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1.
Cancer Res Treat ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476848

RESUMO

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the potential systemic antitumor effects of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) and apatinib (a novel vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 inhibitor) via reversing the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment for lung carcinoma. Materials and Methods: Lewis lung cancer cells were injected into C57BL/6 mice in the left hindlimb (primary tumor; irradiated) and in the right flank (secondary tumor; nonirradiated). When both tumors grew to the touchable size, mice were randomly divided into eight treatment groups. These groups received normal saline or three distinct doses of apatinib (50 mg/kg, 150 mg/kg, and 200 mg/kg) daily for 7 days, in combination with a single dose of 15 Gy radiotherapy or not to the primary tumor. The further tumor growth/regression of mice were followed and observed. Results: For the single 15 Gy modality, tumor growth delay could only be observed at the primary tumor. When combining SABR and apatinib 200 mg/kg, significant retardation of both primary and secondary tumor growth could be observed, indicated an abscopal effect was induced. Mechanism analysis suggested that programmed death-ligand 1 expression increased with SABR was counteract by additional apatinib therapy. Furthermore, when apatinib was combined with SABR, the composition of immune cells could be changed. More importantly, this two-pronged approach evoked tumor antigen-specific immune responses and the mice were resistant to another tumor rechallenge, finally, long-term survival was improved. Conclusion: Our results suggested that the tumor microenvironment could be managed with apatinib, which was effective in eliciting an abscopal effect induced by SABR.

2.
J Food Sci ; 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483872

RESUMO

A rapid quantitative analysis model for determining the hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) content of royal jelly based on near-infrared spectroscopy combining with PLS has been developed. Firstly, near-infrared spectra of 232 royal jelly samples with different 10-HDA concentrations (0.35% to 2.44%) were be collected. Second-order derivative processing of the spectra was carried out to construct a full-spectrum PLS model. Secondly, GA-PLS, CARS-PLS, and Si-PLS were used to select characteristic wavelengths from the second-order derivative spectrum to construct a PLS calibration model. Finally, 58 samples were used to select the best predictive model for 10-HDA content. The result show that the PLS model constructed after wavelength selection was significantly more accurate than the full spectrum model. The Si-PLS algorithm performed best and the corresponding characteristic wavelength range were: 980 to 1038, 1220 to 1278, 1340 to 1398, and 1688 to 1746 nm. The prediction results were RMSEP = 0.1496% and RP = 0.9380. Hence, it is feasible to employ near-infrared spectra to analyze 10-HDA in royal jelly.

3.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 9273056, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485302

RESUMO

Background/Aims: Nucleotide diversity may affect the immune regulation of tuberculosis (TB) patients, leading to the individual susceptibility to TB. In recent years, there are a lot of researches on the association of host genetic factors and TB susceptibility which has attracted increasing attention, and the in-depth study of its mechanism is gradually clear. Materials: We made a minireview on the association of many candidate genes with TB based on recent research studies systematically, such as the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) gene, the solute carrier family 11 member 1 (SLC11A1) gene system, the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene, the mannan-binding lectin (MBL) gene, the nitric oxide synthase 2A (NOS2A) gene, the speckled 110 (SP110) gene, and the P2X7 receptor (P2X7) gene. The discovery of these candidate genes could reveal the pathogenesis of TB comprehensively and is crucial to provide scientific evidence for formulating the related measures of prevention and cure. Discussion: The host genes play important roles in the development of TB, and the host genes may become new targets for the prevention and treatment of TB. Effective regulation of host genes may help prevent or even treat TB. Conclusion: This minireview focuses on the association of host genes with the development of TB, which may supply some clues for future therapies and novel drug targets for TB.

4.
Adv Mater ; : e1903793, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490587

RESUMO

Spores, the dormant life forms of probiotics, can germinate to metabolically active vegetative cells with the disintegration of their hydrophobic protein coat in the intestinal microenvironment, which provides the possibility for the formation of nanoparticles (NPs) in vivo. Inspired by the natural physiological process of spores, herein, an oral autonomous NPs generator is developed to overcome the spatially variable gastrointestinal tract environment and multibiological barriers. Spores modified with deoxycholic acid (DA) and loaded with chemotherapeutic drugs (doxorubicin and sorafenib, DOX/SOR) serve as an autonomous production line of NPs, which can efficaciously protect the drugs passing through the rugged environment of the stomach and furthermore can be transported to the intestinal environment and colonized rapidly. Subsequently, the DOX/SOR/Spore-DA NPs are produced by the autonomous NPs generator in the intestinal regions based on the disintegrated hydrophobic protein and the hydrophilic DA, and they can efficiently penetrate the epithelial cells via the bile acid pathway, increasing basolateral drug release. In vitro and in vivo studies confirm that this biological nanogenerator can autonomously produce substantial NPs in the intestine, providing a promising strategy for cancer therapy.

