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2.
Bioinformatics ; 35(6): 1033-1039, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30668832

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs, <100 nts) are highly abundant RNAs that regulate diverse and often tissue-specific cellular processes by associating with transcription factor complexes or binding to mRNAs. While thousands of sncRNA genes exist in the human genome, no single resource provides searchable, unified annotation, expression and processing information for full sncRNA transcripts and mature RNA products derived from these larger RNAs. RESULTS: Our goal is to establish a complete catalog of annotation, expression, processing, conservation, tissue-specificity and other biological features for all human sncRNA genes and mature products derived from all major RNA classes. DASHR (Database of small human non-coding RNAs) v2.0 database is the first that integrates human sncRNA gene and mature products profiles obtained from multiple RNA-seq protocols. Altogether, 185 tissues/cell types and sncRNA annotations and >800 curated experiments from ENCODE and GEO/SRA across multiple RNA-seq protocols for both GRCh38/hg38 and GRCh37/hg19 assemblies are integrated in DASHR. Moreover, DASHR is the first to contain both known and novel, previously un-annotated sncRNA loci identified by unsupervised segmentation (13 times more loci with 1 678 800 total). Additionally, DASHR v2.0 adds >3 200 000 annotations for non-small RNA genes and other genomic features (long-noncoding RNAs, mRNAs, promoters, repeats). Furthermore, DASHR v2.0 introduces an enhanced user interface, interactive experiment-by-locus table view, sncRNA locus sorting and filtering by biological features. All annotation and expression information directly downloadable and accessible as UCSC genome browser tracks. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: DASHR v2.0 is freely available at https://lisanwanglab.org/DASHRv2. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

3.
Oncogene ; 2018 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30478448

RESUMO

The poor outcomes in infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) necessitate new treatments. Here we discover that EIF4E protein is elevated in most cases of infant ALL and test EIF4E targeting by the repurposed antiviral agent ribavirin, which has anticancer properties through EIF4E inhibition, as a potential treatment. We find that ribavirin treatment of actively dividing infant ALL cells on bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) at clinically achievable concentrations causes robust proliferation inhibition in proportion with EIF4E expression. Further, we find that ribavirin treatment of KMT2A-rearranged (KMT2A-R) infant ALL cells and the KMT2A-AFF1 cell line RS4:11 inhibits EIF4E, leading to decreases in oncogenic EIF4E-regulated cell growth and survival proteins. In ribavirin-sensitive KMT2A-R infant ALL cells and RS4:11 cells, EIF4E-regulated proteins with reduced levels of expression following ribavirin treatment include MYC, MCL1, NBN, BCL2 and BIRC5. Ribavirin-treated RS4:11 cells exhibit impaired EIF4E-dependent nuclear to cytoplasmic export and/or translation of the corresponding mRNAs, as well as reduced phosphorylation of the p-AKT1, p-EIF4EBP1, p-RPS6 and p-EIF4E signaling proteins. This leads to an S-phase cell cycle arrest in RS4:11 cells corresponding to the decreased proliferation. Ribavirin causes nuclear EIF4E to re-localize to the cytoplasm in KMT2A-AFF1 infant ALL and RS4:11 cells, providing further evidence for EIF4E inhibition. Ribavirin slows increases in peripheral blasts in KMT2A-R infant ALL xenograft-bearing mice. Ribavirin cooperates with chemotherapy, particularly L-asparaginase, in reducing live KMT2A-AFF1 infant ALL cells in BMSC co-cultures. This work establishes that EIF4E is broadly elevated across infant ALL and that clinically relevant ribavirin exposures have preclinical activity and effectively inhibit EIF4E in KMT2A-R cases, suggesting promise in EIF4E targeting using ribavirin as a means of treatment.

4.
Bioinformatics ; 2018 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30351394

RESUMO

Summary: We report VCPA, our SNP/Indel Variant Calling Pipeline and data management tool used for analysis of whole genome and exome sequencing (WGS/WES) for the Alzheimer's Disease Sequencing Project. VCPA consists of two independent but linkable components: pipeline and tracking database. The pipeline, implemented using the Workflow Description Language and fully optimized for the Amazon elastic compute cloud environment, includes steps from aligning raw sequence reads, to variant calling using GATK. The tracking database allows users to view job running status in real time and visualize >100 quality metrics per genome. VCPA is functionally equivalent to the CCDG/TOPMed pipeline. Users can use the pipeline and the dockerized database to process large WGS/WES datasets on Amazon cloud with minimal configuration. Availability: VCPA is released under the MIT license and is available for academic and nonprofit use for free. The pipeline source code and step-by-step instructions are available from the National Institute on Aging Genetics of Alzheimer's Disease Data Storage Site (http://www.niagads.org/VCPA). Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

