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1.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641344

RESUMO

The genus Citrus contains a vast range of antioxidant metabolites, dietary metabolites, and antioxidant polyphenols that protect plants from unfavorable environmental conditions, enhance their tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses, and possess multiple health-promoting effects in humans. This review summarizes various antioxidant metabolites such as organic acids, amino acids, alkaloids, fatty acids, carotenoids, ascorbic acid, tocopherols, terpenoids, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonoids, and anthocyanins that are distributed in different citrus species. Among these antioxidant metabolites, flavonoids are abundantly present in primitive, wild, and cultivated citrus species and possess the highest antioxidant activity. We demonstrate that the primitive and wild citrus species (e.g., Atalantia buxifolia and C. latipes) have a high level of antioxidant metabolites and are tolerant to various abiotic and biotic stresses compared with cultivated citrus species (e.g., C. sinensis and C. reticulata). Additionally, we highlight the potential usage of citrus wastes (rag, seeds, fruit peels, etc.) and the health-promoting properties of citrus metabolites. Furthermore, we summarize the genes that are involved in the biosynthesis of antioxidant metabolites in different citrus species. We speculate that the genome-engineering technologies should be used to confirm the functions of candidate genes that are responsible for the accumulation of antioxidant metabolites, which will serve as an alternative tool to breed citrus cultivars with increased antioxidant metabolites.

2.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(9)2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579397

RESUMO

Cold stress, including freezing stress and chilling stress, is one of the major environmental factors that limit the growth and productivity of plants. As a temperate dicot model plant species, Arabidopsis develops a capability to freezing tolerance through cold acclimation. The past decades have witnessed a deep understanding of mechanisms underlying cold stress signal perception, transduction, and freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis. In contrast, a monocot cereal model plant species derived from tropical and subtropical origins, rice, is very sensitive to chilling stress and has evolved a different mechanism for chilling stress signaling and response. In this review, the authors summarized the recent progress in our understanding of cold stress response mechanisms, highlighted the convergent and divergent mechanisms between Arabidopsis and rice plasma membrane cold stress perceptions, calcium signaling, phospholipid signaling, MAPK cascade signaling, ROS signaling, and ICE-CBF regulatory network, as well as light-regulated signal transduction system. Genetic engineering approaches of developing freezing tolerant Arabidopsis and chilling tolerant rice were also reviewed. Finally, the future perspective of cold stress signaling and tolerance in rice was proposed.

3.
Planta ; 254(4): 68, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498163

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: In this review, we have focused on the CRISPR/Cas9 technology for improving the agronomic traits in plants through point mutations, knockout, and single base editing, and we highlighted the recent progress in plant metabolic engineering. CRISPR/Cas9 technology has immense power to reproduce plants with desired characters and revolutionizing the field of genome engineering by erasing the barriers in targeted genome editing. Agriculture fields are using this advance genome editing tool to get the desired traits in the crops plants such as increase yield, improve product quality attributes, and enhance resistance against biotic and abiotic stresses by identifying and editing genes of interest. This review focuses on CRISPR/Cas-based gene knockout for trait improvement and single base editing to boost yield, quality, stress tolerance, and disease resistance traits in crops. Use of CRISPR/Cas9 system to facilitate crop domestication and hybrid breeding are also touched. We summarize recent developments and up-gradation of delivery mechanism (nanotechnology and virus particle-based delivery system) and progress in multiplex gene editing. We also shed lights in advances and challenges of engineering the important metabolic pathways that contain a variety of dietary metabolites and phytochemicals. In addition, we endorsed substantial technical hurdles and possible ways to overcome the unpredictability of CRISPR/Cas technology for broader application across various crop species. We speculated that by making a strong interconnection among all genomic fields will give a gigantic bunt of knowledge to develop crop expressing desired traits.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Melhoramento Vegetal , Agricultura , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Genoma de Planta , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Tecnologia
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360958

