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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 631044, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33613576

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been raging around the world since January 2020. Pregnancy places the women in a unique immune scenario which may allow severe COVID-19 disease. In this regard, the potential unknown effects of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on mothers and fetuses have attracted considerable attention. There is no clear consistent evidence of the changes in the immune status of pregnant women after recovery from COVID-19. In this study, we use multiparameter flow cytometry and Luminex assay to determine the immune cell subsets and cytokines, respectively, in the peripheral blood and umbilical cord blood from pregnant women recovering from COVID-19 about 3 months (n=5). Our results showed decreased percentages of Tc2, Tfh17, memory B cells, virus-specific NK cells, and increased percentages of naive B cells in the peripheral blood. Serum levels of IL-1ra and MCP-1 showed a decreased tendency in late recovery stage (LRS) patients. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in immune cell subsets in the umbilical cord blood. The placentas from LRS patients showed increased CD68+ macrophages infiltration and mild hypoxic features. The inflammatory damage of the placenta may be related to the antiviral response. Since the receptors, ACE2 and TMPRSS2, utilized by SARS-CoV-2 are not co-expressed in the placenta, so it is extremely rare for SARS-CoV-2 to cause infection through this route and the impact on the fetus is negligible.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Sangue Fetal/imunologia , Centro Germinativo/imunologia , Placenta/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , /metabolismo , Autoantígenos/metabolismo , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Memória Imunológica , Imunofenotipagem , Células Matadoras Naturais , Gravidez , Receptores de Interleucina-1/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo
2.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-20, 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612007

RESUMO

Phytosterols have been shown to lower cholesterol levels and to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and other biological activities. However, the high melting point and poor solubility limit their bioavailability and practical application. It is advantageous to modify phytosterols chemically and physically. This article reviews and discusses the chemical and physical modifications of phytosterols, as well as their effects on the bioavailability and possible toxicity in vivo. The current research on chemical modifications is mainly focused on esterification to increase the oil solubility and water solubility. For physical modifications (mainly microencapsulation), there are biopolymer-based, surfactant-based and lipid-based nanocarriers. Both chemical and physical modifications of phytosterols can effectively increase the absorption and bioavailability. The safety of modified phytosterols is also an important issue. Phytosterol esters are generally considered to be safe. However, phytosterol oxides, which may be produced during the synthesis of phytosterol esters, have shown toxicity in animal models. The toxicity of nanocarriers also needs further studies.

3.
Med Hypotheses ; 146: 110466, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412502

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the main cause of dementia, and its pathogenesis is still not clear. Peptidyl arginine deiminases 4(PAD4) as one of the important members of PAD family, is the only protein with nuclear transfer function, it can regulate the expression of many proteins through citrullinating histone. PAD4 can also interact with many transcription factors, involved in regulating gene expression. PAD4 expression is closely related to the inflammatory factors secreted, cell autophagy, tumorigenesis and other neurodegenerative diseases. More importantly, PAD4 and its citrullinated protein were found in cortical and hippocampal neurons of AD patients. To study the expression and regulatory pathway of PAD4 in vivo and in vitro experiments on AD may be of helpful to elucidate the pathogenesis of AD. Meanwhile, detection of anti-citrullinated antibody will have potential value as novel biomarkers of AD.

4.
Clin Immunol ; 224: 108663, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401032

RESUMO

Autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) is a common organ-specific autoimmune disease with a high incidence among women of childbearing age. Recent studies have reported that women with AIT are more susceptible to infertility, miscarriage and preterm birth. It has been investigated that abnormal changes in maternal immune system and maternal-fetal interface can dampen the immune tolerance between mother and fetus, which underlie the pathogenesis of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Hence, we summarize the immunological changes related to adverse reproductive outcomes in AIT and highlight the respective contributions of both humoral and cellular immune dysfunctions to pregnancy failures. Moreover, the direct impacts of AIT on maternal-fetal immune activation and biological influences to trophoblasts are discussed as well. All these associations require confirmation in larger studies, and the pathogenic mechanisms need to be better understood, which might provide useful information for clinical diagnosis and therapy of AIT.