5.
Adv Mater ; : e1903830, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490605

RESUMO

3D perovskites with typical structure of ABX3 are emerging as key materials to achieve high-performance optoelectronic devices. The variation of A-site cation is promising to achieve enhanced properties; however, is limited to a few available choices of methylamine, formamidine, and cesium. In this work, halogenated-methylammoniums are developed as A cation to broaden the family of hybrid perovskites. Single crystals and colloidal nanocrystals of halogenated-methylammoniums based perovskites are successfully synthesized, showing bright future as alternatives for device exploration. In particular, the improved thermal stability and low exciton binding energy from single crystals measurements are demonstrated and bright tunable emission from blue to green for colloidal nanocrystals is achieved.

6.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1082: 186-193, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472708

RESUMO

Exosomes are one class of extracellular vesicles (30-150 nm diameter) that are secreted by cells. These small vesicles hold a great deal of promise in disease diagnostics, as they display the same protein biomarkers as their originating cell. On a cellular level, exosomes are attributed to playing a key role in intercellular communication, and may eventually be exploited for targeted drug delivery. In order for exosomes to become useful in disease diagnostics, and as burgeoning drug delivery platforms, they must be isolated efficiently and effectively without compromising their structure. Plasma from peripheral blood is an excellent source of exosomes, as it is easily collected and the process does not normally cause undue discomfort to the patient. Unfortunately, blood plasma content is complex, containing abundant amounts of soluble proteins and aggregates, making exosomes extremely difficult to isolate in high purity from plasma. Most current exosome isolation methods have practical challenges including being too time-consuming and labor intensive, destructive to the exosomes, or too costly for use in clinical settings. To this end, this study examines the use of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) capillary-channeled polymer (C-CP) fibers in a hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) protocol to isolate exosomes from a human plasma sample. Initial results demonstrate the ability to isolate exosomes with comparable yields and size distributions and on a much faster time scale when compared to traditional isolation methods, while also alleviating concomitant proteins and other impurities. As a demonstration of the potential quantitative utility of the approach, a linear response (particles injected on-column vs peak area) using a commercial exosome standard was established using a standard UV absorbance detector. Based on the calibration function, the concentration of the original human plasma sample was determined and subsequently confirmed by NTA measurement. The potential for scalable separations covering sub-milliliter spin-down solid phase extraction tips to the preparative scale is anticipated.

7.
Carbohydr Polym ; 224: 115195, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472848

RESUMO

Brown seaweeds are well-known source of bioactive compounds, which are producing a variety of secondary metabolites with promising bioactive properties. Traditionally, seaweeds used as ingredients in medicine for many centuries in Asian countries. However, the protective mechanisms of many metabolites found in seaweeds are remains to be determined. Thus, applications of seaweeds are limited because of poor understanding of their structural features and mechanisms responsible for their bioactive properties. In the present study, anti-inflammatory properties of fucoidan isolated from the brown seaweed Padina commersonii (PCF) was evaluated against LPS-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. PCF was characterized using NMR, FT-IR, and HPAE-PAD spectrum (for mono sugar composition). It was observed that PCF is rich in fucose and sulfate as well as a similar structure to the commercial fucoidan. Western blots and RT-qPCR analysis were used to determine the protective effects of PCF after LPS challenge using RAW 264.7 macrophages. According to the results, PCF significantly down-regulated LPS-activated mRNA and protein expression levels of TLR2, TLR4, and MyD88 which are known inducers/activators of NF-κB transcriptional factors. The results, obtained from this study demonstrated PCF has a potential to inhibit LPS-induced inflammatory responses via blocking TLR/MyD88/ NF-κB signal transduction.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473776

RESUMO

Livestock and poultry manure containing high levels of copper and zinc have led to contamination of farmland and products which could have an impact on human health. Biochar is an inexpensive and efficient heavy metal absorbent. In the present study, we have used biochar to mitigate the effects of heavy metals on the growth of wheat seedlings. The study showed that the effects of heavy metals on wheat seedlings growth were mitigated by increasing exposure to biochar. Compared to the control group, the germination potential, germination rate, germination index and vigor index of wheat seedlings with supplemented biochar increased significantly. Moreover, the specific activity of catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase decreased and chlorophyll contents increased, which promote wheat growth and suggests that the addition of biochar could reduce the effects of heavy metals on wheat seedlings.

