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2.
Cancer Med ; 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622559

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The study was designed to elucidate the predictive value of the number of lymph node metastases (LNMs) and lymph node ratio (LNR) for response to therapy restratification system (RTRS). METHODS: From December 2015 to December 2019, 1228 patients who accepted radioactive iodine (RAI) were collected in the study. After 6-8 months, response to RAI was evaluated as complete response (excellent response) and incomplete response (indeterminate, biochemical, and structural incomplete response). The study developed classification tree to determine the optimum LNMs and LNR that predicted response to RAI. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were further analyzed to find independent factors of response to RAI. RESULT: The mean age of patients was 44 ± 12 and 71.09% (873/1228) were females. The best cutoff value of LNMs to affect RAI treatment response determined by classification tree was 5. Further in 388 patients with LNMs >5, the best cutoff value of LNR to affect RAI treatment response determined by classification tree was 0.30. With multivariate analysis, the study found that LNMs (>5), gender, lymph node dissection, and American Thyroid Association (ATA) risk classification were independent predictors of response to RAI for all 1228 patients; and LNR (>0.30), gender, and ATA risk classification for 388 patients with LNMs >5. The sensitivity analysis indicated that whether patients with LNM or not were included, the multivariate logistic regression model was kept stable. On subgroup analysis, no significant interactions were observed between the effect of LNMs/LNR and gender, N stage, ATA risk classification, lymph node dissection, or T stage. CONCLUSIONS: With classification tree, the study found that LNMs and LNR could predict initial response to RAI, and their optimal cutoff values were 5 and 0.30, separately.

3.
J Neuroimaging ; 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To explore the application value and clinical significance of transcranial Doppler(TCD)in assessing leptomeningeal collateral flow (LMF) status in patients with unilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. METHODS: Medical records of patients with unilateral MCA occlusion confirmed by digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were analyzed retrospectively. The patients were divided into three groups according to LMF status, and the laboratory and imaging results were collected. Cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) of MCA, anterior cerebral artery (ACA), and posterior cerebral artery (PCA) on the affected side (ipsilateral, i) and the healthy side (contralateral, c) were measured and recorded by TCD. The results of CBFV changes detected by TCD were compared with those of DSA, and the correlation between CBFV changes and LMF status was analyzed. RESULTS: Eighty-four patients with unilateral MCA occlusion were included. CBFViACA and CBFViPCA were significantly faster than CBFVcACA and CBFVcPCA in patients with good LMF status (p<.05). There was a significant positive correlation between CBFViACA and LMF status (r = 0.697, p<.001). There was statistical significance in receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of CBFViACA and CBFViPCA (p<.05). The area under the curve of CBFViACA and CBFViPCA, respectively, was 0.879 and 0.678, and the best cutoff value was 82 and 60.5 cm/s. CONCLUSIONS: TCD can assess LMF status by detecting the changes of flow velocity of intracranial vessels. CBFV of ACA and PCA in patients with MCA occlusion is significantly correlated with LMF status by DSA. Assessing LMF status, CBFViACA, CBFViACA/CBFVcACA, and CBFViACA/CBFViMCA has the great diagnostic value, which is of great significance in guiding MCA occlusion patients to choose individualized treatment.

4.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510762

RESUMO

AIMS: Human urinary kallidinogenase (HUK) has shown favorable efficacies in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) treatment. We sought confirmation of the safety and efficacy of HUK for AIS in a large population. METHODS: RESK study enrolled patients with AIS of anterior circulation to receive HUK infusion. The primary endpoint was the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs). Secondary endpoints assessed neurological and functional improvements and stroke recurrent rate. RESULTS: Of 1206 eligible patients, 1202 patients received at least one dose of HUK infusion and 983 (81.5%) completed the study. The incidence of treatment-emergent AEs and serious AEs were 55.99% and 2.41%, respectively. Pre-specified AEs of special interest occurred in 21.71% of patients, but the majority were mild and unrelated to therapy. Hypertension, age, treatment time, and drug combination were identified to be associated with drug-related blood pressure reduction. Neurological and functional evaluations revealed favorable outcomes from baseline to post-treatment assessment. The cumulative recurrence rate of stroke was 2.50% during the 90-day assessment. CONCLUSION: HUK had an acceptable safety and tolerability profile in AIS patients. Besides, HUK demonstrated the neurological and functional improvements in AIS, further confirming its clinical efficacy in a real-world large population.