RESUMO

Semi-dwarfism is a main agronomic trait in crop breeding. In this study, we performed genome-wide association study (GWAS) and identified a new quantitative trait nucleotide (QTN) for rice shoot length. The peak QTN (C/T) was located in the first coding region of a group III WRKY transcription factor OsWRKY21 (LOC_Os01g60640). Interestingly, further haplotype analysis showed that C/T difference only existed in the indica group but not in the japonica group, resulting in significant differences in plant height among the different indica rice varieties. OsWRKY21 was expressed in embryo, radicle, shoots, leaves, and stems. Most notably, overexpressing OsWRKY21 resulted in the semi-dwarf phenotype, early heading date and short internodes compared to the wild type, while the knockout mutant plants by CRISPR/Cas9 technology yielded the opposite. The overexpressing lines exhibited the decreased length of the cells near sclerenchyma epidermis, accompanied with the lower levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and gibberellin 3 (GA3), but increased levels of the abscisic acid (ABA) and salicylic acid (SA) in the internodes at heading stage. Moreover, the semi-dwarf phenotype could be fully rescued by exogenous GA3 application at seedling stage. The RNA-seq and qRT-PCR analysis confirmed the differential expression levels of genes in development and the stress responses in rice, including GA metabolism (GA20ox2, GA2ox6, and YABY1) and cell wall biosynthesis (CesA4, 7, and 9) and regulation (MYB103L). These data suggest the essential role of OsWRKY21 in regulation of internode elongation and plant height in rice.


Assuntos
Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável
5.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202856

RESUMO

Banana is a major fruit crop throughout the world with abundant lignocellulose in the pseudostem and rachis residues for biofuel production. In this study, we collected a total of 11 pseudostems and rachis samples that were originally derived from different genetic types and ecological locations of banana crops and then examined largely varied edible carbohydrates (soluble sugars, starch) and lignocellulose compositions. By performing chemical (H2SO4, NaOH) and liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatments, we also found a remarkable variation in biomass enzymatic saccharification and bioethanol production among all banana samples examined. Consequently, this study identified a desirable banana (Refen1, subgroup Pisang Awak) crop containing large amounts of edible carbohydrates and completely digestible lignocellulose, which could be combined to achieve the highest bioethanol yields of 31-38% (% dry matter), compared with previously reported ones in other bioenergy crops. Chemical analysis further indicated that the cellulose CrI and lignin G-monomer should be two major recalcitrant factors affecting biomass enzymatic saccharification in banana pseudostems and rachis. Therefore, this study not only examined rich edible carbohydrates for food in the banana pseudostems but also detected digestible lignocellulose for bioethanol production in rachis tissue, providing a strategy applicable for genetic breeding and biomass processing in banana crops.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Biomassa , Temperatura Alta , Lignina/química , Musa/química , Água , Hidrólise
6.
J Exp Bot ; 72(18): 6611-6627, 2021 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129028

