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1.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(9): e1008030, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518366

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) causes infectious mononucleosis and is associated with multiple human malignancies. EBV drives B-cell proliferation, which contributes to the pathogenesis of multiple lymphomas. Yet, knowledge of how EBV subverts host biosynthetic pathways to transform resting lymphocytes into activated lymphoblasts remains incomplete. Using a temporal proteomic dataset of EBV primary human B-cell infection, we identified that cholesterol and fatty acid biosynthetic pathways were amongst the most highly EBV induced. Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2), sterol response element binding protein (SREBP) and MYC each had important roles in cholesterol and fatty acid pathway induction. Unexpectedly, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor chemical epistasis experiments revealed that mevalonate pathway production of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP), rather than cholesterol, was necessary for EBV-driven B-cell outgrowth, perhaps because EBV upregulated the low-density lipoprotein receptor in newly infected cells for cholesterol uptake. Chemical and CRISPR genetic analyses highlighted downstream GGPP roles in EBV-infected cell small G protein Rab activation. Rab13 was highly EBV-induced in an EBNA3-dependent manner and served as a chaperone critical for latent membrane protein (LMP) 1 and 2A trafficking and target gene activation in newly infected and in lymphoblastoid B-cells. Collectively, these studies identify highlight multiple potential therapeutic targets for prevention of EBV-transformed B-cell growth and survival.

2.
Cell Rep ; 28(5): 1307-1322.e8, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365872

RESUMO

CD40 has major roles in B cell development, activation, and germinal center responses. CD40 hypoactivity causes immunodeficiency whereas its overexpression causes autoimmunity and lymphomagenesis. To systematically identify B cell autonomous CD40 regulators, we use CRISPR/Cas9 genome-scale screens in Daudi B cells stimulated by multimeric CD40 ligand. These highlight known CD40 pathway components and reveal multiple additional mechanisms regulating CD40. The nuclear ubiquitin ligase FBXO11 supports CD40 expression by targeting repressors CTBP1 and BCL6. FBXO11 knockout decreases primary B cell CD40 abundance and impairs class-switch recombination, suggesting that frequent lymphoma monoallelic FBXO11 mutations may balance BCL6 increase with CD40 loss. At the mRNA level, CELF1 controls exon splicing critical for CD40 activity, while the N6-adenosine methyltransferase WTAP negatively regulates CD40 mRNA abundance. At the protein level, ESCRT negatively regulates activated CD40 levels while the negative feedback phosphatase DUSP10 limits downstream MAPK responses. These results serve as a resource for future studies and highlight potential therapeutic targets.

3.
Cell Metab ; 30(3): 539-555.e11, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257153

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) causes Burkitt, Hodgkin, and post-transplant B cell lymphomas. How EBV remodels metabolic pathways to support rapid B cell outgrowth remains largely unknown. To gain insights, primary human B cells were profiled by tandem-mass-tag-based proteomics at rest and at nine time points after infection; >8,000 host and 29 viral proteins were quantified, revealing mitochondrial remodeling and induction of one-carbon (1C) metabolism. EBV-encoded EBNA2 and its target MYC were required for upregulation of the central mitochondrial 1C enzyme MTHFD2, which played key roles in EBV-driven B cell growth and survival. MTHFD2 was critical for maintaining elevated NADPH levels in infected cells, and oxidation of mitochondrial NADPH diminished B cell proliferation. Tracing studies underscored contributions of 1C to nucleotide synthesis, NADPH production, and redox defense. EBV upregulated import and synthesis of serine to augment 1C flux. Our results highlight EBV-induced 1C as a potential therapeutic target and provide a new paradigm for viral onco-metabolism.