5.
Food Sci Nutr ; 8(11): 5926-5933, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33282244

RESUMO

In this research, the interaction between dihydromyricetin (DMY) obtained from vine tea and iron ions (Fe (II) and Fe (III)) was investigated at pH 3.0, 5.0, and 7.0 with UV absorption and fluorescence quenching spectroscopy. The effects of DMY on the stability and solubility of iron ion were also studied. The results showed the presence of iron ions changed the UV absorption spectra of DMY at the experimental pH values. And the fluorescence spectra showed that iron ion had enhanced fluorescence effect on DMY. In addition, DMY was capable of protecting Fe (II) from being oxidized and improving the solubility of Fe (III).

6.
Front Oncol ; 10: 1541, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33042799

RESUMO

Purpose: Accumulative studies suggest the Glasgow prognostic score (GPS) and modified Glasgow prognostic score (mGPS) to be potential biomarkers; however, their prognostic value remains debatable. Our meta-analysis focused on assessing the accurate prognostic value of GPS and mGPS in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in addition to their effectiveness. Methods: To investigate the relationship between mGPS/GPS and prognostic value in patients with RCC, we performed a comprehensive retrieval of relevant articles from databases such as PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Medline up to February 1, 2020. STATA 15.0 software was used to obtain pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals for survival outcome, including overall survival (OS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), progression-free survival (PFS), and cancer-specific survival (CSS). A formal meta-analysis of these outcomes was performed. Results: In total, 2,691 patients with RCC were enrolled from 15 cohort studies. Higher GPS/mGPS (GPS/mGPS of 2) indicated poorer OS, CSS, PFS, and RFS in patients with RCC. Similarly, medium GPS/mGPS (GPS/mGPS of 1) also had a significant association with poorer OS, CSS, PFS, and RFS but superior than higher GPS/mGPS in these patients. Conclusion: GPS and mGPS are effective biomarkers for predicting prognosis in patients with RCC, and higher GPS and mGPS are closely related to inferior survival outcomes. More randomized controlled trials are needed to investigate the promising value of GPS/mGPS in the future.

7.
Hum Reprod ; 35(11): 2454-2466, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107565

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: What is the mechanism of Tim-3+ regulatory T (Treg)-cell accumulation in the decidua during early pregnancy and is its disruption associated with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL)? SUMMARY ANSWER: IL-27 and Gal-9 secreted by trophoblasts activate the Tim-3 signaling pathway in CD4+ T cells and Treg cells and so promote accumulation of Tim-3+ Treg cells, the abnormal expression of IL-27 and Gal-9 is associated with impaired immunologic tolerance in RPL patients. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Tim-3+ Treg cells are better suppressors of Teff cell proliferation, and display higher proliferative activity than Tim-3- Treg cells. Tim-3+ Treg cells are tissue-specific promoters of T-cell dysfunction in many tumors. These cells express a unique factor that influences and shapes the tumor microenvironment. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: The animal study included 80 normal pregnant mice. In human study, decidua tissues in the first trimester for flow cytometry analysis were collected from 32 normal pregnant women and 23 RPL patients. Placenta tissues for immunohistochemistry analysis were collected from 15 normal pregnant women. Placenta tissues for western blot analysis were collected from 5 normal pregnant women, 5 RPL patients and 5 women who have experienced one miscarriage. Blood samples for in vitro experiments were collected from 30 normal pregnant women. This study was performed between January 2017 and March 2019. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: In this study, we investigated the kinetics of Tim-3+ CD4+ T-cell accumulation, and the proportions of Tim-3+ Treg cells throughout murine pregnancies using flow cytometry. We compared Tim-3 expression on decidual CD4+ T cells and Treg cells during normal pregnancies with expression on the same cell populations in women suffering from RPL. IL-27 and Gal-9 transcription and protein expression in the placenta were determined by RT-PCR and western blot, respectively. An in vitro co-culture model consisting of peripheral CD4+ T cells and primary trophoblasts from early pregnancy was used to mimic the maternal-fetal environment. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: The percentage of Tim-3+ Treg cells present in mouse uteri fluctuates as gestation proceeds but does not change in the spleen. Levels of Tim3+ Treg cells in uteri peaked at pregnancy Day 6.5 (E 6.5), then progressively diminished, and fell to non-pregnant levels by E18.5. In pregnant mice, Tim-3+ Treg cells constituted 40-70% of Treg cells in uteri but were present at much lower abundance in spleens. About 60% of decidual Treg cells were Tim-3 positive at E6.5. Of these decidual Tim3+ Treg cells, nearly 90% were PD-1 positive. However, only about 16% of Tim3- Treg cells expressed PD-1. Blocking the Tim-3 signaling pathway decreased the proportion of Treg cells and led to embryo resorption. Moreover, much lower Tim-3 expression was observed on CD4+ T cells and Treg cells in women who had suffered from RPL at 6-9 gestational weeks compared with those who had normal pregnancies at matched gestations. In a normal pregnancy, Tim-3 expression on decidual CD4+ T cells is induced initially by IL-27. Then Gal-9-Tim-3 interaction promotes differentiation of decidual Tim-3+ CD4+ T cells into Treg cells. IL-27 and Gal-9 cooperatively induced Tim-3+ Treg cells in vitro. LARGE SCALE DATA: N/A. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: We did not investigate the kinetics of human decidual Tim-3+ CD4+ T and Tim-3+ Treg cell populations throughout pregnancy due to limited availability of second and third trimester decidua. In addition, functional suppressive data on the decidual Tim-3+ Treg cells are lacking due to limited and low quantities of these cells in decidua. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: These findings might have therapeutic clinical implications in RPL. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This study was supported by research grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81871186) and National Key Research & Developmental Program of China (2018YFC1003900, 2018YFC1003904). The authors declare no conflict of interest.