5.
J Vasc Access ; : 11297298211046751, 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553619

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although tunneled dialysis catheters (TDC) are far from ideal, they still represent the main form of vascular access for most patients beginning dialysis. Catheters are easy to place and allow patients instant access to dialysis, but regardless of these benefits, catheters are associated with a high incidence of significant complications like bloodstream infections, central venous stenosis, thrombosis, and dysfunction. In the present study, we aim to describe and characterize a swine model of catheter dysfunction and bloodstream infection, that recreates the clinical scenario, to help to serve as a platform to develop therapeutic innovations for this important clinical problem. METHODS: Six Yorkshire cross pigs were used in this study. Non-coated commercial catheters were implanted in the external jugular recreating the main features of common clinical practice. Catheters were aseptically accessed twice a week for a mock dialysis procedure (flushing in and out) to assess for and identify catheter dysfunction. Animals were monitored daily for infections; once detected, blood samples were collected for bacterial culture and antibiograms. Study animals were euthanized when nonresponsive to treatment. Tissue samples were collected in a standardized fashion for macroscopic inspection and histological analysis. RESULTS: The data analysis revealed an early onset of infection with a median time to infection of 9 days, 40% of the isolates were polymicrobial, and the average time to euthanasia was 20.16 ± 7.3 days. Median time to catheter dysfunction onset was 6 days post-implantation. Postmortem dissection revealed external fibrin sheath and internal thrombosis as the main causes of catheter dysfunction. There was also evidence of central venous stenosis with positive cells for αSMA, CD68, Ki67, Smoothelin, and Vimentin within the venous neointima. CONCLUSIONS: The described model represents a reliable and reproducible large animal model of catheter dysfunction and bloodstream infection, which recreates all the main complications of TDC's and so could be used as a validated large animal model to develop new therapies for TDC related infection, thrombosis/dysfunction and central venous stenosis.

6.
BMC Immunol ; 22(1): 60, 2021 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors have aroused great expectation of tumor eradication. However, the effect of anti-PD-L1 treatment for cervical cancer is unsatisfactory and the underlying antagonist to anti-PD-L1 efficacy is remained to be studied. Here, we investigated the anti-tumor effect of anti-PD-L1 treatment in cervical tumor model and identified the antagonist to the therapeutic efficacy of anti-PD-L1 treatment. RESULTS: We found that PD-L1 exhibited a moderate expression in both cervical tumor cell lines and clinical samples compared to other tumor types and the para-tumor tissue respectively. Interestingly, our results showed that the anti-PD-L1 treated mice were dichotomously divided into responsive and unresponsive group after five cycles of anti-PD-L1 treatment although all the mice had the same genome background. In addition, the unresponsive tumors showed less tumor necrosis area and higher immunosuppression activity induced by regulatory T cells (Tregs) population than the responsive ones. Furthermore, we found that anti-PD-L1 treatment autonomously upregulated Tregs proliferation and frequency in multiple immune organs, and, most importantly, Tregs depletion significantly depressed the tumor growth rate and tumor weight compared with either anti-PD-L1 or anti-CD25 treatment alone. Finally, we observed that the upregulating effector CD8+ T cell is associated with the better therapeutic effect of anti-PD-L1 therapy post Tregs depletion. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-PD-L1 treatment upregulates Tregs frequency and proliferation in tumor model, and the depletion of Tregs may be a useful adjuvant strategy for anti-PD-L1 therapy of cervical cancer.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431653

RESUMO

Crystalline porous materials (CPMs), exhibiting high surface areas, versatile structural topologies, and tunable functionality, have attracted much attention in the field of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) for their great potential in solid electrolytes. However, most hydrated CPM proton conductors suffer from the narrow working temperature and the high water/humidity dependence. Considering the practical application in different working environments, CPMs with high anhydrous conductivity from subzero to moderate temperature (>100 °C) are desirable, but it is still a huge challenge. Herein we summarized our recent research work in the anhydrous CPM proton conductors, including to rationally tune the structures of CPMs by using the strategies of pore engineering and protonic species control to achieve wide working temperature conduction, as well as to clarify the conducting mechanism. This spotlight will provide clues to flexibly design and fabricate wide-working-temperature CPM conductors with high protonic conductivity.