4.
Curr Protoc Mol Biol ; 121: 31.13.1-31.13.18, 2018 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29337370

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transforms small resting primary B cells into large lymphoblastoid cells which are able to grow and survive in vitro indefinitely. These cells represent a model for oncogenesis. In this unit, variants of conventional clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), namely the CRISPR activation (CRISPRa) and CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) methods, are discussed in the context of gene regulation at genomic DNA promoter and enhancer elements. Lymphoblastoid B cell lines (LCLs) stably expressing nuclease-deficient Cas9 (dCas9)-VP64 (Cas9 associated with CRISPRa) or dCas9-KRAB (Cas9 associated with CRISPRi) are transduced with lentivirus that encodes a single guide RNA (sgRNA) that targets a specific gene locus. The ribonucleoprotein complex formed by the dCas9 molecule and its cognate sgRNA enables sequence-specific binding at a promoter or enhancer of interest to affect the expression of genes regulated by the targeted promoter or enhancer. © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

5.
Curr Protoc Mol Biol ; 121: 31.12.1-31.12.23, 2018 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29337376

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) efficiently transforms primary human B cells into immortalized lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), which are extensively used in human genetic, immunological and virological studies. LCLs provide unlimited sources of DNA for genetic investigation, but can be difficult to manipulate, for instance because low retroviral or lentiviral transduction frequencies hinder experiments that require co-expression of multiple components. This unit details Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 engineering for robust LCL genome editing. We describe the generation and delivery of single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs), or dual-targeting sgRNAs, via lentiviral transduction of LCLs that stably express Cas9 protein. CRISPR/Cas9 editing allows LCL loss-of-function studies, including knock-out of protein-coding genes or deletion of DNA regulatory elements, and can be adapted for large-scale screening approaches. Low transfection efficiencies are a second barrier to performing CRISPR editing in LCLs, which are not typically lipid-transfectable. To circumvent this barrier, we provide an optimized protocol for LCL nucleofection of Cas9/sgRNA ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs) as an alternative route to achieve genome editing in LCLs. These editing approaches can also be employed in other B-cell lines, including Burkitt lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cells, and are highly reproducible. © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

6.
J Hepatol ; 2017 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28887167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) may gain entry into non-liver cells but does not actively replicate in them. We investigated the possibility that these cells possess mechanisms that block HBV core promoter (HBVCP) transcription, specifically absent in liver cells, which together with other liver-specific mechanisms, such as sodium-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide-mediated entry, enable liver cells to effectively produce HBV. METHODS: Liver and non-liver cell lines were screened for their capacity to activate the HBVCP and synthesize pre-genomic RNA (pgRNA). Transcription regulators differentially expressed between cells with active or inactive HBVCP were determined by human transcriptome array. Slug (SNAI2) and SRY-related HMG box 7 (SOX7) transcriptional repressors were identified and shown to bind specifically to the HBVCP by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The resultant inhibitory effect on HBVCP transcription was validated using luciferase reporter and assays for pgRNA, HBcAg and cccDNA accumulation in cells with HBV replicon and HBV infection models. To further confirm their specific activity, short peptide mimetics generated from Slug zinc-finger domains and SOX7 HMG-box were generated. RESULTS: The HBVCP was found to be active in liver and selected non-liver cells. These cells have low/negligible expression of Slug and SOX7, which inhibit HBVCP transcription specifically by binding at the pgRNA initiator site and competitively displacing hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α, respectively. Overexpression of Slug and/or SOX7 specifically reduced HBVCP transcription, significantly diminishing pgRNA synthesis, HBcAg and cccDNA accumulation in HBV-infected primary human hepatocytes. Similar results were obtained with Slug and SOX7 stapled peptides individually, which were even more potent in combination. CONCLUSIONS: Slug and SOX7 are transcriptional repressors that bind specifically to the HBVCP. Their absence or weak expression in liver cells contribute to the favorable host environment for the active and efficient production of HBV. LAY SUMMARY: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication occurs efficiently in human liver because of the specificity of viral uptake receptors and presence of numerous liver-enriched transcription activators. Herein, we show that the specific lack of transcriptional inhibitory mechanisms in liver cells also contribute to effective HBV production. HBV replication is kept low in non-liver cells as transcriptional repressors Slug and SRY-related HMG box 7 (SOX7) actively bind to the transcriptional initiator and displace transcription activators, respectively, within the HBV core promoter.