8.
Placenta ; 100: 122-132, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927240

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The limited cell number of primary trophoblasts and contamination of trophoblast cell lines promote us to develop a novel stable trophoblast cell line. METHOD OF STUDY: Primary trophoblast cells were isolated from first-trimester placenta and telomerase-induced immortalization was used to immortalize these cells. Subsets of cells were then evaluated by flow cytometry using CK7, HLA-G, CD45 and CD14, specific markers for trophoblast cells, extra-villous trophoblast, pan leucocyte and monocyte/macrophage, respectively. Immunofluorescence staining and immunocytochemistry were used to detect CK7 expression in trophoblast cells. The level of secreted human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) was measured by electrochemiluminescence (ECL). The Bio-Plex MAGPIX System was used to analyze the cytokines and chemokines produced by AL07 cell line. RESULTS: We were able to isolate primary trophoblast cells from several first-trimester placentas. One clone, AL07 trophoblast cells, isolated from a week 7 placenta, was morphologically stable and positive for the expression of CK7 by immunofluorescence and immunocytochemistry staining. Characterization of AL07 cells reveled that they are CD45 or CD14 negative and had constitutive secretion of hCG and low HLA-G expression. Furthermore, clone AL07 secret high levels of several cytokines and chemokines, including IL-6, IL-8 and VEGF, and moderately secreted MCP-1 IP-10 and RANTES. DISCUSSION: We report the successful isolation, immortalization and characterization of AL07 cells, a novel cell clone isolated from first trimester human placenta. The clone is free of contamination of immune cells, and exhibits similar cytokine profile as other trophoblast cell lines. This new cytotrophoblast-like AL07 cell, can be a valuable tool for in-vitro trophoblast studies in the future.

