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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 606, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001696

RESUMO

Manipulating liquids with tunable shape and optical functionalities in real time is important for electroactive flow devices and optoelectronic devices, but remains a great challenge. Here, we demonstrate electrotunable liquid sulfur microdroplets in an electrochemical cell. We observe electrowetting and merging of sulfur droplets under different potentiostatic conditions, and successfully control these processes via selective design of sulfiphilic/sulfiphobic substrates. Moreover, we employ the electrowetting phenomena to create a microlens based on the liquid sulfur microdroplets and tune its characteristics in real time through changing the shape of the liquid microdroplets in a fast, repeatable, and controlled manner. These studies demonstrate a powerful in situ optical battery platform for unraveling the complex reaction mechanism of sulfur chemistries and for exploring the rich material properties of the liquid sulfur, which shed light on the applications of liquid sulfur droplets in devices such as microlenses, and potentially other electrotunable and optoelectronic devices.

2.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 1364-1369, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000486

RESUMO

A method using machine learning (ML) is proposed to describe metal growth for simulations, which retains the accuracy of ab initio density functional theory (DFT) and results in a thousands-fold reduction in the computational time. This method is based on atomic energy decomposition from DFT calculations. Compared with other ML methods, our energy decomposition approach can yield much more information with the same DFT calculations. This approach is employed for the amorphous sodium system, where only 1000 DFT molecular dynamics images are enough for training an accurate model. The DFT and neural network potential (NNP) are compared for the dynamics to show that similar structural properties are generated. Finally, metal growth experiments from liquid to solid in a small and larger system are carried out to demonstrate the ability of using NNP to simulate the real growth process.

3.
Sci Adv ; 6(4): eaay4045, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32042900

RESUMO

Achieving perovskite-based high-color purity blue-emitting light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is still challenging. Here, we report successful synthesis of a series of blue-emissive two-dimensional Ruddlesden-Popper phase single crystals and their high-color purity blue-emitting LED demonstrations. Although this approach successfully achieves a series of bandgap emissions based on the different layer thicknesses, it still suffers from a conventional temperature-induced device degradation mechanism during high-voltage operations. To understand the underlying mechanism, we further elucidate temperature-induced device degradation by investigating the crystal structural and spectral evolution dynamics via in situ temperature-dependent single-crystal x-ray diffraction, photoluminescence (PL) characterization, and density functional theory calculation. The PL peak becomes asymmetrically broadened with a marked intensity decay, as temperature increases owing to [PbBr6]4- octahedra tilting and the organic chain disordering, which results in bandgap decrease. This study indicates that careful heat management under LED operation is a key factor to maintain the sharp and intense emission.

4.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(5): 6007-6014, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941270

RESUMO

A crystalline solid electrolyte interphase Li2CO3 material with a large band gap shows promise toward next-generation all-solid-state lithium batteries (ASSLBs). However, the inferior ionic diffusivity restricts such structures to a real battery setup. Herein, based on density functional theory calculation and Python materials genomics, we theoretically develop the chemistry and local structural motifs to build a mixed boron-carbon framework Li2+xC1-xBxO3 (LCBO). We examine the electrochemical and chemical stabilities of LCBO-electrode interfaces by analyzing the thermodynamics of formation of interfacial phases. Interestingly, the LCBO material is automatically protected from further decomposition through the self-generated resistive interphase (Li2CO3 and Li3BO3), which gives a wide range of operating potential. LCBO shows high interfacial stability with LiCoO2, LiMnO2, and LiMn2O4. More importantly, the theoretical Li-ion migration barrier of LCBO (x = 0.375) is approximately 0.23 ± 0.02 eV through a cooperative migration mechanism. Therefore, the LCBO material combines high Li-ion diffusivity with good interfacial stability, which makes it a promising solid-state electrolyte material for ASSLBs.