5.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 46(17): 8740-8753, 2018 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30113658

RESUMO

The majority of variants identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) reside in the noncoding genome, affecting regulatory elements including transcriptional enhancers. However, characterizing their effects requires the integration of GWAS results with context-specific regulatory activity and linkage disequilibrium annotations to identify causal variants underlying noncoding association signals and the regulatory elements, tissue contexts, and target genes they affect. We propose INFERNO, a novel method which integrates hundreds of functional genomics datasets spanning enhancer activity, transcription factor binding sites, and expression quantitative trait loci with GWAS summary statistics. INFERNO includes novel statistical methods to quantify empirical enrichments of tissue-specific enhancer overlap and to identify co-regulatory networks of dysregulated long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). We applied INFERNO to two large GWAS studies. For schizophrenia (36,989 cases, 113,075 controls), INFERNO identified putatively causal variants affecting brain enhancers for known schizophrenia-related genes. For inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (12,882 cases, 21,770 controls), INFERNO found enrichments of immune and digestive enhancers and lncRNAs involved in regulation of the adaptive immune response. In summary, INFERNO comprehensively infers the molecular mechanisms of causal noncoding variants, providing a sensitive hypothesis generation method for post-GWAS analysis. The software is available as an open source pipeline and a web server.

6.
Bioinformatics ; 34(14): 2349-2355, 2018 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29992253

RESUMO

Motivation: Copy number variations (CNVs) are gains and losses of DNA segments and have been associated with disease. Many large-scale genetic association studies are performing CNV analysis using whole exome sequencing (WES) and whole genome sequencing (WGS). In many of these studies, previous single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-array data are available. An integrated cross-platform analysis is expected to improve resolution and accuracy, yet there is no tool for effectively combining data from sequencing and array platforms. The detection of CNVs using sequencing data alone can also be further improved by the utilization of allele-specific reads. Results: We propose a statistical framework, integrated CNV (iCNV) detection algorithm, which can be applied to multiple study designs: WES only, WGS only, SNP array only, or any combination of SNP and sequencing data. iCNV applies platform-specific normalization, utilizes allele specific reads from sequencing and integrates matched NGS and SNP-array data by a hidden Markov model. We compare integrated two-platform CNV detection using iCNV to naïve intersection or union of platforms and show that iCNV increases sensitivity and robustness. We also assess the accuracy of iCNV on WGS data only and show that the utilization of allele-specific reads improve CNV detection accuracy compared to existing methods. Availability and implementation: https://github.com/zhouzilu/iCNV. Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

7.
Mol Neurodegener ; 13(1): 37, 2018 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29986742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a parkinsonian neurodegenerative tauopathy affecting brain regions involved in motor function, including the basal ganglia, diencephalon and brainstem. While PSP is largely considered to be a sporadic disorder, cases with suspected familial inheritance have been identified and the common MAPT H1haplotype is a major genetic risk factor. Due to the relatively low prevalence of PSP, large sample sizes can be difficult to achieve, and this has limited the ability to detect true genetic risk factors at the genome-wide statistical threshold for significance in GWAS data. With this in mind, in this study we genotyped the genetic variants that displayed the strongest degree of association with PSP (P<1E-4) in the previous GWAS in a new cohort of 533 pathologically-confirmed PSP cases and 1172 controls, and performed a combined analysis with the previous GWAS data. RESULTS: Our findings validate the known association of loci at MAPT, MOBP, EIF2AK3 and STX6 with risk of PSP, and uncover novel associations with SLCO1A2 (rs11568563) and DUSP10 (rs6687758) variants, both of which were classified as non-significant in the original GWAS. CONCLUSIONS: Resolving the genetic architecture of PSP will provide mechanistic insights and nominate candidate genes and pathways for future therapeutic intervention strategies.