10.
BMC Pediatr ; 20(1): 321, 2020 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this prospective, multicentre, observational cohort study was to evaluate the association between admission hypothermia and neonatal outcomes in very low-birth weight (VLBW) infants in multiple neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in China. METHODS: Since January 1, 2018, a neonatal homogeneous cooperative research platform-Shandong Neonatal Network (SNN) has been established. The platform collects clinical data in a prospective manner on preterm infants with birth weights (BWs) < 1500 g and gestational ages (GAs) < 34 weeks born in 28 NICUs in Shandong Province. These infants were divided into normothermia, mild or moderate/severe hypothermia groups according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classifications of hypothermia. Associations between outcomes and hypothermia were tested in a bivariate analysis, followed by a logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 1247 VLBW infants were included in this analysis, of which 1100 infants (88.2%) were included in the hypothermia group, 554 infants (44.4%) in the mild hypothermia group and 546 infants (43.8%) in the moderate/severe hypothermia group. Small for gestational age (SGA), caesarean section, a low Apgar score at 5 min and intubation in the delivery room (DR) were related to admission hypothermia (AH). Mortality was the lowest when their admission temperature was 36.5 ~ 37.5 °C, and after adjustment for maternal and infant characteristics, mortality was significantly associated with AH. Compared with infants with normothermia (36.5 ~ 37.5 °C), the adjusted ORs of all deaths increased to 4.148 (95% CI 1.505-11.437) and 1.806 (95% CI 0.651-5.009) for infants with moderate/severe hypothermia and mild hypothermia, respectively. AH was also associated with a high likelihood of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH), and late-onset neonatal sepsis (LOS). CONCLUSIONS: AH is still very high in VLBW infants in NICUs in China. SGA, caesarean section, a low Apgar score at 5 min and intubation in the DR were associated with increased odds of hypothermia. Moderate/severe hypothermia was associated with mortality and poor outcomes, such as RDS, IVH, LOS.

11.
J Reprod Immunol ; 139: 103122, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244166

RESUMO

The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was first detected in December 2019 and became epidemic in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. COVID-19 has been rapidly spreading out in China and all over the world. The virus causing COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 has been known to be genetically similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) but distinct from it. Clinical manifestation of COVID-19 can be characterized by mild upper respiratory tract infection, lower respiratory tract infection involving non-life threatening pneumonia, and life-threatening pneumonia with acute respiratory distress syndrome. It affects all age groups, including newborns, to the elders. Particularly, pregnant women may be more susceptible to COVID-19 since pregnant women, in general, are vulnerable to respiratory infection. In pregnant women with COVID-19, there is no evidence for vertical transmission of the virus, but an increased prevalence of preterm deliveries has been noticed. The COVID-19 may alter immune responses at the maternal-fetal interface, and affect the well-being of mothers and infants. In this review, we focused on the reason why pregnant women are more susceptible to COVID-19 and the potential maternal and fetal complications from an immunological viewpoint.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/imunologia , China , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia
12.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 110(2): e91-e93, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035049

RESUMO

We present a 28-year-old man with an early onset of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis at 1 year. The patient had undergone 31 operations over a period of 7 years. After the diagnosis of tracheal papillomatosis, he received a four-time treatment of T-tube insertion combined with laser fulguration. During the last operation, pathologic findings showed moderate dysplasia with malignancy potential. Conformal radiotherapy was then given at 5000 cGY, targeting the tracheal tumor bed. The patient experienced complete remission with no complications. His condition has lasted for 20 years, and has continued up through the time of this report.


Assuntos
Terapia a Laser , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/radioterapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Papiloma/radioterapia , Papiloma/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Traqueia/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Traqueia/cirurgia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Radioterapia Adjuvante
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(43): e17616, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651874

