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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845571

RESUMO

High-performance shape memory thermosetting polymers and their composites for four-dimensional (4D) printing are essential in practical applications. To date, most printable thermosets suffer from complicated processes, poor thermodynamic performances, and low printing speed. Here, photosensitive composite inks for fast photocuring printing are developed. The inks consist of epoxy acrylate (EPAc), polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate (PEGDMA), and carbon fillers, which form a firm network structure when exposed to UV light. EPAc is synthesized via addition esterification of epoxy resin and acrylic acid under mild conditions. It is worth noting that raw materials for the reaction are diverse, including not only various epoxy resins but also molecules with epoxy groups. The 4D printing speed of up to 180 mm/h is mainly attributed to the exothermic reaction initiated by free radicals, which accelerates the polymerization of EPAc and PEGDMA. Most importantly, by increasing the exposure time of each layer from 1 s to 3 s during the printing process, the epoxy composite-infilled carbon nanotubes and carbon fibers are printed to ensure the integrity of the microlayer structure. Furthermore, we design a claw-like catcher device based on the above printable composite inks to demonstrate its potential applications in aerospace, such as grasping end-of-service spacecraft or explosive debris. Undoubtedly, 4D printing technology opens up a new portal for the manufacturing of thermoset epoxy composites and complex structures, which make the shape memory thermosetting epoxy resins and their composites possess excellent properties and good engineering application prospects.

2.
Inorg Chem ; 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794094

RESUMO

Two novel layered compounds BaCuSi2Pn3 (Pn = P, As) adopting new structure types are reported. As revealed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, both compounds are composed of unique Cu-Si-Pn layers featuring CuPn3 and Si2Pn6 structural motifs found in other archetypal pnictide materials. The stacking of the isostructural Cu-Si-Pn layers is different for phosphide and arsenide compounds. Synthesis from elements aided by in situ synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction resulted in the obtainment of bulk powders with a minimized amount of admixtures. Experimentally measured physical properties of BaCuSi2As3 unexpectedly showed metal-like behavior at temperatures above 15 K, despite the fact that density functional theory calculations predict a small band gap of 0.4 eV. BaCuSi2As3 exhibits ultralow thermal conductivity, which can be explained by the combination of a layered crystal structure with alternating covalent and ionic bonding, which feature rattling of Cu atoms similar to that in tetrahedrites.

3.
Nat Chem ; 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795843

RESUMO

The secondary structures of nucleic acids have an important influence on their cellular functions but can be difficult to identify and classify quickly. Here, we show that an arrayed suite of synthetic hosts and dyes is capable of fluorescence detection of oligonucleotide secondary structures. Multivariate analysis of different fluorescence enhancements-generated using cationic dyes that show affinity for both DNA G-quadruplexes and the synthetic hosts-enables discrimination between G-quadruplex structures of identical length and highly similar topological types. Different G-quadruplexes that display the same folding topology can also be easily differentiated by the number of G-quartets and sequence differences at the 3' or 5' ends. The array is capable of both differentiation and classification of the G-quadruplex structures at the same time. This simple non-invasive sensing method does not require the discovery and synthesis of specific G-quadruplex binding ligands, but employs a simple multicomponent approach to ensure wide applicability.

4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 627197, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33859637