9.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475450

RESUMO

Myoferlin, a protein of the ferlin family, has seven C2 domains and exhibits activity in some cells, including myoblasts and endothelial cells. Recently, myoferlin was identified as a promising target and biomarker in non-small-cell lung cancer, breast cancer, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, colon cancer, melanoma, oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, clear cell renal cell carcinoma and endometrioid carcinoma. This evidence indicated that myoferlin was involved in the proliferation, invasion and migration of tumour cells, the mechanism of which mainly included promoting angiogenesis, vasculogenic mimicry, energy metabolism reprogramming, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and modulating exosomes. The roles of myoferlin in both normal cells and cancer cells are of great significance to provide novel and efficient methods of tumour treatment. In this review, we summarize recent studies and findings of myoferlin and suggest that myoferlin is a novel potential candidate for clinical diagnosis and targeted cancer therapy.

10.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478646

RESUMO

Human exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has aroused considerable public concern over the last three decades. Nevertheless, little is known with regard to the exposure of EDCs in farm animals. In this study, concentrations of 22 phthalate metabolites (PhMs), 15 hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs), and 8 bisphenols (BPs) were determined in 183 bovine urine samples collected from China, India, and the United States. The median concentrations of urinary PhMs, OH-PAHs, and BPs in bovines, collectively, were 66, 4.6, and 16 ng/mL, respectively. Mono-n-butyl phthalate (mBP; median: 14 ng/mL) and ∑4DEHP (four secondary metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate; 13 ng/mL) were the dominant PhMs; hydroxy-fluorene (OH-Fluo; 1.2 ng/mL) and -phenanthrene (OH-Phen; 1 ng/mL) were the dominant OH-PAHs; 4,4'-di-hydroxydiphenylmethane (BPF; 10) and 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) propane (BPA; 6.7) were the dominant BPs. Bovine urine samples from India and China contained the highest concentrations of PhMs and OH-PAHs, whereas those from India and the United States contained the highest concentrations of BPs. PhM and OH-PAH concentrations were significantly higher in the urine of bulls than cows; no such difference was found for BPs. Our findings establish baseline exposure information for three classes of EDCs in domestic farm animals.

11.
J Hazard Mater ; 382: 121084, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473514

RESUMO

A native laccase (Lac-Q) with robust cold-adapted and thermostable characteristics from the white-rot fungus Pycnoporus sp. SYBC-L10 was purified, characterized, and used in antibiotic treatments. Degradation experiments revealed that Lac-Q at 10.0 U mL-1 coupled with 1.0 mmol L-1 ABTS could degrade 100% of the tetracycline or oxytetracycline (50 mg L-1) within 5 min with a static incubation at 0 °C (pH 6.0). The presence of the Mn2+ ion inhibited the removal rate of tetracycline and oxytetracycline by the Lac-Q-ABTS system, and the presence of Al3+, Cu2+, and Fe3+ accelerated the removal rate of tetracycline and oxytetracycline by the Lac-Q-ABTS system. Furthermore, seven transformation products of oxytetracycline (namely TP 445, TP 431, TP 413, TP 399, TP 381, TP 367, and TP 351) were identified during the Lac-Q-mediated oxidation process by using UPLC-MS/MS. A possible degradation pathway including deamination, demethylation, and dehydration was proposed. Furthermore, the growth inhibition of Bacillus altitudinis SYBC hb4 and E. coli by tetracycline antibiotics revealed that the antimicrobial activity was significantly reduced after treatment with the Lac-Q-ABTS system. Finally, seven transformation products of oxytetracycline (namely TP 445, TP 431, TP 413, TP 399, TP 381, TP 367, and TP 351) were identified during the Lac-Q-mediated oxidation process by using UPLC-MS/MS. A possible degradation pathway including deamination, demethylation, and dehydration was proposed. These results suggest that the Lac-Q-ABTS system shows a great potential for the treatment of antibiotic wastewater containing different metal ions at various temperatures.