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome type 1 (SGBS1) is caused by mutations in GPC3 or in both GPC3 and GPC4. Physical manifestations of SGBS1 include fetal overgrowth and macrostomia, macroglossia. Subclinical hypothyroidism has never been reported in SGBS1 cases. PATIENT CONCERNS: An 8-days-old boy was referred to our hospital with persistent hypoglycemia and special facies. And the infant showed elevated levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Free T4 and free T3 were normal. DIAGNOSES: Definitive diagnosis of SGBS1 depends on clinical features and genetic testing. A nonsense mutation (c.1515C > A, p. Cys505*) was tested by whole-exome sequencing. INTERVENTIONS: Normal blood glucose levels were maintained with glucose infusions. Levothyroxine was given to the patient for treating subclinical hypothyroidism. OUTCOMES: The parents decided to abandon the treatment of the patient. We learned that the patient died of a lung infection by a telephone follow-up. LESSONS: Subclinical hypothyroidism could be added to the known clinical manifestations of SGBS1.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/diagnóstico , Gigantismo/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , Hipotireoidismo/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , China , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
14.
Biosci Rep ; 39(10)2019 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Birth hypoxia causes neonatal mortality and morbidity. Hypoxia/ischemia can facilitate brain damage, causing various kinds of diseases, such as ischemic stroke. It is necessary to understand the potential underlying mechanisms of ischemic stroke. Previous studies revealed the involvement of thousand and one kinase 1 (TAOK1) in many cellular processes. METHODS: Herein, middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion (MCAO) was performed in rats to establish ischemic stroke in the animal model, and cortical neural stem cells from rats were treated with oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) to induce ischemic stroke cell model. The animal model of ischemic stroke was validated by Bederson and Zea-Longa neurological deficit scores and rotarod test. TAOK1 expression was examined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), Western blot, and immunofluorescent staining both in vivo and in vitro. RESULT: Compared with sham animals, the MCAO rats showed a significant increase in the neurological scores, and obvious motor behavioral deficits. Meanwhile, there was increased apoptosis and inflammatory response in the model group. TAOK1 overexpression reversed the OGD-induced cell injury, while TAOK1 knockdown exhibited the opposing effects. On the mechanism, the OGD-induced suppression of PI3K/AKT, and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways were abolished by TAOK1 overexpression, and aggravated by TAOK1 knockdown in vitro. Moreover, we proved that the inhibitory effect of TAOK1 on OGD-induced apoptosis was dependent on the intracellular kinase activity. CONCLUSION: TAOK1 protected MCAO-induced cerebral ischemic stroke by decreasing the pro-inflammatory factors and apoptosis via PI3K/AKT and MAPK signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Isquemia Encefálica/enzimologia , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/biossíntese , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/enzimologia , Animais , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia
15.
Mol Med Rep ; 20(4): 3691-3700, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485606

RESUMO

Methylophiopogonanone B (MO­B), which belongs to a group of homoisoflavonoids, present in Ophiopogon japonicus, has been identified as an active component with antioxidative and anti­tumor properties. The present study investigated whether MO­B may exert protective effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) against H2O2­induced injury in vitro, and whether the MO­B effects may be modulated by the NADPH pathway. HUVECs were treated with MO­B in the presence or absence of H2O2. Malondialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were analyzed to evaluate cell injury and the antioxidative potential of MO­B. The results revealed that MO­B inhibited the production of MDA and ROS, but enhanced SOD activity. Furthermore, MO­B could alleviate H2O2­induced apoptosis in HUVECs, which is consistent with the expression of apoptosis­associated genes and proteins in cells, including Bax/Bcl­2 and caspase­3. To explore the potential mechanism, the present study investigated the effects of MO­B on NADPH­related signaling via the analysis of neutrophil cytochrome b light chain (p22phox) expression, which is the membrane­associated subunit of NADPH oxidase. MO­B could improve the survival of endothelial cells and therefore may be a potential drug in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Genes Nutr ; 14: 17, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086609