8.
Cell Rep ; 36(6): 109516, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380043

RESUMO

Although tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) maintain their ability to proliferate, persist, and eradicate tumors, they are frequently dysfunctional in situ. By performing both whole-genome CRISPR and metabolic inhibitor screens, we identify that nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is required for T cell activation. NAMPT is low in TILs, and its expression is controlled by the transcriptional factor Tubby (TUB), whose activity depends on the T cell receptor-phospholipase C gamma (TCR-PLCγ) signaling axis. The intracellular level of NAD+, whose synthesis is dependent on the NAMPT-mediated salvage pathway, is also decreased in TILs. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and isotopic labeling studies confirm that NAD+ depletion led to suppressed glycolysis, disrupted mitochondrial function, and dampened ATP synthesis. Excitingly, both adoptive CAR-T and anti-PD1 immune checkpoint blockade mouse models demonstrate that NAD+ supplementation enhanced the tumor-killing efficacy of T cells. Collectively, this study reveals that an impaired TCR-TUB-NAMPT-NAD+ axis leads to T cell dysfunction in the tumor microenvironment, and an over-the-counter nutrient supplement of NAD+ could boost T-cell-based immunotherapy.

9.
Elife ; 102021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397382

RESUMO

The claustrum is a functionally and structurally complex brain region, whose very spatial extent remains debated. Histochemical-based approaches typically treat the claustrum as a relatively narrow anatomical region that primarily projects to the neocortex, whereas circuit-based approaches can suggest a broader claustrum region containing projections to the neocortex and other regions. Here, in the mouse, we took a bottom-up and cell-type-specific approach to complement and possibly unite these seemingly disparate conclusions. Using single-cell RNA-sequencing, we found that the claustrum comprises two excitatory neuron subtypes that are differentiable from the surrounding cortex. Multicolor retrograde tracing in conjunction with 12-channel multiplexed in situ hybridization revealed a core-shell spatial arrangement of these subtypes, as well as differential downstream targets. Thus, the claustrum comprises excitatory neuron subtypes with distinct molecular and projection properties, whose spatial patterns reflect the narrower and broader claustral extents debated in previous research. This subtype-specific heterogeneity likely shapes the functional complexity of the claustrum.


Assuntos
Claustrum/anatomia & histologia , Vias Neurais/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurônios/citologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Análise de Célula Única
10.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21835, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449927

RESUMO

Circulating neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) resistant to t-PA have not been studied completely although NETs in thrombi may contribute to tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) resistance. This research intended to elucidate whether circulating NETs are associated with t-PA resistance and the underlying mechanism. The levels of NETs were detected in the circulating neutrophils, ischemic brain tissue of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients, and transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) models. NET formation in blood, thrombi, and ischemic brain tissue of mice were analyzed by immunofluorescence. Exposed phosphatidylserine (PS) was assessed using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Procoagulant activity (PCA) was evaluated using fibrin formation assays, thrombin, and purified coagulation complex. The plasma levels of NETs in AIS patients were significantly higher than those in healthy individuals. After thrombolysis, a significant increase was noted in NET markers in no-improvement patients, while the changes in improvement patients were not significant. Importantly, NETs were decorated with von Willebrand factor (vWF) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in the blood and thrombi, which could reverse the fibrinolytic effects. In addition, NETs activated platelets (PLTs) and endothelial cells (ECs), stimulating a procoagulant phenotype and facilitating vWF and PAI-1 release. DNase I, activated protein C (APC), and sivelestat markedly inhibited these effects. Furthermore, targeting NETs protected mice from tMCAO-induced cerebral ischemia, possibly by regulating vWF and PAI-1. In summary, NETs may contribute to t-PA resistance in AIS through activation of PLTs and ECs. Strategies against NETs may present a promising therapeutic approach to improve the thrombolysis efficiency of t-PA in AIS patients.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Armadilhas Extracelulares/metabolismo , AVC Isquêmico/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/metabolismo , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/metabolismo , Idoso , Animais , Coagulação Sanguínea/fisiologia , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfatidilserinas/metabolismo , Trombina/metabolismo , Trombose/metabolismo
11.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(19): e2004673, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378358