12.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(34): 30943-30952, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364840

RESUMO

Owing to its electronic conductivity and electrochemical reactivity, polyaniline (PANI) can serve as the cathode for rechargeable zinc-ion batteries (ZIBs). However, it suffers from fast deactivation and thus performance deterioration because of spontaneous deprotonation during charge/discharge. Here, we report an effective strategy to improve the electrochemical reactivity and stability of the PANI-based cathode by constructing a π-electron conjugated system between PANI and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) on carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The impressive performance of the post-treated CNTs-PANI-PEDOT:PSS (t-CNTs-PA-PE) cathode is largely attributed to the -SO3-H+ groups in PSS, which acts as an internal proton reservoir and provides enough H+ for PANI's protonation, thus promoting its electrochemical activity and reversibility. Besides, the strong interactions between PANI and PEDOT:PSS assist the stretching of π-π conjugation chains, bringing about enhanced electronic conductivity. Consequently, the t-CNTs-PA-PE cathode achieves a high capacity of 238 mA h g-1, together with good rate capability and long-term stability (over 1500 cycles with 100% Coulombic efficiency). Through exerting the freestanding t-CNTs-PA-PE, a flexible ZIB was further constructed with both outstanding electrochemical properties and superior high safety. This work demonstrates the availability of conducting polymer cathodes for high-performance ZIBs, fulfilling the need of flexible electronics.

13.
Nanoscale ; 11(34): 15958-15970, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418432

RESUMO

Oral drug delivery systems (ODDSs) have attracted considerable attention in relation to orthotopic colon cancer therapy due to certain popular advantages. Unfortunately, their clinical applications are generally limited by the side-effects caused by systemic drug exposure and poor real-time monitoring capabilities. Inspired by the characteristics of pH changes of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and specific enzymes secreted by the colonic microflora, we anchored polyacrylic acid (PAA) and chitosan (CS) on Gd3+-doped mesoporous hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (Gd-MHAp NPs) to realize programmed drug release and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the tumor sites. In particular, the grafted PAA, as a pH-responsive switch, could effect controlled drug release in the colon. Further, CS is functionalized as the enzyme-sensitive moiety, which could be degraded by ß-glycosidase in the colon. Gadolinium is a paramagnetic lanthanide element used in chelates, working as a contrast medium agent for an MRI system. Interestingly, after oral administration, CS and PAA could protect the drug-loaded nanoparticles (NPs) against variable physiological conditions in the GIT, allowing the drug to reach the colon tumor sites, preventing premature drug release. Enhanced drug concentrations at the colon tumor sites were achieved via this programmed drug release, which subsequently ameliorated the therapeutic effect. In addition, encapsulating both chemotherapeutic (5-fluorouracil, 5-FU) and targeted therapy drug (gefitinib, Gef) within Gd-MHAp NPs produced a synergistic therapeutic effect. In summary, this study demonstrated that such a novel drug system (Gd-MHAp/5-FU/Gef/CS/PAA NPs) could protect, transport, and program drug release locally within the colonic environment; further, this system exhibited a worthwhile therapeutic effect, providing a promising novel treatment strategy for orthotopic colon cancer.

14.
Langmuir ; 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430429

RESUMO

Thiolated functional nucleic acid-gold nanoparticle conjugates (FNA-AuNPs) are the core recognition elements in biosensors. The long-term functional stability (LTFS) is critical for their practical applications and, however, has been overlooked. Here we report on the huge effects of multiple experimental factors on LTFS, including spacer- and buffer-composition, secondary structures of FNAs, and surface blocking. We quantitatively determined these effects by measuring the relative hybridization capacity (RHC, the relative amount of complementary DNA hybridized with the same amount of conjugates) for linear DNA-AuNP or the relative signal change generated by their function (RSC-F) for molecular beacon (MB) and G-quadruplex (G4)-AuNPs. There is a positive relationship between the spacer affinity [oligoadenine (A10) > oligothymine (T10) > oligoethlyene glycol (EG18)] of the linear DNA probes and the LTFS. The LTFS of linear DNA-AuNP in phosphate buffer (PB) was much better than that in Good's buffers such as HEPES, Tris, and MES. The secondary structure of FNAs also strongly impacted the LTFS, showing the substantially decreased LTFS from G4- to linear DNA- to MB-AuNPs, where EG18 spacer was used for all these conjugates. The surface blocking of FNA-AuNPs greatly improved the LTFS. We experimentally determined that the LTFS of FNA-AuNPs was directly related to the dissociation of DNAs caused by the in situ generated H2O2 due to the oxidase activity of AuNP and thereby oxidation of Au-thiol bonds. The oxidase activity of AuNP was favored at high temperature, low pH, high AuNP concentration, high Good's buffer concentration, and high salt concentration, corresponding well with the positive effects of high affinity spacer, PB, and surface blocking on the LTFS of FNA-AuNPs. Our study has implications on both fundamental surface science and practical applications.