RESUMO

Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinases (CCaMKs) and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MAPKKs) are two types of kinases that regulate salt stress response in plants. It remains unclear, however, how they cooperatively affect lateral root growth under salt stress. Here, two conserved phosphorylation sites (S102 and T118) of OsCaM1 were identified, and found to affect the ability to bind to Ca2+in vitro and the kinase activity of OsCCaMK in vivo. OsCCaMK specifically interacted with OsMKK1/6 in a Ca2+/CaM-dependent manner. In vitro kinase and in vivo dual-luciferase assays revealed that OsCCaMK phosphorylated OsMKK6 while OsMKK1 phosphorylated OsCCaMK. Overexpression and antisense-RNA repression expression of OsCaM1-1, and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing mutations of OsMKK1, OsMKK6, and OsMKK1/6 proved that OsCaM1-1, OsMKK1, and OsMKK6 enhanced the auxin content in roots and lateral root growth under salt stress. Consistently, OsCaM1-1, OsMKK1, and OsMKK6 regulated the transcript levels of the genes of this cascade, and salt stress-related and lateral root growth-related auxin signaling under salt stress in rice roots. These findings demonstrate that the OsCaM1-associated OsCCaMK-OsMKK1/6 cascade plays a critical role in recruiting auxin signaling in rice roots. These results also provide new insight into the regulatory mechanism of the CaM-mediated phosphorylation relay cascade to auxin signaling in lateral root growth under salt stress in plants.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de Cálcio-Calmodulina/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Oryza , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estresse Salino , Calmodulina/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo
7.
Biotechnol Biofuels ; 14(1): 144, 2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying lignocellulose recalcitrant factors and exploring their genetic properties are essential for enhanced biomass enzymatic saccharification in bioenergy crops. Despite genetic modification of major wall polymers has been implemented for reduced recalcitrance in engineered crops, it could most cause a penalty of plant growth and biomass yield. Alternatively, it is increasingly considered to improve minor wall components, but an applicable approach is required for efficient assay of large population of biomass samples. Hence, this study collected total of 100 rice straw samples and characterized all minor wall monosaccharides and biomass enzymatic saccharification by integrating NIRS modeling and QTL profiling. RESULTS: By performing classic chemical analyses and establishing optimal NIRS equations, this study examined four minor wall monosaccharides and major wall polymers (acid-soluble lignin/ASL, acid-insoluble lignin/AIL, three lignin monomers, crystalline cellulose), which led to largely varied hexoses yields achieved from enzymatic hydrolyses after two alkali pretreatments were conducted with large population of rice straws. Correlation analyses indicated that mannose and galactose can play a contrast role for biomass enzymatic saccharification at P < 0.0 l level (n = 100). Meanwhile, we found that the QTLs controlling mannose, galactose, lignin-related traits, and biomass saccharification were co-located. By combining NIRS assay with QTLs maps, this study further interpreted that the mannose-rich hemicellulose may assist AIL disassociation for enhanced biomass enzymatic saccharification, whereas the galactose-rich polysaccharides should be effectively extracted with ASL from the alkali pretreatment for condensed AIL association with cellulose microfibrils. CONCLUSIONS: By integrating NIRS assay with QTL profiling for large population of rice straw samples, this study has identified that the mannose content of wall polysaccharides could positively affect biomass enzymatic saccharification, while the galactose had a significantly negative impact. It has also sorted out that two minor monosaccharides could distinctively associate with lignin deposition for wall network construction. Hence, this study demonstrates an applicable approach for fast assessments of minor lignocellulose recalcitrant factors and biomass enzymatic saccharification in rice, providing a potential strategy for bioenergy crop breeding and biomass processing.

8.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(4)2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924151

RESUMO

Seed storability is a main agronomically important trait to assure storage safety of grain and seeds in rice. Although many quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and associated genes for rice seed storability have been identified, the detailed genetic mechanisms of seed storability remain unclear in rice. In this study, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed in 456 diverse rice core collections from the 3K rice genome. We discovered the new nine QTLs designated as qSS1-1, qSS1-2, qSS2-1, qSS3-1, qSS5-1, qSS5-2, qSS7-1, qSS8-1, and qSS11-1. According to the analysis of the new nine QTLs, our results could well explain the reason why seed storability of indica subspecies was superior to japonica subspecies in rice. Among them, qSS1-2 and qSS8-1 were potentially co-localized with a known associated qSS1/OsGH3-2 and OsPIMT1, respectively. Our results also suggest that pyramiding breeding of superior alleles of these associated genes will lead to new varieties with improved seed storability in the future.

9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925234

RESUMO

Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is important for large-scale hybrid seed production. Rearrangements in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) for the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) CMS line J4A were responsible for pollen abortion. However, the expression patterns of nuclear genes associated with pollen abortion and the molecular basis of CMS for J4A are unknown, and were the objectives of this study by comparing J4A with the J4B maintainer line. Cytological evaluation of J4A anthers showed that microspore abortion occurs during meiosis preventing pollen development. Changes in enzyme activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex IV and mitochondrial respiratory chain complex V and the content of ribosomal protein and ATP during anther abortion were observed for J4A suggesting insufficient synthesis of ATP hindered pollen production. Additionally, levels of sucrose, starch, soluble sugar, and fructose were significantly altered in J4A during the meiosis stage, suggesting reduced sugar metabolism contributed to sterility. Transcriptome and miRNAomics analyses identified 4461 differentially expressed mRNAs (DEGs) and 26 differentially expressed microRNAs (DEMIs). Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that the DEMIs were associated with starch and sugar metabolism. Six deduced target gene regulatory pairs that may participate in CMS were identified, ghi-MIR7484-10/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 6 (MAPKK6), ghi-undef-156/agamous-like MADS-box protein AGL19 (AGL19), ghi-MIR171-1-22/SNF1-related protein kinase regulatory subunit gamma-1 and protein trichome birefringence-like 38, and ghi-MIR156-(8/36)/WRKY transcription factor 28 (WRKY28). Overall, a putative CMS mechanism involving mitochondrial dysfunction, the ghi-MIR7484-10/MAPKK6 network, and reduced glucose metabolism was suggested, and ghi-MIR7484-10/MAPKK6 may be related to abnormal microspore meiosis and induction of excessive sucrose accumulation in anthers.