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) metastasizes mainly to the liver, which accounts for the majority of CRC-related deaths. Here it is shown that metastatic cells undergo specific chromatin remodeling in the liver. Hepatic growth factor (HGF) induces phosphorylation of PU.1, a pioneer factor, which in turn binds and opens chromatin regions of downstream effector genes. PU.1 increases histone acetylation at the DPP4 locus. Precise epigenetic silencing by CRISPR/dCas9KRAB or CRISPR/dCas9HDAC revealed that individual PU.1-remodeled regulatory elements collectively modulate DPP4 expression and liver metastasis growth. Genetic silencing or pharmacological inhibition of each factor along this chromatin remodeling axis strongly suppressed liver metastasis. Therefore, microenvironment-induced epimutation is an important mechanism for metastatic tumor cells to grow in their new niche. This study presents a potential strategy to target chromatin remodeling in metastatic cancer and the promise of repurposing drugs to treat metastasis.

12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4176, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234134

RESUMO

Mammalian reovirus (MRV) is the prototypical member of genus Orthoreovirus of family Reoviridae. However, lacking high-resolution structures of its RNA polymerase cofactor µ2 and infectious particle, limits understanding of molecular interactions among proteins and RNA, and their contributions to virion assembly and RNA transcription. Here, we report the 3.3 Å-resolution asymmetric reconstruction of transcribing MRV and in situ atomic models of its capsid proteins, the asymmetrically attached RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) λ3, and RdRp-bound nucleoside triphosphatase µ2 with a unique RNA-binding domain. We reveal molecular interactions among virion proteins and genomic and messenger RNA. Polymerase complexes in three Spinoreovirinae subfamily members are organized with different pseudo-D3d symmetries to engage their highly diversified genomes. The above interactions and those between symmetry-mismatched receptor-binding σ1 trimers and RNA-capping λ2 pentamers balance competing needs of capsid assembly, external protein removal, and allosteric triggering of endogenous RNA transcription, before, during and after infection, respectively.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Capsídeo/metabolismo , Nucleosídeo-Trifosfatase/metabolismo , Orthoreovirus/ultraestrutura , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Regulação Alostérica , Animais , Proteínas do Capsídeo/ultraestrutura , Linhagem Celular , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Genoma Viral , Macaca mulatta , Nucleosídeo-Trifosfatase/ultraestrutura , Orthoreovirus/genética , Orthoreovirus/metabolismo , Multimerização Proteica , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/metabolismo , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/ultraestrutura , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Viral/ultraestrutura , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/ultraestrutura , Ativação Transcricional , Montagem de Vírus/genética
13.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 14(4): e003258, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34241534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery calcification (CAC) and carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) are measures of subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic individuals and strong risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is an independent cardiovascular disease risk factor that accelerates atherosclerosis. METHODS: We performed meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies in up to 2500 T2D individuals of European ancestry (EA) and 1590 T2D individuals of African ancestry with or without exclusion of prevalent cardiovascular disease, for CAC measured by cardiac computed tomography, and 3608 individuals of EA and 838 individuals of African ancestry with T2D for cIMT measured by ultrasonography within the CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) Consortium. RESULTS: We replicated 2 loci (rs9369640 and rs9349379 near PHACTR1 and rs10757278 near CDKN2B) for CAC and one locus for cIMT (rs7412 and rs445925 near APOE-APOC1) that were previously reported in the general EA populations. We identified one novel CAC locus (rs8000449 near CSNK1A1L/LINC00547/POSTN at 13q13.3) at P=2.0×10-8 in EA. No additional loci were identified with the meta-analyses of EA and African ancestry. The expression quantitative trait loci analysis with nearby expressed genes derived from arterial wall and metabolic tissues from the Genotype-Tissue Expression project pinpoints POSTN, encoding a matricellular protein involved in bone formation and bone matrix organization, as the potential candidate gene at this locus. In addition, we found significant associations (P<3.1×10-4) for 3 previously reported coronary artery disease loci for these subclinical atherosclerotic phenotypes (rs2891168 near CDKN2B-AS1 and rs11170820 near FLJ12825 for CAC, and rs7412 near APOE for cIMT). CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide potential biological mechanisms that could link CAC and cIMT to increased cardiovascular disease risk in individuals with T2D.