8.
Genomics ; 2018 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29857119

RESUMO

The Alzheimer's Disease Sequencing Project (ADSP) performed whole genome sequencing (WGS) of 584 subjects from 111 multiplex families at three sequencing centers. Genotype calling of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and insertion-deletion variants (indels) was performed centrally using GATK-HaplotypeCaller and Atlas V2. The ADSP Quality Control (QC) Working Group applied QC protocols to project-level variant call format files (VCFs) from each pipeline, and developed and implemented a novel protocol, termed "consensus calling," to combine genotype calls from both pipelines into a single high-quality set. QC was applied to autosomal bi-allelic SNVs and indels, and included pipeline-recommended QC filters, variant-level QC, and sample-level QC. Low-quality variants or genotypes were excluded, and sample outliers were noted. Quality was assessed by examining Mendelian inconsistencies (MIs) among 67 parent-offspring pairs, and MIs were used to establish additional genotype-specific filters for GATK calls. After QC, 578 subjects remained. Pipeline-specific QC excluded ~12.0% of GATK and 14.5% of Atlas SNVs. Between pipelines, ~91% of SNV genotypes across all QCed variants were concordant; 4.23% and 4.56% of genotypes were exclusive to Atlas or GATK, respectively; the remaining ~0.01% of discordant genotypes were excluded. For indels, variant-level QC excluded ~36.8% of GATK and 35.3% of Atlas indels. Between pipelines, ~55.6% of indel genotypes were concordant; while 10.3% and 28.3% were exclusive to Atlas or GATK, respectively; and ~0.29% of discordant genotypes were. The final WGS consensus dataset contains 27,896,774 SNVs and 3,133,926 indels and is publicly available.

9.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 46(W1): W36-W42, 2018 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29733404

RESUMO

The introduction of new high-throughput small RNA sequencing protocols that generate large-scale genomics datasets along with increasing evidence of the significant regulatory roles of small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) have highlighted the urgent need for tools to analyze and interpret large amounts of small RNA sequencing data. However, it remains challenging to systematically and comprehensively discover and characterize sncRNA genes and specifically-processed sncRNA products from these datasets. To fill this gap, we present Small RNA-seq Portal for Analysis of sequencing expeRiments (SPAR), a user-friendly web server for interactive processing, analysis, annotation and visualization of small RNA sequencing data. SPAR supports sequencing data generated from various experimental protocols, including smRNA-seq, short total RNA sequencing, microRNA-seq, and single-cell small RNA-seq. Additionally, SPAR includes publicly available reference sncRNA datasets from our DASHR database and from ENCODE across 185 human tissues and cell types to produce highly informative small RNA annotations across all major small RNA types and other features such as co-localization with various genomic features, precursor transcript cleavage patterns, and conservation. SPAR allows the user to compare the input experiment against reference ENCODE/DASHR datasets. SPAR currently supports analyses of human (hg19, hg38) and mouse (mm10) sequencing data. SPAR is freely available at https://www.lisanwanglab.org/SPAR.

10.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 5(4): 406-417, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29688227

RESUMO

Objective: To identify rare causal variants underlying known loci that segregate with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) in multiplex families. Methods: We analyzed whole genome sequences (WGS) from 351 members of 67 Caribbean Hispanic (CH) families from Dominican Republic and New York multiply affected by LOAD. Members of 67 CH and additional 47 Caucasian families underwent WGS as a part of the Alzheimer's Disease Sequencing Project (ADSP). All members of 67 CH families, an additional 48 CH families and an independent CH case-control cohort were subsequently genotyped for validation. Patients met criteria for LOAD, and controls were determined to be dementia free. We investigated rare variants segregating within families and gene-based associations with disease within LOAD GWAS loci. Results: A variant in AKAP9, p.R434W, segregated significantly with LOAD in two large families (OR = 5.77, 95% CI: 1.07-30.9, P = 0.041). In addition, missense mutations in MYRF and ASRGL1 under previously reported linkage peaks at 7q14.3 and 11q12.3 segregated completely in one family and in follow-up genotyping both were nominally significant (P < 0.05). We also identified rare variants in a number of genes associated with LOAD in prior genome wide association studies, including CR1 (P = 0.049), BIN1 (P = 0.0098) and SLC24A4 (P = 0.040). Conclusions and Relevance: Rare variants in multiple genes influence the risk of LOAD disease in multiplex families. These results suggest that rare variants may underlie loci identified in genome wide association studies.

11.
Nat Neurosci ; 21(7): 1018, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29556027

RESUMO

In the version of this article initially published online, the fifth author's name was given as Alexander Amlie-Wolf. The correct name is Alexandre Amlie-Wolf. The error has been corrected in the print, PDF and HTML versions of this article.