Assuntos
Gossypium/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Citosol/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Expressão Gênica/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Ontologia Genética , Pólen/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6767, 2021 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762669

RESUMO

Wheat is a major food crop worldwide. The plant architecture is a complex trait mostly influenced by plant height, tiller number, and leaf morphology. Plant height plays a crucial role in lodging and thus affects yield and grain quality. In this study, a wheat population was genotyped by using Illumina iSelect 90K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay and finally 22,905 high-quality SNPs were used to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for plant architectural traits employing four multi-locus GWAS (ML-GWAS) and three single-locus GWAS (SL-GWAS) models. As a result, 174 and 97 significant SNPs controlling plant architectural traits were detected by ML-GWAS and SL-GWAS methods, respectively. Among these SNP makers, 43 SNPs were consistently detected, including seven across multiple environments and 36 across multiple methods. Interestingly, five SNPs (Kukri_c34553_89, RAC875_c8121_1490, wsnp_Ex_rep_c66315_64480362, Ku_c5191_340, and tplb0049a09_1302) consistently detected across multiple environments and methods, played a role in modulating both plant height and flag leaf length. Furthermore, candidate SNPs (BS00068592_51, Kukri_c4750_452 and BS00022127_51) constantly repeated in different years and methods associated with flag leaf width and number of tillers. We also detected several SNPs (Jagger_c6772_80, RAC875_c8121_1490, BS00089954_51, Excalibur_01167_1207, and Ku_c5191_340) having common associations with more than one trait across multiple environments. By further appraising these GWAS methods, the pLARmEB and FarmCPU models outperformed in SNP detection compared to the other ML-GWAS and SL-GWAS methods, respectively. Totally, 152 candidate genes were found to be likely involved in plant growth and development. These finding will be helpful for better understanding of the genetic mechanism of architectural traits in wheat.

11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(16)2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781752

RESUMO

Kernel morphology is one of the major yield traits of wheat, the genetic architecture of which is always important in crop breeding. In this study, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to appraise the genetic architecture of the kernel traits of 319 wheat accessions using 22,905 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers from a wheat 90K SNP array. As a result, 111 and 104 significant SNPs for Kernel traits were detected using four multi-locus GWAS models (mrMLM, FASTmrMLM, FASTmrEMMA, and pLARmEB) and three single-locus models (FarmCPU, MLM, and MLMM), respectively. Among the 111 SNPs detected by the multi-locus models, 24 SNPs were simultaneously detected across multiple models, including seven for kernel length, six for kernel width, six for kernels per spike, and five for thousand kernel weight. Interestingly, the five most stable SNPs (RAC875_29540_391, Kukri_07961_503, tplb0034e07_1581, BS00074341_51, and BobWhite_049_3064) were simultaneously detected by at least three multi-locus models. Integrating these newly developed multi-locus GWAS models to unravel the genetic architecture of kernel traits, the mrMLM approach detected the maximum number of SNPs. Furthermore, a total of 41 putative candidate genes were predicted to likely be involved in the genetic architecture underlining kernel traits. These findings can facilitate a better understanding of the complex genetic mechanisms of kernel traits and may lead to the genetic improvement of grain yield in wheat.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Poliploidia , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Sementes/genética , Triticum/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genética Populacional , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
12.
Biotechnol Biofuels ; 12: 11, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30636971