14.
J Bioenerg Biomembr ; 53(5): 585-595, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34327565

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains a major health threat worldwide which is associated with elevated blood level of dimethylamine (DMA) and unbalanced platelet functions. Dimethylamine, a simple aliphatic amine, is abundantly found in human urine as well as other body fluids like plasma. However, the relation between dimethylamine and platelet activation is unclear. This study aims to unravel the mechanism of DMA and platelet function in chronic kidney disease. Through in vitro platelet characterization assay and in vivo CKD mouse model, the level of DMA, platelet activity and renal function were assessed by established methods. PKCδ and its downstream kinase MEK1/2 were examined by immunoblotting analysis of human platelet extract. Rescue experiments with PKCδ inhibitor or choline deficient diet were also conducted. DMA level in plasma of mouse CKD model was elevated along with enhanced platelet activation and comprised renal function. DMA can activate platelet in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of PKCδ could antagonize the effect of DMA on platelet activation. When choline as the dietary source of DMA was deprived from CKD mouse, the level DMA was reduced and platelet activation was attenuated. Our results demonstrate that dimethylamine could enhance platelet activation in CKD model, potentially through activation of PKCδ.

15.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(28): 10735-10742, 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242004

RESUMO

Fluorescence anisotropy (FA) holds great potential for multiplexed analysis and imaging of biomolecules since it can effectively discriminate fluorophores with overlapping emission spectra. Nevertheless, its susceptibility to environmental variation hampers its widespread applications in biology and biotechnology. In this study, we design FA DNA frameworks (FAFs) by scaffolding fluorophores in a fluorescent protein-like microenvironment. We find that the FA stability of the fluorophores is remarkably improved due to the sequestration effects of FAFs. The FA level of the fluorophores can be finely tuned when placed at different locations on an FAF, analogous to spectral shifts of protein-bound fluorophores. The high programmability of FAFs further enables the design of a spectrum of encoded FA barcodes for multiplexed sensing of nucleic acids and multiplexed labeling of live cells. This FAF system thus establishes a new paradigm for designing multiplexing FA probes for cellular imaging and other biological applications.

16.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 222, 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endobronchial electrocautery is a common and safe therapeutic endoscopic treatment for malignant airway obstruction. Cerebral arterial air embolism (CAAE) is a rare but potentially fatal complication of endobronchial electrocautery. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the first case of cerebral arterial air embolism after endobronchial electrocautery. A 56-year-old male with a pulmonary tumour in the right upper lobe received repeated endobronchial electrocautery. During the procedure, he experienced unresponsiveness, hypoxemia and bradycardia, and he developed tetraplegia. Brain computed tomography showed several cerebral arterial air emboli with low-density spots in the right frontal lobe. He received hyperbaric oxygen therapy with almost full recovery, except for residual left-sided weakness. CONCLUSIONS: General physicians should realize that CAAE may be a possible complication of endobronchial electrocautery. Several measures, including avoiding positive pressure, lowering ventilatory pressures if possible, avoiding advancing the bronchoscope to occlude the bronchus and using the non-contact technique, should be used to prevent this devastating complication.

17.
New Phytol ; 232(2): 802-817, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260062

RESUMO

Vitellogenin (Vg) is a well-known nutritious protein involved in reproduction in nearly all oviparous animals, including insects. Recently, Vg has been detected in saliva proteomes of several piercing-sucking herbivorous arthropods, including the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus, SBPH). Its function, however, remains unexplored. We investigated the molecular mechanism underlying SBPH orally secreted Vg-mediated manipulation of plant-insect interaction by RNA interference, phytohormone and H2 O2 profiling, protein-protein interaction studies and herbivore bioassays. A C-terminal polypeptide of Vg (VgC) in SBPH, when secreted into rice plants, acted as a novel effector to attenuate host rice defenses, which in turn improved insect feeding performance. Silencing Vg reduced insect feeding and survival on rice. Vg-silenced SBPH nymphs consistently elicited higher H2 O2 production, a well-established defense mechanism in rice, whereas expression of VgC in planta significantly hindered hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) accumulation and promoted insect performance. VgC interacted directly with the rice transcription factor OsWRKY71, a protein which is involved in induction of H2 O2 accumulation and plant resistance to SBPH. These findings indicate a novel effector function of Vg: when secreted into host rice plants, this protein effectively weakened H2 O2 -mediated plant defense through its association with a plant immunity regulator.