7.
J Virol ; 91(21)2017 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28835489

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is expressed in multiple human malignancies, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma and Hodgkin and immunosuppression-associated lymphomas. LMP1 mimics CD40 signaling to activate multiple growth and survival pathways, in particular, NF-κB. LMP1 has critical roles in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-driven B-cell transformation, and its expression causes fatal lymphoproliferative disease in immunosuppressed mice. Here, we review recent developments in studies of LMP1 signaling, LMP1-induced host dependency factors, mouse models of LMP1 lymphomagenesis, and anti-LMP1 immunotherapy approaches.


Assuntos
Transformação Celular Neoplásica/patologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/metabolismo , Animais , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias/metabolismo
8.
Cell Rep ; 19(7): 1479-1493, 2017 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28514666

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) replication contributes to multiple human diseases, including infectious mononucleosis, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, B cell lymphomas, and oral hairy leukoplakia. We performed systematic quantitative analyses of temporal changes in host and EBV proteins during lytic replication to gain insights into virus-host interactions, using conditional Burkitt lymphoma models of type I and II EBV infection. We quantified profiles of >8,000 cellular and 69 EBV proteins, including >500 plasma membrane proteins, providing temporal views of the lytic B cell proteome and EBV virome. Our approach revealed EBV-induced remodeling of cell cycle, innate and adaptive immune pathways, including upregulation of the complement cascade and proteasomal degradation of the B cell receptor complex, conserved between EBV types I and II. Cross-comparison with proteomic analyses of human cytomegalovirus infection and of a Kaposi-sarcoma-associated herpesvirus immunoevasin identified host factors targeted by multiple herpesviruses. Our results provide an important resource for studies of EBV replication.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Linfócitos B/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 4/fisiologia , Proteômica/métodos , Replicação Viral , Ciclo Celular , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Humanos , Proteólise , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
9.
Nanoscale ; 8(7): 3926-35, 2016 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26837410

RESUMO

A design for the fabrication of metallic nanoparticles is presented by thermal dewetting with a chemically heterogeneous nano-template. For the template, we fabricate a nanostructured polystyrene-b-polydimethylsiloxane (PS-b-PDMS) film on a Si|SiO2 substrate, followed by a thermal annealing and reactive ion etching (RIE) process. This gives a template composed of an ordered hexagonal array of SiOC hemispheres emerging in the polystyrene matrix. After the deposition of a FePt film on this template, we utilize the rapid thermal annealing (RTA) process, which provides in-plane stress, to achieve thermal dewetting and structural ordering of FePt simultaneously. Since the template is composed of different composition surfaces with periodically varied morphologies, it offers more tuning knobs to manipulate the nanostructures. We show that both the decrease in the area of the PS matrix and the increase in the strain energy relaxation transfer the dewetted pattern from the randomly distributed nanoparticles into a hexagonal periodic array of L10 FePt nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy with the in situ heating stage reveals the evolution of the dewetting process, and confirms that the positions of nanoparticles are aligned with those of the SiOC hemispheres. The nanoparticles formed by this template-dewetting show an average diameter and center-to-center distance of 19.30 ± 2.09 nm and 39.85 ± 4.80 nm, respectively. The hexagonal array of FePt nanoparticles reveals a large coercivity of 1.5 T, much larger than the nanoparticles fabricated by top-down approaches. This approach offers an efficient pathway toward self-assembled nanostructures in a wide range of material systems.

10.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 27(35): 354106, 2015 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26290953