12.
Bioinformatics ; 34(16): 2724-2731, 2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29590295

RESUMO

Motivation: Annotation of genomic variants is an increasingly important and complex part of the analysis of sequence-based genomic analyses. Computational predictions of variant function are routinely incorporated into gene-based analyses of rare-variants, though to date most studies use limited information for assessing variant function that is often agnostic of the disease being studied. Results: In this work, we outline an annotation process motivated by the Alzheimer's Disease Sequencing Project, illustrate the impact of including tissue-specific transcript sets and sources of gene regulatory information and assess the potential impact of changing genomic builds on the annotation process. While these factors only impact a small proportion of total variant annotations (∼5%), they influence the potential analysis of a large fraction of genes (∼25%). Availability and implementation: Individual variant annotations are available via the NIAGADS GenomicsDB, at https://www.niagads.org/genomics/ tools-and-software/databases/genomics-database. Annotations are also available for bulk download at https://www.niagads.org/datasets. Annotation processing software is available at http://www.icompbio.net/resources/software-and-downloads/. Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

13.
Nat Neurosci ; 21(4): 497-505, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29507413

RESUMO

Aging is the strongest risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The chromatin state, in particular through the mark H4K16ac, has been implicated in aging and thus may play a pivotal role in age-associated neurodegeneration. Here we compare the genome-wide enrichment of H4K16ac in the lateral temporal lobe of AD individuals against both younger and elderly cognitively normal controls. We found that while normal aging leads to H4K16ac enrichment, AD entails dramatic losses of H4K16ac in the proximity of genes linked to aging and AD. Our analysis highlights the presence of three classes of AD-related changes with distinctive functional roles. Furthermore, we discovered an association between the genomic locations of significant H4K16ac changes with genetic variants identified in prior AD genome-wide association studies and with expression quantitative trait loci. Our results establish the basis for an epigenetic link between aging and AD.

14.
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord ; 45(1-2): 1-17, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29486463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The Alzheimer's Disease Sequencing Project (ADSP) aims to identify novel genes influencing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Variants within genes known to cause dementias other than AD have previously been associated with AD risk. We describe evidence of co-segregation and associations between variants in dementia genes and clinically diagnosed AD within the ADSP. METHODS: We summarize the properties of known pathogenic variants within dementia genes, describe the co-segregation of variants annotated as "pathogenic" in ClinVar and new candidates observed in ADSP families, and test for associations between rare variants in dementia genes in the ADSP case-control study. The participants were clinically evaluated for AD, and they represent European, Caribbean Hispanic, and isolate Dutch populations. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: Pathogenic variants in dementia genes were predominantly rare and conserved coding changes. Pathogenic variants within ARSA, CSF1R, and GRN were observed, and candidate variants in GRN and CHMP2B were nominated in ADSP families. An independent case-control study provided evidence of an association between variants in TREM2, APOE, ARSA, CSF1R, PSEN1, and MAPT and risk of AD. Variants in genes which cause dementing disorders may influence the clinical diagnosis of AD in a small proportion of cases within the ADSP.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Demência/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Demência/epidemiologia , Feminino , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prevalência , Análise de Sequência de DNA
15.
Genome Biol ; 18(1): 199, 2017 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29070071

RESUMO

Transcriptional enhancers regulate spatio-temporal gene expression. While genomic assays can identify putative enhancers en masse, assigning target genes is a complex challenge. We devised a machine learning approach, McEnhancer, which links target genes to putative enhancers via a semi-supervised learning algorithm that predicts gene expression patterns based on enriched sequence features. Predicted expression patterns were 73-98% accurate, predicted assignments showed strong Hi-C interaction enrichment, enhancer-associated histone modifications were evident, and known functional motifs were recovered. Our model provides a general framework to link globally identified enhancers to targets and contributes to deciphering the regulatory genome.


Assuntos
Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Aprendizado de Máquina , Animais , Desoxirribonuclease I , Drosophila melanogaster/embriologia , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Genes Reporter , Código das Histonas , Motivos de Nucleotídeos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
16.
JAMA Neurol ; 74(10): 1178-1189, 2017 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28846757