RESUMO

Background: Genetic modification of plant cell walls has been implemented to reduce lignocellulosic recalcitrance for biofuel production. Plant glycoside hydrolase family 9 (GH9) comprises endo-ß-1,4-glucanase in plants. Few studies have examined the roles of GH9 in cell wall modification. In this study, we independently overexpressed two genes from GH9B subclasses (OsGH9B1 and OsGH9B3) and examined cell wall features and biomass saccharification in transgenic rice plants. Results: Compared with the wild type (WT, Nipponbare), the OsGH9B1 and OsGH9B3 transgenic rice plants, respectively, contained much higher OsGH9B1 and OsGH9B3 protein levels and both proteins were observed in situ with nonspecific distribution in the plant cells. The transgenic lines exhibited significantly increased cellulase activity in vitro than the WT. The OsGH9B1 and OsGH9B3 transgenic plants showed a slight alteration in three wall polymer compositions (cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin), in their stem mechanical strength and biomass yield, but were significantly decreased in the cellulose degree of polymerization (DP) and lignocellulose crystalline index (CrI) by 21-22%. Notably, the crude cellulose substrates of the transgenic lines were more efficiently digested by cellobiohydrolase (CBHI) than those of the WT, indicating the significantly increased amounts of reducing ends of ß-1,4-glucans in cellulose microfibrils. Finally, the engineered lines generated high sugar yields after mild alkali pretreatments and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis, resulting in the high bioethanol yields obtained at 22.5% of dry matter. Conclusions: Overproduction of OsGH9B1/B3 enzymes should have specific activity in the postmodification of cellulose microfibrils. The increased reducing ends of ß-1,4-glucan chains for reduced cellulose DP and CrI positively affected biomass enzymatic saccharification. Our results demonstrate a potential strategy for genetic modification of cellulose microfibrils in bioenergy crops.

14.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 3636, 2018 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29483532

RESUMO

Lignin content and composition are crucial factors affecting biomass digestibility. Exploring the genetic loci simultaneously affecting lignin-relevant traits and biomass digestibility is a precondition for lignin genetic manipulation towards energy crop breeding. In this study, a high-throughput platform was employed to assay the lignin content, lignin composition and biomass enzymatic digestibility of a rice recombinant inbred line population. Correlation analysis indicated that the absolute content of lignin monomers rather than lignin content had negative effects on biomass saccharification, whereas the relative content of p-hydroxyphenyl unit and the molar ratio of p-hydroxyphenyl unit to guaiacyl unit exhibited positive roles. Eight QTL clusters were identified and four of them affecting both lignin composition and biomass digestibility. The additive effects of clustered QTL revealed consistent relationships between lignin-relevant traits and biomass digestibility. Pyramiding rice lines containing the above four positive alleles for increasing biomass digestibility were selected and showed comparable lignin content, decreased syringyl or guaiacyl unit and increased molar percentage of p-hydroxyphenyl unit, the molar ratio of p-hydroxyphenyl unit to guaiacyl unit and sugar releases. More importantly, the lodging resistance and eating/cooking quality of pyramiding lines were not sacrificed, indicating the QTL information could be applied to select desirable energy rice lines.


Assuntos
Lignina/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Biomassa , Loci Gênicos/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
15.
J Exp Bot ; 69(5): 1065-1080, 2018 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29253184