RESUMO

Background: The combination of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and thoracic radiotherapy (TRT) has shown significant clinical activity in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the currently available data on adverse events (AEs) were derived from a small subset of patients included in prospective clinical trials or retrospective studies. Thus, we conducted this systematic review to determine the AEs associated with this combination treatment. Methods: An electronic literature search was performed in databases and conference proceedings of prospective clinical trials assessing the combination of ICIs and TRT for patients with NSCLC. The systematic analysis was conducted to determine the profile and incidence of AEs of combination treatment. We further performed the comparison of AEs between programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors, and sequential and concurrent administration of ICIs and TRT to help identify high risk patients. The systematic analyses were conducted with the Review Manager (version 5.3; The Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, United Kingdom) and Stata version 12.0 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA) software. Results: Eleven clinical trials involving 1,113 patients with NSCLC were eligible for analysis. The incidence of all-grade AEs was 95.5%; that of high-grade AEs (grade ≥3) was 30.2%. The most frequent all-grade AE was fatigue (49.7%), while pneumonitis was the most common high-grade AE (3.8%) and grade 5 AE (0.6%). Notably, the toxicity profiles of PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors were similar. Concurrent treatment was associated with a higher incidence of higher-grade AEs (41.6% vs 24.8%, P=0.17) and pneumonitis (7.1% vs 3.9%, P=0.14) compared to sequential treatment, but no significant difference was observed. Conclusion: Most AEs of this combination treatment are tolerable; as the most common high-grade AE, pneumonitis deserves the utmost attention of physicians. The toxicity profiles of patients receiving PD-1 or PD-L1 were similar, and no significant difference was observed between concurrent and sequential treatment.

5.
Clin Respir J ; 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705593

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Home noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) has become a well-established treatment for stable hypercapnic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. There are still other challenges including appropriate titration of ventilator parameters, adequacy of follow-up, monitoring and management at home to ensure effectiveness and security, and to improve quality of life. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the name given to the network of devices and other "things" with built-in sensors, software, electronics, and network connectivity, which can communicate these objects over wireless networks and then send data to a cloud platform. Reliable tele-monitoring and transmission of clinical parameters from home to hospitals has prompted the development of IoT-based home NIPPV. OBJECTIVES: This review provides an overview of titration and follow-up of home NIPPV and focus on different technologies, modalities, management, and cost-effectiveness used in IoT-based tele-monitoring of home mechanical ventilation. DATA SOURCE: Literature search of Web of Science, PubMed and EMBASE was made to find relevant articles about tele-monitoring and the Internet of things in home mechanical ventilation over the last 15 years. We used the following search terms: NIPPV, COPD, home mechanical ventilation, telemedicine, tele-monitoring and management. CONCLUSION: IoT-based management of home NIPPV, such as home titration and follow-up with the use of tele-monitoring, are emerging and yielding positive findings. However, clear conclusions based on RCT of tele-monitoring in COPD patients with NIPPV at home are only a few and large-scale multicenter studies are required for replication and further validation.

6.
J Clin Lab Anal ; : e23761, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33783864

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Currently, many studies have found that RFC4 was up-regulated in various cancers, and related to the progression and development. While the effects of RFC4 in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma remain unclear, the main purpose of this research is to explore the role of RFC4 in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma. METHODS: The expression of RFC4 in various cancers was analyzed in GEPIA database, and the results were further verified by IHC assay. The relationship between RFC4 and several clinical parameters was analyzed; the proliferation was further observed by knockdown RFC4 in vitro. Finally, we constructed related nude mouse models by planting cells subcutaneous of nude mice, and the discrepancy was observed. RESULTS: Based on GEPIA database, RFC4 was up-regulated in various cancers, including colorectal cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, lung cancer, and liver cancer. RFC4 was up-regulated in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma compared with the normal tissue from GEPIA online database; we further found that the expression of RFC4 was tightly associated with TNM stage (p = 0.005), but not with age, gender, and differentiation (p > 0.05). We further found that the proliferation of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma was obviously restrained in vitro, and the carcinogenesis was also inhibited in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: We found that RFC4 was up-regulated and related to the progression of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma, and knockdown RFC4 could restrain the proliferation and progression. RFC4 might serve a potential biomarker and provide a new treatment strategy for lots of patients with oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 768: 145280, 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736308