RESUMO

Importance: It is unclear whether female carriers of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele are at greater risk of developing Alzheimer disease (AD) than men, and the sex-dependent association of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and APOE has not been established. Objective: To determine how sex and APOE genotype affect the risks for developing MCI and AD. Data Sources: Twenty-seven independent research studies in the Global Alzheimer's Association Interactive Network with data on nearly 58 000 participants. Study Selection: Non-Hispanic white individuals with clinical diagnostic and APOE genotype data. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Homogeneous data sets were pooled in case-control analyses, and logistic regression models were used to compute risks. Main Outcomes and Measures: Age-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals for developing MCI and AD were calculated for men and women across APOE genotypes. Results: Participants were men and women between ages 55 and 85 years. Across data sets most participants were white, and for many participants, racial/ethnic information was either not collected or not known. Men (OR, 3.09; 95% CI, 2.79-3.42) and women (OR, 3.31; CI, 3.03-3.61) with the APOE ε3/ε4 genotype from ages 55 to 85 years did not show a difference in AD risk; however, women had an increased risk compared with men between the ages of 65 and 75 years (women, OR, 4.37; 95% CI, 3.82-5.00; men, OR, 3.14; 95% CI, 2.68-3.67; P = .002). Men with APOE ε3/ε4 had an increased risk of AD compared with men with APOE ε3/ε3. The APOE ε2/ε3 genotype conferred a protective effect on women (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.43-0.61) decreasing their risk of AD more (P value = .01) than men (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.60-0.85). There was no difference between men with APOE ε3/ε4 (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.36-1.76) and women (OR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.43-1.81) in their risk of developing MCI between the ages of 55 and 85 years, but women had an increased risk between 55 and 70 years (women, OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.19-1.73; men, OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.87-1.30; P = .05). There were no significant differences between men and women in their risks for converting from MCI to AD between the ages of 55 and 85 years. Individuals with APOE ε4/ε4 showed increased risks vs individuals with ε3/ε4, but no significant differences between men and women with ε4/ε4 were seen. Conclusions and Relevance: Contrary to long-standing views, men and women with the APOE ε3/ε4 genotype have nearly the same odds of developing AD from age 55 to 85 years, but women have an increased risk at younger ages.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Caracteres Sexuais , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
17.
JAMA Neurol ; 74(9): 1113-1122, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28738127

RESUMO

Importance: Mutations in APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2 lead to early-onset Alzheimer disease (EOAD) but account for only approximately 11% of EOAD overall, leaving most of the genetic risk for the most severe form of Alzheimer disease unexplained. This extreme phenotype likely harbors highly penetrant risk variants, making it primed for discovery of novel risk genes and pathways for AD. Objective: To search for rare variants contributing to the risk for EOAD. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this case-control study, whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed in 51 non-Hispanic white (NHW) patients with EOAD (age at onset <65 years) and 19 Caribbean Hispanic families previously screened as negative for established APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2 causal variants. Participants were recruited from John P. Hussman Institute for Human Genomics, Case Western Reserve University, and Columbia University. Rare, deleterious, nonsynonymous, or loss-of-function variants were filtered to identify variants in known and suspected AD genes, variants in multiple unrelated NHW patients, variants present in 19 Hispanic EOAD WES families, and genes with variants in multiple unrelated NHW patients. These variants/genes were tested for association in an independent cohort of 1524 patients with EOAD, 7046 patients with late-onset AD (LOAD), and 7001 cognitively intact controls (age at examination, >65 years) from the Alzheimer's Disease Genetics Consortium. The study was conducted from January 21, 2013, to October 13, 2016. Main Outcomes and Measures: Alzheimer disease diagnosed according to standard National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the Alzheimer Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria. Association between Alzheimer disease and genetic variants and genes was measured using logistic regression and sequence kernel association test-optimal gene tests, respectively. Results: Of the 1524 NHW patients with EOAD, 765 (50.2%) were women and mean (SD) age was 60.0 (4.9) years; of the 7046 NHW patients with LOAD, 4171 (59.2%) were women and mean (SD) age was 77.4 (8.6) years; and of the 7001 NHW controls, 4215 (60.2%) were women and mean (SD) age was 77.4 (8.6) years. The gene PSD2, for which multiple unrelated NHW cases had rare missense variants, was significantly associated with EOAD (P = 2.05 × 10-6; Bonferroni-corrected P value [BP] = 1.3 × 10-3) and LOAD (P = 6.22 × 10-6; BP = 4.1 × 10-3). A missense variant in TCIRG1, present in a NHW patient and segregating in 3 cases of a Hispanic family, was more frequent in EOAD cases (odds ratio [OR], 2.13; 95% CI, 0.99-4.55; P = .06; BP = 0.413), and significantly associated with LOAD (OR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.37-3.62; P = 7.2 × 10-4; BP = 5.0 × 10-3). A missense variant in the LOAD risk gene RIN3 showed suggestive evidence of association with EOAD after Bonferroni correction (OR, 4.56; 95% CI, 1.26-16.48; P = .02, BP = 0.091). In addition, a missense variant in RUFY1 identified in 2 NHW EOAD cases showed suggestive evidence of an association with EOAD as well (OR, 18.63; 95% CI, 1.62-213.45; P = .003; BP = 0.129). Conclusions and Relevance: The genes PSD2, TCIRG1, RIN3, and RUFY1 all may be involved in endolysosomal transport-a process known to be important to development of AD. Furthermore, this study identified shared risk genes between EOAD and LOAD similar to previously reported genes, such as SORL1, PSEN2, and TREM2.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Transporte Biológico/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras/genética , Idade de Início , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Região do Caribe , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Exoma , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
18.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1562: 211-229, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28349463

