacco alkaloids, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and volatile organic compounds (VOC). We also quantified the same biomarkers in a second urine sample, obtained 5 years later, among continuing cigarette smokers and never tobacco users. RESULTS: Nass users had the highest concentrations of tobacco alkaloids. All tobacco users had elevated TSNA concentrations, which correlated with nicotine dose. In both cigarette and waterpipe smokers, PAH and VOC biomarkers were higher than never tobacco users and nass users, and highly correlated with nicotine dose. PAH biomarkers of phenanthrene and pyrene and two VOC metabolites (phenylmercapturic acid and phenylglyoxylic acid) were higher in waterpipe smokers than in all other groups. PAH biomarkers among Golestan never tobacco users were comparable to those in U.S. cigarette smokers. All biomarkers had moderate to good correlations over 5 years, particularly in continuing cigarette smokers. CONCLUSIONS: We observed two patterns of exposure biomarkers that differentiated the use of the combustible products (cigarettes and waterpipe) from the smokeless product. Environmental exposure from nontobacco sources appeared to contribute to the presence of high levels of PAH metabolites in the Golestan Cohort. IMPACT: Most of these biomarkers would be useful for exposure assessment in a longitudinal study.

16.
J Anal Toxicol ; 43(1): 25-35, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30010885

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking significantly increases the risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases as well as premature death. Aromatic amines (AAs) such as o-toluidine, 2-aminonaphthalene and 4-aminobiphenyl are found in cigarette smoke and are well-established human bladder carcinogens presumably acting via the formation of DNA adducts. These amines may be metabolized in the liver to acetylated or glucuronidated forms or oxidized to a hydroxylamine which may react with protein and DNA to form adducts. Free, acetylated and glucuronidated AAs are excreted in urine and can be measured as exposure biomarkers. Using isotope dilution GC-MS/MS, our laboratory quantifies six urinary AAs that are known or suspected carcinogens-o-toluidine, 2,6-dimethylaniline, o-anisidine, 1-aminonaphthalene, 2-aminonaphthalene and 4-aminobiphenyl-for large population studies such as the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We also monitor two additional corresponding structural isomers-2-aminobiphenyl and 3-aminobiphenyl-to verify isomer separation. A new and improved automated sample preparation method was developed to quantify these AAs, in which, sample cleanup was done via Supported Liquid Extraction (SLE+ ISOLUTE®) on a Hamilton STAR™ workstation. This automated method increased sample throughput by reducing sample cleanup time from 8 to 4 h while maintaining precision (intra and inter-run coefficient of variation <7%) and accuracy (±17%). Recent improvements in our GC/MS method have enhanced our assay sensitivity and specificity, resulting in longer analytical column life and maintaining or reducing the limit of detection for all six analytes. Indigo ASCENTTM software (3.7.1, Indigo BioAutomation, Inc.) is used for peak integration, calibration and quantification. A streamlined sample data flow was created in parallel with the automated method, in which samples can be tracked from receiving to final laboratory information management system output with minimal human intervention, minimizing potential human error. This newly validated, automated method and sample data flow are currently applied in biomonitoring of AAs in the US noninstitutionalized population NHANES 2013-2014 cycle.


Assuntos
Aminas/urina , Carcinógenos/análise , Fumar Cigarros/urina , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Compostos Heterocíclicos/urina , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Automação Laboratorial , Biomarcadores/urina , Calibragem , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/normas , Humanos , Técnicas de Diluição do Indicador , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Limite de Detecção , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/normas , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Urinálise , Fluxo de Trabalho
17.
J Anal Toxicol ; 43(2): 149-153, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30395272

RESUMO

Urinary cotinine is one of the most commonly measured biomarkers reflecting recent exposure to nicotine. In some cases a simple qualitative dichotomization of smokers and non-smokers is all that is required. NicAlert® test strips have been evaluated for this purpose, but other recently introduced, inexpensive single-line test strips have not. In this study we evaluated two such strips with nominal cutoffs of 200 and 10 ng/mL. A total of 800 urine samples with known cotinine concentrations determined by an LC-MS-MS method were examined, including 400 urine samples ranging from 0.23 to more than 24,000 ng/mL by the 200 ng/mL strip, and 400 samples with concentrations <200 ng/mL by the 10 ng/mL cutoff strip. Both test strips performed well in these evaluations. Classification relative to LC-MS-MS by the 200 ng/mL strips had a sensitivity of 99.5% and specificity of 92%, with 95.8% accuracy. The 10 ng/mL strips had a sensitivity of 98.7% and specificity of 90.1%, with 93.3% accuracy. The positive predictive value for the 200 ng/mL strips was 92.6% and the negative predictive value was 99.5%. For the 10 ng/mL strips, the corresponding values were 85.4 and 99.2%, respectively. The prevalence of positive samples was 50% in the 200 ng/mL group, and 37% in the 10 ng/mL set. Each strip was read by two readers with an overall agreement of >98%. Our results suggest that these simple and inexpensive lateral flow immunoassay test strips can provide useful qualitative estimates of nicotine exposures for appropriate applications within the inherent limitations of sensitivity and precision of the immunoassay test strip format.