5.
ACS Cent Sci ; 5(11): 1857-1865, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31807687

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) hybrid perovskite sandwiched between two long-chain organic layers is an emerging class of low-cost semiconductor materials with unique optical properties and improved moisture stability. Unlike conventional semiconductors, ion migration in perovskite is a unique phenomenon possibly responsible for long carrier lifetime, current-voltage hysteresis, and low-frequency giant dielectric response. While there are many studies of ion migration in bulk hybrid perovskite, not much is known for its 2D counterparts, especially for ion migration induced by light excitation. Here, we construct an exfoliated 2D perovskite/carbon nanotube (CNT) heterostructure field effect transistor (FET), not only to demonstrate its potential in photomemory applications, but also to study the light induced ion migration mechanisms. We show that the FET I-V characteristic curve can be regulated by light and shows two opposite trends under different CNT oxygen doping conditions. Our temperature-dependent study indicates that the change in the I-V curve is probably caused by ion redistribution in the 2D hybrid perovskite. The first principle calculation shows the reduction of the migration barrier of I vacancy under light excitation. The device simulation shows that the increase of 2D hybrid perovskite dielectric constant (enabled by the increased ion migration) can change the I-V curve in the trends observed experimentally. Finally, the so synthesized FET shows the multilevel photomemory function. Our work shows that not only we could understand the unique ion migration behavior in 2D hybrid perovskite, it might also be used for many future memory function related applications not realizable in traditional semiconductors.

6.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(21): 6656-6663, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608641

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) Dirac cone materials exhibit linear energy dispersion at the Fermi level, where the effective masses of carriers are very close to zero and the Fermi velocity is ultrahigh, only 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than the light velocity. Such Dirac cone materials have great promise in high-performance electronic devices. Herein, we have employed the genetic algorithm methods combined with first-principles calculations to propose a new 2D anisotropic Dirac cone material, an orthorhombic boron phosphide (BP) monolayer named borophosphene. Molecular dynamics simulation and phonon dispersion have been used to evaluate the dynamic and thermal stability of borophosphene. Because of the unique arrangements of B-B and P-P dimers, the mechanical and electronic properties are highly anisotropic. Of great interest is the fact that the Dirac cone of the borophosphene is robust, independent of in-plane biaxial and uniaxial strains, and can also be observed in its one-dimensional zigzag nanoribbons and armchair nanotubes. The Fermi velocities are ∼105 m/s, on the same order of magnitude as that of graphene. By using a tight-binding model, the origin of the Dirac cone of borophosphene is analyzed. Moreover, a unique feature of self-doping can be induced by the in-plane biaxial and uniaxial strains of borophosphene and the curvature effect of nanotubes, which is greatly beneficial for realizing high-speed carriers (holes). Our results suggest that the borophosphene holds great promise for high-performance electronic devices, which could promote experimental and theoretical studies for further exploring the potential applications of other 2D Dirac cone sheets.

7.
Nanoscale ; 11(39): 18169-18175, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556893

RESUMO

The search for high efficiency and low-cost catalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is vital to overall water splitting. In this work, on the basis of first-principles calculations, we screened a series of late transition metal atoms supported on a C9N4 monolayer (TM@C9N4, where TM represents Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir, and Pt) as electrocatalysts for both the HER and OER. Our results demonstrate that the TM atoms can be bonded with the nitrogen atoms around the hole to form stable structures, and the bonded TM atoms are stable against diffusion. Co@C9N4 exhibits high catalytic activity toward the HER. In particular, the N active sites in the Co@C9N4, Ni@C9N4, and Pt@C9N4 systems demonstrate relatively high performance for the HER. However, Co@C9N4 and Pt@C9N4 exhibit low OER activities with large overpotentials. Among the ten cases of TM@C9N4 considered here, only Ni@C9N4 performs as a promising bifunctional electrocatalyst with N and Ni atoms as catalytic active sites for the HER and OER, with a calculated hydrogen adsorption Gibbs free energy (ΔGH*) of -0.04 eV and an OER overpotential (ηOER) of 0.31 V. The results demonstrate that TM@C9N4 is a promising single-atom catalytic system, which can be used as the non-noble metal bifunctional electrocatalyst for overall water splitting.