RESUMO

CSLD3, a gene of the cellulose synthase-like D family, affects root hair elongation, but its interactions with ethylene signaling and phosphate-starvation are poorly understood. Here, we aim to understand the role of CSLD3 in the context of the ethylene signaling and phosphate starvation pathways in Arabidopsis plant growth. Therefore, we performed a comparative analysis of the csld3-1 mutant, CSLD3-overexpressing lines, and ethylene-response mutants, such as the constitutive ethylene-response mutant i-ctr1. We found that CSLD3 overexpression enhanced root and hypocotyl growth by increasing cell elongation, and that the root growth was highly sensitive to ethylene treatment (1 µM ACC), in particular under phosphate starvation. However, the CSLD3-mediated hypocotyl elongation occurred independently of the ethylene signaling pathway. Notably, the typical induction of root hair and root elongation by ethylene and phosphate-starvation was completely abolished in the csld3-1 mutant. Furthermore, i-ctr1 csld3-1 double-mutants were hairless like the csld3-1 parent, confirming that CSLD3 acts downstream of the ethylene signaling pathway during root growth. Moreover, the CSLD3 levels positively correlated with cellulose levels, indicating a role of CSLD3 in cellulose synthesis, which may explain the observed growth effects. Our results establish how CSLD3 works in the context of the ethylene signaling and phosphate-starvation pathways during root hair growth, cell elongation, and cell wall biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Etilenos/metabolismo , Gossypium/genética , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Crescimento Celular , Gossypium/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
16.
Biotechnol Biofuels ; 10: 221, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28932262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biomass recalcitrance and plant lodging are two complex traits that tightly associate with plant cell wall structure and features. Although genetic modification of plant cell walls can potentially reduce recalcitrance for enhancing biomass saccharification, it remains a challenge to maintain a normal growth with enhanced biomass yield and lodging resistance in transgenic plants. Sucrose synthase (SUS) is a key enzyme to regulate carbon partitioning by providing UDP-glucose as substrate for cellulose and other polysaccharide biosynthesis. Although SUS transgenic plants have reportedly exhibited improvement on the cellulose and starch based traits, little is yet reported about SUS impacts on both biomass saccharification and lodging resistance. In this study, we selected the transgenic rice plants that expressed OsSUS3 genes when driven by the AtCesA8 promoter specific for promoting secondary cell wall cellulose synthesis in Arabidopsis. We examined biomass saccharification and lodging resistance in the transgenic plants and detected their cell wall structures and wall polymer features. RESULTS: During two-year field experiments, the selected AtCesA8::SUS3 transgenic plants maintained a normal growth with slightly increased biomass yields. The four independent transgenic lines exhibited much higher biomass enzymatic saccharification and bioethanol production under chemical pretreatments at P < 0.01 levels, compared with the controls of rice cultivar and empty vector transgenic line. Notably, all transgenic lines showed a consistently enhanced lodging resistance with the increasing extension and pushing forces. Correlation analysis suggested that the reduced cellulose crystallinity was a major factor for largely enhanced biomass saccharification and lodging resistance in transgenic rice plants. In addition, the cell wall thickenings with the increased cellulose and hemicelluloses levels should also contribute to plant lodging resistance. Hence, this study has proposed a mechanistic model that shows how OsSUS3 regulates cellulose and hemicelluloses biosyntheses resulting in reduced cellulose crystallinity and increased wall thickness, thereby leading to large improvements of both biomass saccharification and lodging resistance in transgenic rice plants. CONCLUSIONS: This study has demonstrated that the AtCesA8::SUS3 transgenic rice plants exhibited largely improved biomass saccharification and lodging resistance by reducing cellulose crystallinity and increasing cell wall thickness. It also suggests a powerful genetic approach for cell wall modification in bioenergy crops.

17.
Bioresour Technol ; 243: 957-965, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28738551

RESUMO

In this study, two rice cultivars were collected from experimental fields with seven nitrogen fertilizer treatments. All biomass samples contained significantly increased cellulose contents and reduced silica levels, with variable amounts of hemicellulose and lignin from different nitrogen treatments. Under chemical (NaOH, CaO, H2SO4) and physical (hot water) pretreatments, biomass samples exhibited much enhanced hexoses yields from enzymatic hydrolysis, with high bioethanol production from yeast fermentation. Notably, both degree of polymerization (DP) of cellulose and xylose/arabinose (Xyl/Ara) ratio of hemicellulose were reduced in biomass residues, whereas other wall polymer features (cellulose crystallinity and monolignol proportion) were variable. Integrative analysis indicated that cellulose DP, hemicellulosic Xyl/Ara and silica are the major factors that significantly affect cellulose crystallinity and biomass saccharification. Hence, this study has demonstrated that nitrogen fertilizer supply could largely enhance biomass saccharification in rice cultivars, mainly by reducing cellulose DP, hemicellulosic Xyl/Ara and silica in cell walls.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Fertilizantes , Oryza , Lignina , Nitrogênio , Polímeros , Silício
18.
Bioresour Technol ; 243: 319-326, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28683384