RESUMO

Understanding the mechanism by which a polypeptide chain thread itself spontaneously to attain a knotted conformation has been a major challenge in the field of protein folding. HP0242 is a homodimeric protein from Helicobacter pylori with intertwined helices to form a unique pseudo-knotted folding topology. A tandem HP0242 repeat has been constructed to become the first engineered trefoil-knotted protein. Its small size renders it a model system for computational analyses to examine its folding and knotting pathways. Here we report a multi-parametric study on the folding stability and kinetics of a library of HP0242 variants, including the trefoil-knotted tandem HP0242 repeat, using far-UV circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy. Equilibrium chemical denaturation of HP0242 variants shows the presence of highly populated dimeric and structurally heterogeneous folding intermediates. Such equilibrium folding intermediates retain significant amount of helical structures except those at the N- and C-terminal regions in the native structure. Stopped-flow fluorescence measurements of HP0242 variants show that spontaneous refolding into knotted structures can be achieved within seconds, which is several orders of magnitude faster than previously observed for other knotted proteins. Nevertheless, the complex chevron plots indicate that HP0242 variants are prone to misfold into kinetic traps, leading to severely rolled-over refolding arms. The experimental observations are in general agreement with the previously reported molecular dynamics simulations. Based on our results, kinetic folding pathways are proposed to qualitatively describe the complex folding processes of HP0242 variants.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Helicobacter pylori/metabolismo , Dobramento de Proteína , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Dicroísmo Circular , Cinética , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Mutação/genética , Conformação Proteica , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Termodinâmica
11.
Sci Rep ; 5: 11904, 2015 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26156786

RESUMO

Magnetic patterning, with designed spatial profile of the desired magnetic properties, has been a rising challenge for developing magnetic devices at nanoscale. Most existing methods rely on locally modifying magnetic anisotropy energy or saturation magnetization, and thus post stringent constraints on the adaptability in diverse applications. We propose an alternative route for magnetic patterning: by manipulating the local intergranular exchange coupling to tune lateral magnetic properties. As demonstration, the grain boundary structure of Co/Pt multilayers is engineered by thermal treatment, where the stress state of the multilayers and thus the intergranular exchange coupling can be modified. With Ag passivation layers on top of the Co/Pt multilayers, we can hinder the stress relaxation and grain boundary modification. Combining the pre-patterned Ag passivation layer with thermal treatment, we can design spatial variations of the magnetic properties by tuning the intergranular exchange coupling, which diversifies the magnetic patterning process and extends its feasibility for varieties of new devices.

12.
J Phys Chem B ; 119(17): 5437-43, 2015 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25848882

RESUMO

Recent studies on the mechanisms by which topologically knotted proteins attain their natively knotted structures have intrigued theoretical and experimental biophysicists. Of particular interest is the finding that YibK and YbeA, two small trefoil knotted proteins, remain topologically knotted in their chemically denatured states. Using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), we examine whether these chemically denatured knotted proteins are different from typical random coils. By revisiting the scaling law of radius of gyration (Rg) as a function of polypeptide chain length for chemically denatured proteins and natively folded proteins, we find that the chemically denatured knotted proteins in fact follow the same random coil-like behavior, suggesting that the formation of topological protein knots do not necessarily require global compaction while the loosely knotted polypeptide chains are capable of maintaining the correct chirality without defined secondary or tertiary structures.


Assuntos
Proteínas Intrinsicamente Desordenadas/química , Desnaturação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo , Difração de Raios X
13.
Opt Express ; 22(16): 19794-802, 2014 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25321061

RESUMO

A high sensitive sensor is demonstrated by exploiting strong transverse magneto-optical Kerr effect on a ferromagnetic surface plasmon grating. The surface plasmon grating, made of a hybridized Au/Fe/Au layer, exhibits a very dispersive Kerr parameter variation near the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) wavelength via coherent scattering of the SPP on the grating structure. Interrogating this Kerr parameter can be utilized for detecting chemical or biological objects in a fluid medium. The experiment results show the minimal detectable mass concentration of sodium chloride in a saline solution is 4.27 × 10(-3) %, corresponding to a refractive index change of 7.60 × 10(-6) RIU. For an avidin-biotin interaction experiment, the sensitivity of avidin detection in PBS solution is 1.97 nM, which is limited by the index fluctuation of flowing media during measurement.

14.
Biomol NMR Assign ; 8(2): 287-9, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23824732

RESUMO

Many knotted proteins have been discovered recently, but the folding process of which remains elusive. HP0242 is a hypothetical protein from Helicobacter pylori, which is a model system for studying the folding pathway of a knotted protein. In this study, we report the (1)H, (13)C, and (15)N chemical shift assignments of HP0242. The results will enable us to further investigate HP0242 by NMR experiments.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Helicobacter pylori , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Conformação Proteica
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