Assuntos
Cotinina/urina , Nicotina/urina , Fitas Reagentes , Fumar/urina , Calibragem , Cromatografia Líquida , Humanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
18.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 67(48): 1342-1346, 2018 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30521502

RESUMO

Exposure to secondhand smoke from burning tobacco products can cause sudden infant death syndrome, respiratory infections, ear infections, and asthma attacks in infants and children, and coronary heart disease, stroke, and lung cancer in adult nonsmokers (1). There is no risk-free level of secondhand smoke exposure (2). CDC analyzed questionnaire and laboratory data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to assess patterns of secondhand smoke exposure among U.S. nonsmokers. The prevalence of secondhand smoke exposure among U.S. nonsmokers declined substantially during 1988-2014, from 87.5% to 25.2%. However, no change in exposure occurred between 2011-2012 and 2013-2014, and an estimated one in four nonsmokers, or approximately 58 million persons, were still exposed to secondhand smoke during 2013-2014. Moreover, marked disparities persisted across population groups. Exposure prevalence was highest among nonsmokers aged 3-11 years (37.9%), non-Hispanic blacks (50.3%), and those who were living in poverty (47.9%), in rental housing (38.6%), or with someone who smoked inside the home (73.0%), or among persons who had less than a high school education (30.7%). Comprehensive smoke-free laws and policies for workplaces and public places and smoke-free rules for homes and vehicles can further reduce secondhand smoke exposure among all nonsmokers.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , não Fumantes , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cotinina/sangue , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Americanos Mexicanos/estatística & dados numéricos , não Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Pediatrics ; 142(6)2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30455340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of secondhand marijuana smoke exposure on children is unknown. New methods allow for the detection of marijuana smoke exposure in children. METHODS: We studied children who were hospitalized in Colorado and had a parent participating in a smoking cessation study; all children had urine samples remaining from the original study as well as consent for future research. Parents completed a survey and urine samples were analyzed for cotinine and marijuana metabolites, including 11-hydroxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (COOH-THC), by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The median age of the children was 6.0 years (range 0-17 years); 57% were boys. Half (55%) were white, 12% were African American, and 33% were of another race; 39% identified as Hispanic. Approximately 46% had detectable COOH-THC, and 11% had detectable THC. Of those with detectable THC, 3 were teenagers, and 6 were <8 years of age. There were no significant differences in urinary COOH-THC concentrations by age, sex, race and/or ethnicity, or socioeconomic status. Children with positive results for COOH-THC were more likely to have parents who use marijuana daily, smoke marijuana versus other forms of use, use daily in the home, and smoke marijuana in another room if the children are around compared with smoking outside. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately half of the children who qualified for our study had biological evidence of exposure to marijuana. Researchers in studies such as this provide valuable data on secondhand exposure to children from parents using tobacco and marijuana and can inform public health policies to reduce harm.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/tendências , Fumar Maconha/urina , Maconha Medicinal/urina , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Fumar Tabaco/urina , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/urina , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colorado/epidemiologia , Cotinina/urina , Dronabinol/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Fumar Maconha/epidemiologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/métodos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia
20.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 221(5): 816-822, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29853292

RESUMO

Evidence suggests exposure of nicotine-containing e-cigarette aerosol to nonusers leads to systemic absorption of nicotine. However, no studies have examined acute secondhand exposures that occur in public settings. Here, we measured the serum, saliva and urine of nonusers pre- and post-exposure to nicotine via e-cigarette aerosol. Secondarily, we recorded factors affecting the exposure. Six nonusers of nicotine-containing products were exposed to secondhand aerosol from ad libitum e-cigarette use by three e-cigarette users for 2 h during two separate sessions (disposables, tank-style). Pre-exposure (baseline) and post-exposure peak levels (Cmax) of cotinine were measured in nonusers' serum, saliva, and urine over a 6-hour follow-up, plus a saliva sample the following morning. We also measured solution consumption, nicotine concentration, and pH, along with use behavior. Baseline cotinine levels were higher than typical for the US population (median serum session one = 0.089 ng/ml; session two = 0.052 ng/ml). Systemic absorption of nicotine occurred in nonusers with baselines indicative of no/low tobacco exposure, but not in nonusers with elevated baselines. Median changes in cotinine for disposable exposure were 0.007 ng/ml serum, 0.033 ng/ml saliva, and 0.316 ng/mg creatinine in urine. For tank-style exposure they were 0.041 ng/ml serum, 0.060 ng/ml saliva, and 0.948 ng/mg creatinine in urine. Finally, we measured substantial differences in solution nicotine concentrations, pH, use behavior and consumption. Our data show that although exposures may vary considerably, nonusers can systemically absorb nicotine following acute exposure to secondhand e-cigarette aerosol. This can particularly affect sensitive subpopulations, such as children and women of reproductive age.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/metabolismo , Cotinina/metabolismo , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Exposição por Inalação , Nicotina/metabolismo , Absorção Fisiológica , Adulto , Aerossóis , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saliva/química , Adulto Jovem
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