RESUMO

In this study, a combined pretreatment was performed in four wheat accessions using steam explosion followed with different concentrations of H2SO4 or NaOH, leading to increased hexoses yields by 3-6 folds from enzymatic hydrolysis. Further co-supplied with 1% Tween-80, Talq90 and Talq16 accessions exhibited an almost complete enzymatic saccharification of steam-exploded (SE) residues after 0.5% H2SO4 or 1% NaOH pretreatment, with the highest bioethanol yields at 18.5%-19.4%, compared with previous reports about wheat bioethanol yields at 11%-17% obtained under relatively strong pretreatment conditions. Furthermore, chemical analysis indicated that much enhanced saccharification in Talq90 and Talq16 may be partially due to their relatively low cellulose CrI and DP values and high hemicellulose Ara and H-monomer levels in raw materials and SE residues. Hence, this study has not only demonstrated a mild pretreatment technology for a complete saccharification, but it has also obtained the high ethanol production in desirable wheat accessions.


Assuntos
Etanol , Triticum , Biomassa , Celulase , Hidrólise , Lignina , Vapor
19.
BMC Genomics ; 18(1): 55, 2017 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28068923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transposable elements (TEs) are prominent features in many plant genomes, and patterns of TEs in closely related rice species are thus proposed as an ideal model to study TEs roles in the context of plant genome evolution. As TEs may contribute to improved rice growth and grain quality, it is of pivotal significance for worldwide food security and biomass production. RESULTS: We analyzed three cultivated rice species and their closest five wild relatives for distribution and content of TEs in their genomes. Despite that the three cultivar rice species contained similar copies and more total TEs, their genomes contained much longer TEs as compared to their wild relatives. Notably, TEs were largely depleted from genomic regions that corresponded to genes in the cultivated species, while this was not the case for their wild relatives. Gene ontology and gene homology analyses revealed that while certain genes contained TEs in all the wild species, the closest homologs in the cultivated species were devoid of them. This distribution of TEs is surprising as the cultivated species are more distantly related to each other as compared to their closest wild relative. Hence, cultivated rice species have more similar TE distributions among their genes as compared to their closest wild relatives. We, furthermore, exemplify how genes that are conferring important rice traits can be regulated by TE associations. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrate that the cultivation of rice has led to distinct genomic distribution of TEs, and that certain rice traits are closely associated with TE distribution patterns. Hence, the results provide means to better understand TE-dependent rice traits and the potential to genetically engineer rice for better performance.


Assuntos
Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Domesticação , Genes de Plantas/genética , Oryza/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genômica , Íntrons/genética , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
Front Plant Sci ; 7: 1366, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27708650

RESUMO

We report isolation and characterization of a fragile culm mutant fc116 that displays reduced mechanical strength caused by decreased cellulose content and altered cell wall structure in rice. Map-based cloning revealed that fc116 was a base substitution mutant (G to A) in a putative beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (C2GnT) gene (LOC_Os05g07790, allelic to BC10). This mutation resulted in one amino acid missing within a newly-identified protein motif "R, RXG, RA." The FC116/BC10 gene was lowly but ubiquitously expressed in the all tissues examined across the whole life cycle of rice, and slightly down-regulated during secondary growth. This mutant also exhibited a significant increase in the content of hemicelluloses and lignins, as well as the content of pentoses (xylose and arabinose). But the content of hexoses (glucose, mannose, and galactose) was decreased in both cellulosic and non-cellulosic (pectins and hemicelluloses) fractions of the mutant. Transcriptomic analysis indicated that the typical genes in the fc116 mutant were up-regulated corresponding to xylan biosynthesis, as well as lignin biosynthesis including p-hydroxyphenyl (H), syringyl (S), and guaiacyl (G). Our results indicate that FC116 has universal function in regulation of the cell wall polymers in rice.

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