RESUMO

Background: Studies have shown that the effects of maternal nutrition exposure during gestation influence metabolic risk in early life through an epigenetic mechanism. Low glycaemic index (GI) diets benefit both maternal and neonatal gestational outcomes. We hypothesize that maternal dietary GI or glycaemic load (GL) changes during pregnancy impact placental DNA methylation, especially in insulin resistance-related genes. Methods: From a clinical trial of overweight pregnant women, 12 subjects who successfully reduced their GI and another 12 whose GI increased despite the intervention were selected. A genome-wide differential methylation analysis of placental tissue DNA was conducted, followed by bioinformatic annotation and validation analysis. The distribution of genome-wide differentially methylated regions (DMRs) and CpG sites was described. Six CpG sites in regulatory regions of four insulin-related genes (PLIN1, CPT1B, SSTR4, and CIDEA) were selectively validated by pyrosequencing. Pairwise Spearman correlation analysis was performed to test methylation-phenotype association in an additional 153 subjects from the same trial. Correlation between methylation of significant sites and placental mRNA expression of SSTR4 was also analysed. Results: Dietary GI decreased by 24.3 (26.2-20.1) in the group who responded appropriately to the intervention and increased by 19.6 (15.2-29.1) in the comparison group. Epigenome-wide analysis identified 108 DMRs and 365 CpG sites with P < 0.05 adjusted by false discovery rate, distributed over all chromosomes. The methylation level of cg05009389 in the 3' UTR of PLIN1 was negatively correlated with maternal weight gain (ρ = - 0.21, P = 0.027) and increase in insulin levels (ρ = - 0.24, P = 0.015) during gestation. Methylation levels of cg17586860 and cg18197392 in the 5' UTR region of SSTR4 were negatively correlated with changes in dietary carbohydrate intake (ρ = - 0.24, Ps ≤ 0.006) and GL across gestation (ρ = - 0.23, Ps ≤ .008). This correlation survived the adjustment for maternal factors such as dietary GI, body mass index, and gestational diabetes. Up to 89% of cg18197392 methylation was explained by GL change. Cg14631053 methylation correlated positively with mRNA expression of SSTR4 in the placenta (ρ = 0.20, P = 0.037). Conclusions: We provide the first evidence that maternal dietary GI changes during gestation may impact placental DNA methylation of insulin regulation genes. This supports the hypothesis that placental methylation may be the epigenetic mechanism through which maternal diet influences the metabolic health of offspring.

17.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 7(4): e12081, 2019 04 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low glycemic index (LGI) diet has shown to be effective in reducing maternal and neonatal complications in high-risk pregnancies. OBJECTIVE: This trial aimed to examine the effectiveness of individualized LGI diet consultations based on the accurate diet glycemic load (GL) assessment tool on maternal and neonatal insulin resistance levels and diet behavior changes in overweight and obese pregnant women. METHODS: Overweight and obese pregnant women were recruited before 16 weeks of gestation and randomized to the LGI diet arm or the control arm. All participants received standard dietary education according to the Chinese Dietary Guide for Pregnant Women. In the intervention arm, additional individualized dietary GL assessments were performed using an app and instructions of lowering diet glycemic index (GI) to achieve LGI diet were provided by a clinical dietitian at early, middle, and late gestation. Primary outcomes were serum insulin at late gestation, incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) for mothers, and cord blood C-peptide level of neonates. RESULTS: In total, 400 subjects were randomized and received different interventions. There were no significant differences in maternal serum insulin levels (13.2 [9.3-13.2] uU/mL vs 12.4 [10.5-12.4] uU/mL), incidence of GDM (45 [22.5%] vs 43 [21.5%]), or cord blood C-peptide levels (mean 0.9ng/mL [SD 0.7] vs mean 0.8ng/mL [SD 0.6]) in the intervention group compared with the controls. The diet GI at late gestation was similar (mean 63.2 [SD 10.4] vs mean 64.3 [SD 10.4]), whereas greater diet fiber intake was observed in the intervention group (mean 11.6 grams [SD 8.0] vs mean 9.0 grams [SD 5.6]; P=.006). Adherence measurements did not significantly differ between 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: Individualized LGI diet consultations for overweight and obese pregnant women failed to make a significant difference in maternal or neonatal insulin resistance compared with the standard gestational diet consultation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01628835; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01628835 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/77LHgWP0k).


Assuntos
Dietoterapia/instrumentação , Índice Glicêmico , Resistência à Insulina , Aplicativos Móveis/normas , Adulto , Serviços de Saúde da Criança/normas , Serviços de Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Dietoterapia/métodos , Dietoterapia/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Serviços de Saúde Materna/normas , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Aplicativos Móveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Encaminhamento e Consulta/tendências
18.
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi ; 36(1): 80-84, 2019 Feb 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30887780

RESUMO

Muscle fatigue has widespread application in the field of rehabilitation medicine. The paper studies the muscle fatigue using surface electromyogram (sEMG) in the background of rehabilitation training system. The sEMG and ventilatory threshold of vastus lateralis, rectus femoris and erector spinae are collected synchronously and the electromyogram fatigue threshold (EMG FT) of different sEMG was analyzed by increasing load cycling experiments of 10 healthy subjects. This paper also analyzes the effect of isotonic and isometric contraction on EMG FT. Results showed that the appeared time of EMG FT was earlier than that of ventilatory threshold in the incremental load cycling. While the differences were subtle and EMG FT was verified to be effective. EMG FT has been proven effective for different muscle contraction by comparing the EMG FT of vastus lateralis and erector spinae. EMG FT could be used to keep muscle injuries from overtraining in the process of rehabilitation. Therefore, EMG FT has a great significance for femoral shaft fractures's fatigue monitoring in rehabilitation training.