8.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(20): 6174-6183, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538792

RESUMO

Plasmon photochemistry can potentially play a significant role in photocatalysis. To realize this potential, it is critical to enhance the plasmon excited hot carrier transfer and collection. However, the lack of atomistic understanding of the carrier transfer across the interface, especially when the carrier is still "hot", makes it challenging to design a more efficient system. In this work, we apply the nonadiabatic molecular dynamics simulation to study hot carrier dynamics in the system of a Au nanocluster on top of a GaN surface. By setting up the initial excited hole in Au, the carrier transfer from Au to GaN is found to be on a subpicosecond time scale. The hot hole first cools to the band edge of Au d-states while it transfers to GaN. After the hole has cooled down to the band edge of GaN, we find that some of the charges can return back to Au. By applying different external potentials to mimic the Schottky barrier band bending, the returning charge can be reduced, demonstrating the importance of the internal electric field. Finally, with the understanding of the carrier transfer's pathway, we suggest that a ZnO layer between GaN and Au can effectively block the "cold" carrier from returning back to Au but still allow the hot carrier to transfer from Au to GaN.

9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(41): 20274-20279, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548414

RESUMO

The condensation of half-light half-matter exciton polaritons in semiconductor optical cavities is a striking example of macroscopic quantum coherence in a solid-state platform. Quantum coherence is possible only when there are strong interactions between the exciton polaritons provided by their excitonic constituents. Rydberg excitons with high principal value exhibit strong dipole-dipole interactions in cold atoms. However, polaritons with the excitonic constituent that is an excited state, namely Rydberg exciton polaritons (REPs), have not yet been experimentally observed. Here, we observe the formation of REPs in a single crystal CsPbBr3 perovskite cavity without any external fields. These polaritons exhibit strong nonlinear behavior that leads to a coherent polariton condensate with a prominent blue shift. Furthermore, the REPs in CsPbBr3 are highly anisotropic and have a large extinction ratio, arising from the perovskite's orthorhombic crystal structure. Our observation not only sheds light on the importance of many-body physics in coherent polariton systems involving higher-order excited states, but also paves the way for exploring these coherent interactions for solid-state quantum optical information processing.

10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(39): 19258-19263, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501328

RESUMO

Ultrafast control of magnetic order by light provides a promising realization for spintronic devices beyond Moore's Law and has stimulated intense research interest in recent years. Yet, despite 2 decades of debates, the key question of how the spin angular momentum flows on the femtosecond timescale remains open. The lack of direct first-principle methods and pictures for such process exacerbates the issue. Here, we unravel the laser-induced demagnetization mechanism of ferromagnetic semiconductor GaMnAs, using an efficient time-dependent density functional theory approach that enables the direct real-time snapshot of the demagnetization process. Our results show a clear spin-transfer trajectory from the localized Mn-d electrons to itinerant carriers within 20 fs, illustrating the dominant role of [Formula: see text] interaction. We find that the total spin of localized electrons and itinerant carriers is not conserved in the presence of spin-orbit coupling (SOC). Immediately after laser excitation, a growing percentage of spin-angular momentum is quickly transferred to the electron orbital via SOC in about 1 ps, then slowly to the lattice via electron-phonon coupling in a few picoseconds, responsible for the 2-stage process observed experimentally. The spin-relaxation time via SOC is about 300 fs for itinerant carriers and about 700 fs for Mn-d electrons. These results provide a quantum-mechanical microscopic picture for the long-standing questions regarding the channels and timescales of spin transfer, as well as the roles of different interactions underlying the GaMnAs demagnetization process.

11.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3078, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289268

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

12.
Nat Mater ; 18(9): 970-976, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285617

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted significant interest because of their large surface-to-volume ratios and electron confinement. Compared to common 2D materials such as graphene or metal hydroxides, with their intrinsic layered atomic structures, the formation mechanisms of 2D metal oxides with a rocksalt structure are not well understood. Here, we report the formation process for 2D cobalt oxide and cobalt nickel oxide nanosheets, after analysis by in situ liquid-phase transmission electron microscopy. Our observations reveal that three-dimensional (3D) nanoparticles are initially formed from the molecular precursor solution and then transform into 2D nanosheets. Ab initio calculations show that a small nanocrystal is dominated by positive edge energy, but when it grows to a certain size, the negative surface energy becomes dominant, driving the transformation of the 3D nanocrystal into a 2D structure. Uncovering these growth pathways, including the 3D-to-2D transition, provides opportunities for future material design and synthesis in solution.