15.
Urol Int ; : 1-7, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461729

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report the incidence and risk factors of urosepsis after ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URSL). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 1,421 patients who underwent URSL for ureteral calculi between July 2015 and June 2018 at our department to identify factors predicting postoperative urosepsis. Demographic characteristics, clinical data, operative information, and complications were compared, and risk factors of postoperative urosepsis were identified and analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 1,421 patients treated with URSL using holmium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser, 12 (0.8%) developed a urosepsis after operation. The positive preoperative multidrug resistance (MDR) urine culture and operative duration were statistically different between those who did and did not develop a urosepsis (4.61 vs. 25%, p = 0.017; 70 vs. 62 min, p < 0.001). However, patient age, sex, body mass index, diabetes mellitus, history of urolithiasis, positive preoperative urine cultures, stone size and location, degree of hydronephrosis, and prior stent placement were similar in 2 groups. Multivariate analysis revealed that positive preoperative MDR urine culture and long operation duration significantly increased the risk of postoperative urosepsis (OR 5.090, 95% CI 1.312-19.751, p = 0.019; OR 1.034, 95% CI 1.004-1.063; p = 0.024). Matched-pair analysis demonstrated that positive preoperative MDR urine culture and operation duration were significantly associated with postoperative urosepsis (OR 15.77, 95% CI 1.033-240.7, p = 0.047; OR 1.087, 95% CI 1.011-1.169, p = 0.025). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with positive preoperative MDR urine culture or long operation duration had a higher risk of developing urosepsis after URSL. When treating patients who present with positive preoperative MDR urine culture or long operation duration, urologists should be vigilant and aware of the potential risk of urosepsis.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our previous study identified a Wilms tumor-suppressing peptide (WTSP) that was upregulated in healthy children, but downregulated in children with Wilms tumor (WT). This study aimed to investigate the effect of WTSP on WT growth in vivo and in vitro. METHODS: WTSP was synthesized by solid-phase synthesis of FOMC-protected amino acids. Cell growth curve, cytotoxicity, and apoptosis of WTSP-treated human WT cell line (SK-NEP-1) were determined by cell count, Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, and flow cytometry. The expression of key proteins of four WT-associated signaling pathways was determined by real-time PCR and western blotting. The WT xenograft mouse model was established by the armpit injection of SK-NEP-1 cells. The TUNEL assay was used to detect apoptosis in mouse tumor cells. RESULTS: WTSP inhibited the proliferation of SK-NEP-1 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and it arrested SK-NEP-1 cells in G2/M phase. WTSP-treated cells exhibited a low expression of PCNA and Bcl-2 and high expression of Bax. The expression of ß-catenin was markedly changed after WTSP treatment. WTSP-treated mice had significantly smaller tumors than untreated mice. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicated an anti-tumor effect of WTSP, which is correlated with Wnt/ß-catenin pathway. This newly identified peptide may exert a therapeutic effect of WT in the future.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445705

RESUMO

RSL3 is a type of small molecular compound which can inactivate glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) and induce ferroptosis, but its role in glioma cell death remains unclear. In this study, we found RSL3 inhibited the viabilities of glioma cells and induced glioma cell death in a dose-dependent manner. In vitro studies revealed that RSL3-induced cell death was accompanied with the changes of autophagy-associated protein levels and was alleviated by pretreatment of 3-Methyladenine, bafilomycin A1 and knockdown of ATG5 with siRNA. The ATP and pyruvate content as well as the protein levels of HKII, PFKP, PKM2 were decreased in cells treated by RSL3, indicating that RSL3 induced glycolysis dysfunction in glioma cells. Moreover, supplement of exterior sodium pyruvate, which was a final product of glycolysis, not only inhibited the changes of autophagy-associated protein levels caused by RSL3, but also prevented RSL3-induced cell death. In vivo data suggested that the inhibitory effect of RSL3 on the growth of glioma cells was associated with glycolysis dysfunction and autophagy activation. Taken together, RSL3 induced autophagic cell death in glioma cells via causing glycolysis dysfunction.