RESUMO

It is critical to understand how farming practices affect the carbon and nitrogen footprints of agricultural production. Grain yield, economic return, and carbon and nitrogen footprints of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were examined under different tillage-mulch practices. Wheat was grown over 15 years (2002-2016) in the semi-arid region of the western Loess Plateau of China under six tillage-mulch practices: traditional plough with no straw mulching (T), no-till without straw mulching (NT), traditional plough with straw mulching (TS), no-till without straw mulching (NTS), traditional plough with plastic mulching (TP), no-till with plastic mulching (NTP). Average wheat yield over 15 years under NTS, NTP, TP and TS was increased by 28, 24, 22, and 13%, respectively, compared to T. Average net return was greatest under NTS and lowest under TP. The soils under all six tillage-mulch practices gained a considerably large amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) over the 15 yr. The increase in SOC in the 0-30 cm soil layer was greatest under NTS and lowest under T. When changes in soil C were included in the calculations, treatments of NT, TS, NTS, and NTP sharply reduced total greenhouse gas (GHG) emission compared to T. Compared to T, the carbon footprint was decreased by 180, 44, and 123% under NTS, NT, and TS, respectively, but was increased by 153% under TP. Compared to T, the nitrogen footprint was 24-26% lower in TP and NTP, but was not significantly different under NTS, NT, and TS. Therefore, NTS enhanced yield and net return, and reduced GHG and the carbon footprint without increasing the nitrogen footprint, and should be adopted to mitigate the environmental impacts of wheat production in the semiarid Loess Plateau.

8.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 103: 268-278, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743908

RESUMO

In this work, the waste biomass lotus leaf was converted into N-doped porous carbonaceous CO2 adsorbents. The synthesis process includes carbonization of lotus leaf, melamine post-treatment and KOH activation. For the resultant sorbents, high nitrogen content can be contained due to the melamine modification and advanced porous structure were formed by KOH etching. These samples were carefully characterized by different techniques and their CO2 adsorption properties were investigated in detail. These sorbents hold good CO2 adsorption abilities, up to 3.87 and 5.89 mmol/g at 25 and 0°C under 1 bar, respectively. By thorough investigation, the combined interplay of N content and narrow microporous volume was found to be responsible for the CO2 uptake for this series of sorbents. Together with the high CO2 adsorption abilities, these carbons also display excellent reversibility, high CO2/N2 selectivity, applicable heat of adsorption, fast CO2 adsorption kinetics and good dynamic CO2 adsorption capacity. This study reveals a universal method of obtaining N-doped porous carbonaceous sorbents from leaves. The low cost of raw materials accompanied by easy synthesis procedure disclose the enormous potential of leaves-based carbons in CO2 capture as well as many other applications.


Assuntos
Lotus , Nitrogênio , Dióxido de Carbono , Folhas de Planta , Porosidade
9.
Eur J Med Chem ; 216: 113297, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677351

RESUMO

Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are currently among the most successful and important strategies for treating patients with solid tumors. ADCs are composed of a monoclonal antibody and warhead, which are conjugated via a linker. Currently, monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) is the most widely applied warhead in the development of ADCs. However, MMAE-based ADCs are generally constructed using the MC-VC-PABC linker, and this design has limited structural diversity and some disadvantages. Accordingly, in this study, we generated three types of novel linker-MMAE (with alterations in the spacer, catabolizing area, and self-immolative compared with MC-VC-PABC-MMAE) in ADCs, termed SCT200-linker-MMAE conjugates, and then evaluated the linker-drug plasma stability and the rate of drug release by cathepsin B. The binding ability, internalization rates, and efficacy of all SCT200-linker-MMAE ADCs were systematically studied, and the expression of apoptosis-associated proteins and the therapeutic efficacies of SCT200-M-2, -C-2, and -C-4 were evaluated. The results showed that the activities of some of these ADCs were increased for epidermal growth factor receptor-positive tumors. Moreover, the novel linkers designed in this study can be linked with other antibodies to treat other types of cancer. Overall, these findings provide important insights into the application of SCT200-based linkers in ADCs.