13.
Sci Adv ; 5(6): eaau8000, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31259238

RESUMO

Despite more than 20 years of development, the underlying physics of the laser-induced demagnetization process is still debated. We present a fast, real-time time-dependent density functional theory (rt-TDDFT) algorithm together with the phenomenological atomic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert model to investigate this problem. Our Hamiltonian considers noncollinear magnetic moment, spin-orbit coupling (SOC), electron-electron, electron-phonon, and electron-light interactions. The algorithm for time evolution achieves hundreds of times of speedup enabling calculation of large systems. Our simulations yield a demagnetization rate similar to experiments. We found that (i) the angular momentum flow from light to the system is not essential and the spin Zeeman effect is negligible. (ii) The phonon can play a role but is not essential. (iii) The initial spin disorder and the self-consistent update of the electron-electron interaction play dominant roles and enhance the demagnetization to the experimentally observed rate. The spin disorder connects the electronic structure theory with the phenomenological three-temperature model.

14.
Sci Adv ; 5(6): eaaw5623, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187062

RESUMO

The behavior of individual nanocrystals during superlattice phase transitions can profoundly affect the structural perfection and electronic properties of the resulting superlattices. However, details of nanocrystal morphological changes during superlattice phase transitions are largely unknown due to the lack of direct observation. Here, we report the dynamic deformability of PbSe semiconductor nanocrystals during superlattice phase transitions that are driven by ligand displacement. Real-time high-resolution imaging with liquid-phase transmission electron microscopy reveals that following ligand removal, the individual PbSe nanocrystals experience drastic directional shape deformation when the spacing between nanocrystals reaches 2 to 4 nm. The deformation can be completely recovered when two nanocrystals move apart or it can be retained when they attach. The large deformation, which is responsible for the structural defects in the epitaxially fused nanocrystal superlattice, may arise from internanocrystal dipole-dipole interactions.

15.
Nanoscale ; 11(37): 17262-17269, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246216

RESUMO

Perovskite nanoparticles have attracted the attention of research groups around the world for their impressive photophysical properties, facile synthesis and versatile surface chemistry. Here, we report a synthetic route that takes advantage of a suite of soluble precursors to generate CsPbBr3 perovskite nanoplatelets with fine control over size, thickness and optical properties. We demonstrate near unit cell precision, creating well characterized materials with sharp, narrow emission lines at 430, 460 and 490 nm corresponding to nanoplatelets that are 2, 4, and 6 unit cells thick, respectively. Nanoplatelets were characterized with optical spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy to explicitly correlate growth conditions, thickness and resulting photophysical properties. Detailed in situ photoluminescence spectroscopic studies were carried out to understand and optimize particle growth by correlating light emission with nanoplatelet growth across a range of synthetic conditions. It was found that nanoplatelet thickness and emission wavelength increase as the ratio of oleic acid to oleyl amine or the reaction temperature is increased. Using this information, we control the lateral size, width and corresponding emission wavelength of the desired nanoplatelets by modulating the temperature and ratios of the ligand.

16.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1750, 2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988287

RESUMO

Auger recombination is the main non-radiative decay pathway for multi-carrier states of colloidal quantum dots, which affects performance of most of their optical and optoelectronic applications. Outstanding single-exciton properties of CdSe/CdS core/shell quantum dots enable us to simultaneously study the two basic types of Auger recombination channels-negative trion and positive trion channels. Though Auger rates of positive trion are regarded to be much faster than that of negative trion for II-VI quantum dots in literature, our experiments find the two rates can be inverted for certain core/shell geometries. This is confirmed by theoretical calculations as a result of geometry-dependent dielectric screening. By varying the core/shell geometry, both types of Auger rates can be independently tuned for ~ 1 order of magnitude. Experimental and theoretical findings shed new light on designing quantum dots with necessary Auger recombination characteristics for high-power light-emitting-diodes, lasers, single-molecular tracking, super-resolution microscope, and advanced quantum light sources.

17.
Nano Lett ; 19(4): 2489-2496, 2019 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30848600

RESUMO

Colloidal cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals exhibit unique photophysical properties including high quantum yields, tunable emission colors, and narrow photoluminescence spectra that have marked them as promising light emitters for applications in diverse photonic devices. Randomly oriented transition dipole moments have limited the light outcoupling efficiency of all isotropic light sources, including perovskites. In this report we design and synthesize deep blue emitting, quantum confined, perovskite nanoplates and analyze their optical properties by combining angular emission measurements with back focal plane imaging and correlating the results with physical characterization. By reducing the dimensions of the nanocrystals and depositing them face down onto a substrate by spin coating, we orient the average transition dipole moment of films into the plane of the substrate and improve the emission properties for light emitting applications. We then exploit the sensitivity of the perovskite electronic transitions to the dielectric environment at the interface between the crystal and their surroundings to reduce the angle between the average transition dipole moment and the surface to only 14° and maximize potential light emission efficiency. This tunability of the electronic transition that governs light emission in perovskites is unique and, coupled with their excellent photophysical properties, introduces a valuable method to extend the efficiencies and applications of perovskite based photonic devices beyond those based on current materials.