Assuntos
Líquidos Corporais , Hemípteros , Oryza , Animais , Oryza/genética , Interferência de RNA , Vitelogeninas
18.
Int J Older People Nurs ; : e12405, 2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term indwelling catheters assist people who are unable to use another bladder management method. However, urine leakage is a common problem with an indwelling urinary catheter. This study aims to determine whether a modified catheterisation technique would reduce urine leakage incidence. METHODS: Participants were randomly divided into conventional or modified catheterisation groups. In the modified technique group, the volume of fluid that needed to be injected into the balloon to obtain a suitable catheter front-end curvature (120-145°) was measured before catheterisation. Baseline characteristics and first-time success rates and procedure durations were similar between groups. RESULTS: There were 30 patients in each group. Compared with conventional catheterisation, the modified catheterisation group had smaller residual urine volume (median 11 mL Vs. 30.5 mL, p<0.001) and more leakage-free days (30 days Vs. 10 days, p<0.001). Leakage-free survival was longer in the modified catheterisation group (p<0.001). The residual urine volume (>17 vs ≤17 ml (median); incident rate ratio (IRR), 28.710; 95%CI, 4.114-200.331; p=0.001) was independently associated with urine leakage. CONCLUSIONS: The modified catheterisation technique may reduce the incidence of urine leakage.

19.
Nano Lett ; 21(13): 5834-5841, 2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133183

RESUMO

In situ synthesis of DNA origami structures in living systems is highly desirable due to its potential in biological applications, which nevertheless is hampered by the requirement of thermal activation procedures. Here, we report a photothermal DNA origami assembly method in near-physiological environments. We find that the use of copper sulfide nanoparticles (CuS NPs) can mediate efficient near-infrared (NIR) photothermal conversion to remotely control the solution temperature. Under a 4 min NIR illumination and subsequent natural cooling, rapid and high-yield (>80%) assembly of various types of DNA origami nanostructures is achieved as revealed by atomic force microscopy and single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis. We further demonstrate the in situ assembly of DNA origami with high location precision in cell lysates and in cell culture environments.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Fototerapia , Cobre , DNA , Sulfetos
20.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 76(10): e307-e313, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34156441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gait speed is a powerful indicator of health with aging. Potential genetic contributions to gait speed and its decline with aging are not well defined. We determined the heritability of and potential genetic regions underlying change in gait speed using longitudinal data from 2379 individuals belonging to 509 families in the Long Life Family Study (mean age 64 ± 12, range 30-110 years; 45% men). METHODS: Gait speed was measured over 4 m at baseline and follow-up (7 ± 1 years). Quantitative trait linkage analyses were completed using pedigree-based maximum likelihood methods with logarithm of the odds (LOD) scores greater than 3.0, indicating genome-wide significance. We also performed linkage analysis in the top 10% of families contributing to LOD scores to allow for heterogeneity among families (HLOD). Data were adjusted for age, sex, height, and field center. RESULTS: At baseline, 26.9% of individuals had "slow" gait speed less than 1.0 m/s (mean: 1.1 ± 0.2 m/s) and gait speed declined at a rate of -0.02 ± 0.03 m/s per year (p < .0001). Baseline and change in gait speed were significantly heritable (h2 = 0.24-0.32, p < .05). We did not find significant evidence for linkage for baseline gait speed; however, we identified a significant locus for change in gait speed on chromosome 16p (LOD = 4.2). A subset of 21 families contributed to this linkage peak (HLOD = 6.83). Association analyses on chromosome 16 showed that the strongest variant resides within the ADCY9 gene. CONCLUSION: Further analysis of the chromosome 16 region, and ADCY9 gene, may yield new insight on the biology of mobility decline with aging.

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