19.
Environ Geochem Health ; 41(5): 2195-2207, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877628

RESUMO

Due to the important roles of carbonyl sulfide (COS) and carbon disulfide (CS2) in atmospheric chemistry, this study was designed to determine different proportions of COS and CS2 fluxes contributed from different sources, i.e., vegetation, soil and roots, at monthly and hourly timescales in the arid area in Xinjiang, China. Results indicated that the seasonal net uptake of COS by vegetation was predominant in the growing season. The CS2 fluxes from vegetation and soils had no significant seasonal variations compared with COS. The exchange rates of COS and CS2 have been found to be stimulated by the addition of nutrients in the form of urea fertilizer. Compared with the results of plots that were treated only with nitrogen, the treatments with both nitrogen and sulfur displayed no significant difference in the exchange fluxes. The results of compartment experiments indicated that the aboveground plants had the highest uptake of COS and had a vital role in the uptake of COS during the main growth period. The shares of COS emissions from the soil and roots increased to 6-17% and 55-58%, respectively, in the total COS fluxes when conditions, such as drought and senescence, were unfavorable for the developmental of vegetation. Observations of the preliminary diurnal fluxes indicated that the fluxes that occurred at night, with contributions from soils and plants, accounted for 27% of the total daily uptake of COS uptake. These quantitative results may be reasonably accounted for the use of COS as a promising tracer to obtain independent constraints on terrestrial carbon exchange at regional to global scales for their response to special environmental conditions in semiarid area.


Assuntos
Dissulfeto de Carbono/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Óxidos de Enxofre/análise , Atmosfera/química , Dissulfeto de Carbono/química , China , Clima , Gossypium/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Estações do Ano , Solo/química , Óxidos de Enxofre/química
20.
Am J Reprod Immunol ; 81(2): e13079, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578744

RESUMO

PROBLEM: This study aims to determine the expression and localization of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) in the testes of mice at different developmental stages. METHOD OF STUDY: By means of RT-qPCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence, the expression and localization of PD-1 and PD-L1 were detected in the testicular tissues of mice at different postnatal times: P7, P14, P21, P28, P35, and adulthood. Meanwhile, the level of soluble PD-L1 (sPD-L1) was evaluated by ELISA in the testicular interstitial fluid (IF) of the adult mice, culture supernatants of TM4 cell lines (Sertoli cells lines), and primary Sertoli cells at P14. RESULTS: Pd-1 mRNA levels were unexpectedly low. From P7 to P21, there was limited PD-1 protein detected while PD-1 was evident at P28 and afterward at significantly higher levels than at P14 and P21 (P < 0.05). Despite being found in the interstitial area at P7, P14, and P21, PD-1 was also detected in the germ cells of the seminiferous tubules after P28. Pd-l1 mRNA exhibited age-related changes, peaking at P21, while PD-L1 protein was constitutively expressed at any stage, specifically localized in the nucleus of Sertoli cells. Moreover, the level of sPD-L1 in IF was significantly higher than that in the culture supernatants of both TM4 and primary Sertoli cells at P14. CONCLUSIONS: PD-1 and PD-L1 were present in the testicular tissue of adult mice. The expression and localization of PD-1 fluctuated with age, and PD-1 was mainly localized to advanced germ cells, suggesting that it may play a role in spermiogenesis. PD-L1 was constitutively expressed in the nucleus of Sertoli cells, which could secrete sPD-L1 into the testicular interstitial space and thus may be involved in testicular immune privilege.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Células de Sertoli/fisiologia , Testículo/fisiologia , Animais , Apoptose , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Privilégio Imunológico , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Espermatogênese/genética , Testículo/patologia
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