11.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 104: 106365, 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33746024

RESUMO

AIMS: To compare the efficacy and safety of a dual therapy (rivaroxaban and ticagrelor) with a triple therapy (aspirin, clopidogrel and warfarin) in Chinese elderly patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS: A total of 106 elderly Chinese patients with NAVF after PCI were randomly divided into a dual therapy group treated with ticagrelor 90 mg twice daily and rivaroxaban 15 mg once daily after PCI, and a triple therapy group treated with aspirin 100 mg and clopidogrel 75 mg once daily combined with the dose-adjusted vitamin K antagonist warfarin once daily. The mean follow-up time was 1 year. The primary endpoint was the composite death rate from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, stroke or stent thrombosis. The safety endpoint was clinically significant bleeding (a composite value of major, minor and minimal bleeding). RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the 2 groups regarding the basic characteristics of the patients. The primary composite endpoint of the dual therapy group after 1 year was not significantly different from the triple therapy group (16.7% vs 15.2%, P = 0.86; HR 1.02; 95% CI: 0.82-1.24), but there was a significant difference in the incidence of hemorrhage (7.4% vs 26.9% P = 0.01; HR 0.71; 95% CI: 0.62-0.83) between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: In elderly Chinese patients with NVAF undergoing PCI, the efficacy of dual (ticagrelor plus rivaroxaban) treatments was comparable to the triple antithrombotic regime (warfarin plus dual antiplatelet therapy). The overall incidence of bleeding was significantly reduced with dual treatment compared to the triple treatment regime.

12.
Cancer Lett ; 506: 11-22, 2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639203

RESUMO

The mechanisms underlying the hypoxic cancer cell-mediated differentiation of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) have not been elucidated yet. The present study showed that the hypoxic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells promoted CAF-like differentiation through secreting TGF-ß and small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) that contain enhanced levels of miR-192/215 family miRNAs. Caveolin-1 (CAV1), which is a target gene of miR-192/215, inhibited the TGF-ß/SMAD signaling and promoted CAF-like differentiation of the fibroblasts. Restoring the levels of CAV1 inhibited the hypoxic sEV- and TGF-ß-induced CAF-like differentiation. The enhanced levels of miR-192/215 encapsulated in the HNSCC tissue-derived sEVs (but not serum-derived sEVs) indicated hypoxic and aggressive cancer stroma. miR-215 in the tumor tissue-derived sEVs (but not circulating sEVs) was correlated with poor overall survival of patients with HNSCC. This study demonstrated that sEVs function as a "courier" to deliver miRNAs from the cancer cells to the fibroblasts, which promotes the remodeling of the hypoxic tumor microenvironment, and that cancer tissue-derived sEV could potentially serve as a source of biomarker.