18.
Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol ; 225: 108579, 2019 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386905

RESUMO

Gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH) regulate gonadal growth of teleosts. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) functions as a reproductive endocrine disruptor. Furthermore, endocrine regulation on brood pouch growth of Syngnathidaes is elusive. To better understand the role of GnRH in brood pouch growth and effects of BaP on reproductive endocrine in lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus), gnrh2 and gnrh3 genes were identified. Results showed that lined seahorse GnRH2 and GnRH3 precursors included the conservative tripartite structure and their transcripts highly expressed in brain as other teleosts. Expression profiles of gnrh2 and gnrh3 transcripts were detected during brood pouch growth. Results indicated that brain gnrh2 transcripts remarkably increased at the middle-stage and late-stage of brood pouch growth, while brain gnrh3 transcripts significantly raised at the early-stage and middle-stage. These suggested that GnRH2 and GnRH3 regulated brood pouch growth at different stages. Short-term BaP exposure in lined seahorse was performed. Transcripts of gnrh2 and gnrh3 remarkably increased in females and males exposed to BaP. Besides, plasma 17-beta estradiol (E2) levels presented a reduced trend during female fish exposed to BaP. This revealed that BaP functioned as anti-estrogenic effects and it may result in high expression of gnrh mRNA. However, plasma 11-ketone testosterone (11-KT) levels showed an increased trend during male fish exposed to BaP. Taken together, these indicated interesting results of BaP on reproduction in each sex of seahorse. These observations contribute to provide novel information of regulation on brood pouch growth and effects of BaP on reproductive endocrine in Syngnathidaes.

19.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 29(18): 2675-2680, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371135

RESUMO

The glycoprotein hemagglutinin of influenza virus plays a key role in the initial stage of virus infection, making it a potential target for novel influenza viruses entry inhibitors. Two "privileged fragments", 2-(piperidin-1-yl)ethan-1-amine and 2-(1,3-oxazinan-3-yl)ethan-1-amine were integrated into 3-O-ß-chacotriosyl ursolic acid producing new derivatives 5 and 6 with improved activity against IAVs in vitro. Mechanistically, compound 6 was effective in inhibiting infection of H1-, H3-, and H5-typed influenza A viruses by interfering with the viral hemagglutinin. Furthermore, the docking studies were in agreement with the antiviral data. These results showed that the title compound 6 as a new lead compound was meriting further optimization and development.

20.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 517-530, 2019 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386908

RESUMO

Rearing density and disease management are considered as pivotal factors determining shrimp farm productivity and profitability. To systematically investigate the potential mechanisms for density-related differences between disease susceptibility and rearing densities, we conducted comparative transcriptome analysis of the molecular differences between hepatopancreas and intestine of Litopenaeus vannamei under two different rearing densities (800- and 400- shrimp/m3) for 15 d and further analyzed the differences in immune response to Vibrio parahaemolyticus E1 (VPE1) raised under two density conditions. Totally 45 different expression genes (DEGs) were identified in the hepatopancreas under two different rearing densities, the DEGs were grouped into four processes or pathways related to animal immune system. Then, exposure to the VPE1 resulted in 639 DEGs, involved into fourteen immune related processes or pathways. In the intestine, seventeen processes or pathways related to the immune system were identified among the 5470 DEGs under two different rearing densities. 279 DEGs were identified post VPE1 challenge, classified into five processes or pathways associated with the immune system. Meanwhile, the results of growth performance, histopathology and the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the hepatopancreas and intestines of shrimp showed that high density decreased weight gain rate (63.20 ±â€¯1.67% and 18.73 ±â€¯3.35% in the high and low rearing density groups, respectively), severely destroyed the histopathology and inhibited the antioxidant enzymes activities. This study demonstrated that rearing density in L. vannamei significantly impacts susceptibility to the VPE1, via altered transcriptional challenge responses, and thus higher mortality due to disease.

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