RESUMO

RNA molecules are often altered post-transcriptionally by the covalent modification of their nucleotides. These modifications are known to modulate the structure, function, and activity of RNAs. When reverse transcribed into cDNA during RNA sequencing library preparation, atypical (modified) ribonucleotides that affect Watson-Crick base pairing will interfere with reverse transcriptase (RT), resulting in cDNA products with mis-incorporated bases or prematurely terminated RNA products. These interactions with RT can therefore be inferred from mismatch patterns in the sequencing reads, and are distinguishable from simple base-calling errors, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), or RNA editing sites. Here, we describe a computational protocol for the in silico identification of modified ribonucleotides from RT-based RNA-seq read-out using the High-throughput Analysis of Modified Ribonucleotides (HAMR) software. HAMR can identify these modifications transcriptome-wide with single nucleotide resolution, and also differentiate between different types of modifications to predict modification identity. Researchers can use HAMR to identify and characterize RNA modifications using RNA-seq data from a variety of common RT-based sequencing protocols such as Poly(A), total RNA-seq, and small RNA-seq.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA , RNA/genética , Software , Simulação por Computador , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Genoma , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Navegador
19.
Alzheimers Dement ; 13(7): 727-738, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28183528

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Genetic loci for Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been identified in whites of European ancestry, but the genetic architecture of AD among other populations is less understood. METHODS: We conducted a transethnic genome-wide association study (GWAS) for late-onset AD in Stage 1 sample including whites of European Ancestry, African-Americans, Japanese, and Israeli-Arabs assembled by the Alzheimer's Disease Genetics Consortium. Suggestive results from Stage 1 from novel loci were followed up using summarized results in the International Genomics Alzheimer's Project GWAS dataset. RESULTS: Genome-wide significant (GWS) associations in single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based tests (P < 5 × 10-8) were identified for SNPs in PFDN1/HBEGF, USP6NL/ECHDC3, and BZRAP1-AS1 and for the interaction of the (apolipoprotein E) APOE ε4 allele with NFIC SNP. We also obtained GWS evidence (P < 2.7 × 10-6) for gene-based association in the total sample with a novel locus, TPBG (P = 1.8 × 10-6). DISCUSSION: Our findings highlight the value of transethnic studies for identifying novel AD susceptibility loci.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Fator de Crescimento Semelhante a EGF de Ligação à Heparina/genética , Humanos , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Fatores de Transcrição NFI/genética , Enzima Bifuncional do Peroxissomo/genética , Receptores de GABA/genética
20.
PLoS Genet ; 12(10): e1006327, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27764101

RESUMO

We performed an exome-wide association analysis in 1393 late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) cases and 8141 controls from the CHARGE consortium. We found that a rare variant (P155L) in TM2D3 was enriched in Icelanders (~0.5% versus <0.05% in other European populations). In 433 LOAD cases and 3903 controls from the Icelandic AGES sub-study, P155L was associated with increased risk and earlier onset of LOAD [odds ratio (95% CI) = 7.5 (3.5-15.9), p = 6.6x10-9]. Mutation in the Drosophila TM2D3 homolog, almondex, causes a phenotype similar to loss of Notch/Presenilin signaling. Human TM2D3 is capable of rescuing these phenotypes, but this activity is abolished by P155L, establishing it as a functionally damaging allele. Our results establish a rare TM2D3 variant in association with LOAD susceptibility, and together with prior work suggests possible links to the ß-amyloid cascade.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Receptores Notch/genética , Tropomiosina/genética , Idade de Início , Idoso , Alelos , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/genética , Animais , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica , Humanos , Islândia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Masculino , Mutação , Fenótipo
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