18.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(6): 3024-3032, 2019 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30672565

RESUMO

Highly active single-atom catalysts (SACs) have recently been intensively studied for their potential in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Due to the existence of many such SAC systems, a general understanding of the trend and designing principle is necessary to discover an optimal SAC system. In this work, by using density functional theory (DFT), we investigated a series of late single transition metals (TM = Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Pd) anchored on various N doped graphenes (xN-TM, x = 1-4) as electrocatalysts for both the HER and OER. Solvent effects were taken into account using an implicit continuum model. Our results reveal that the catalytic activity of SACs is determined by the local coordination number of N and TM in the catalysts. Among the considered catalysts, a low-coordinated Co site, i.e. a triple-coordinated Co, exhibits a high catalytic activity toward the HER with a calculated hydrogen adsorption free energy of -0.01 eV, whereas a high-coordinated Co center, i.e. a quadruple-coordinated Co is a promising candidate for the OER with a low computed overpotential of -0.39 V, which are comparable to those of noble metal catalysts, indicating superior HER and OER performance of N-Co co-doped graphenes. The results shed light on the potential applications of TM and N co-doped graphenes as efficient single-atom bifunctional catalysts for water splitting, thereby functioning as promising candidates for hydrogen/oxygen production.

19.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(50): 17760-17772, 2018 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30501174

RESUMO

We introduce a general surface passivation mechanism for cesium lead halide perovskite materials (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, I) that is supported by a combined experimental and theoretical study of the nanocrystal surface chemistry. A variety of spectroscopic methods are employed together with ab initio calculations to identify surface halide vacancies as the predominant source of charge trapping. The number of surface traps per nanocrystal is quantified by 1H NMR spectroscopy, and that number is consistent with a simple trapping model in which surface halide vacancies create deleterious under-coordinated lead atoms. These halide vacancies exhibit trapping behavior that differs among CsPbCl3, CsPbBr3, and CsPbI3. Ab initio calculations suggest that introduction of anionic X-type ligands can produce trap-free band gaps by altering the energetics of lead-based defect levels. General rules for selecting effective passivating ligand pairs are introduced by considering established principles of coordination chemistry. Introducing softer, anionic, X-type Lewis bases that target under-coordinated lead atoms results in absolute quantum yields approaching unity and monoexponential luminescence decay kinetics, thereby indicating full trap passivation. This work provides a systematic framework for preparing highly luminescent CsPbX3 nanocrystals with variable compositions and dimensionalities, thereby improving the fundamental understanding of these materials and informing future synthetic and post-synthetic efforts toward trap-free CsPbX3 nanocrystals.

20.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 14(11): 5645-5652, 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30351935

RESUMO

Real-time time-dependent density functional theory (RT-TDDFT) is known to be hindered by the very small time step (attosecond or smaller) needed in the numerical simulation, because of the fast oscillation of electron wave functions, which significantly limits its range of applicability for the study of ultrafast dynamics. In this paper, we demonstrate that such oscillation can be considerably reduced by optimizing the gauge choice using the parallel transport formalism. RT-TDDFT calculations can thus be significantly accelerated using a combination of the parallel transport gauge and implicit integrators, and the resulting scheme can be used to accelerate any electronic structure software that uses a Schrödinger representation. Using absorption spectrum, ultrashort laser pulse, and Ehrenfest dynamics calculations for example, we show that the new method can utilize a time step that is on the order of 10-100 attoseconds using a planewave basis set. Thanks to the significant increase of the size of the time step, we also demonstrate that the new method is more than 10 times faster, in terms of the wall clock time, when compared to the standard explicit fourth-order Runge-Kutta time integrator for silicon systems ranging from 32 to 1024 atoms.

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