13.
Theranostics ; 11(7): 3392-3416, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33537094

RESUMO

Rationale: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) against the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway showed limited success in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, especially in those with activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations. Elucidation of the mechanisms underlying EGFR-mediated tumor immune escape and the development of effective immune therapeutics are urgently needed. Immunoglobulin-like transcript (ILT) 4, a crucial immunosuppressive molecule initially identified in myeloid cells, is enriched in solid tumor cells and promotes the malignant behavior of NSCLC. However, the upstream regulation of ILT4 overexpression and its function in tumor immunity of NSCLC with EGFR activation remains unclear. Methods: ILT4 expression and EGFR phosphorylation in human NSCLC tissues and cell lines were analyzed using immunohistochemistry (IHC), real-time PCR, Western blotting, immunofluorescence, and flow cytometry. The molecular signaling for EGFR-regulated ILT4 expression was investigated using mRNA microarray and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database analyses and then confirmed by Western blotting. The regulation of tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis by ILT4 was examined by CCK8 proliferation and apoptosis assays. The impact of ILT4 and PD-L1 on tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) recruitment and polarization was evaluated using Transwell migration assay, flow cytometry, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and real-time PCR, while their impact on T cell survival and cytotoxicity was analyzed by CFSE proliferation assay, apoptotic assay, flow cytometry, ELISA and cytolytic assay. Tumor immunotherapy models targeting at paired Ig-like receptor B (PIR-B, an ortholog of ILT4 in mouse)/ILT4 and/or PD-L1 were established in C57BL/6 mice inoculated with stable EGFR- overexpressing Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells and in humanized NSG mice inoculated with EGFR mutant, gefitinib-resistant PC9 (PC9-GR) or EGFR-overexpressing wild type H1299 cells. PIR-B and ILT4 inhibition was implemented by infection of specific knockdown lentivirus and PD-L1 was blocked using human/mouse neutralizing antibodies. The tumor growth model was established in NSG mice injected with PIR-B-downregulated LLC cells to evaluate the effect of PIR-B on tumor proliferation. The frequencies and phenotypes of macrophages and T cells in mouse spleens and blood were detected by flow cytometry while those in tumor tissues were determined by IHC and immunofluorescence. Results: We found that ILT4 expression in tumor cells was positively correlated with EGFR phosphorylation in human NSCLC tissues. Using NSCLC cell lines, we demonstrated that ILT4 was upregulated by both tyrosine kinase mutation-induced and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-dependent EGFR activation and subsequent AKT/ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Overexpressed ILT4 in EGFR-activated tumor cells induced TAM recruitment and M2-like polarization, which impaired T cell function. ILT4 also directly inhibited T cell proliferation, cytotoxicity, and IFN-γ expression and secretion. In EGFR-activated cell lines in vitro and in wild-type EGFR-activated C57BL/6 and humanized NSG immunotherapy models in vivo, either ILT4 (PIR-B) or PD-L1 inhibition enhanced anti-tumor immunity and suppressed tumor progression by counteracting TAM- and dysfunctional T cell- induced immuno-suppressive TME; the combined inhibition of both molecules showed the most dramatic tumor retraction. Surprisingly, in EGFR mutant, TKI resistant humanized NSG immunotherapy model, ILT4 inhibition alone rather than in combination with a PD-L1 inhibitor suppressed tumor growth and immune evasion. Conclusions: ILT4 was induced by activation of EGFR-AKT and ERK1/2 signaling in NSCLC cells. Overexpressed ILT4 suppressed tumor immunity by recruiting M2-like TAMs and impairing T cell response, while ILT4 inhibition prevented immunosuppression and tumor promotion. Furthermore, ILT4 inhibition enhanced the efficacy of PD-L1 inhibitor in EGFR wild-type but not in EGFR mutant NSCLC. Our study identified novel mechanisms for EGFR-mediated tumor immune escape, and provided promising immunotherapeutic strategies for patients with EGFR-activated NSCLC.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555644

RESUMO

DNA-based molecular communications (DMC) are critical for regulating biological networks to maintain stable organismic functions. However, the complicated, time-consuming information transmission process involved in genome-coded DMC and the limited, vulnerable decoding activity generally lead to communication impairment or failure, in response to external stimuli. Herein, we present a conceptually innovative DMC strategy mediated by the DNA framework-based artificial DNA encoder. With the free-radical cascade as a proof-of-concept study, the artificial DNA encoder shows active sensing and real-time actuation, in situ and broad free radical-decoding efficacy, as well as robust resistance to environmental noise. It can also block undesirable short-to-medium-range communications between free radicals and inflammatory networks, leading to a synergistic anti-obesity effect. The artificial DNA encoder-based DMC may be generalized to other communication systems for a variety of applications.

15.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(22): 2740-2743, 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594998

RESUMO

Piezocatalysis is a promising approach for environmental pollutant removal. Monoclinic dibismuth tetraoxide (m-Bi2O4) was first applied to piezocatalyze organics under ultrasonic vibration. The built-in electric field with ultrasonic stress drives the separation of holes and electrons in m-Bi2O4. Its excellent piezocatalytic activity, reusability and chemical stability make m-Bi2O4 a new candidate of piezocatalysis.

16.
Cancer Biol Med ; 18(1): 21-33, 2021 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33628582

RESUMO

Radiotherapy is one of the most effective treatment methods for various solid tumors. Bidirectional signal transduction between cancer cells and stromal cells within the irradiated microenvironment is important in cancer development and treatment responsiveness. Exosomes, initially considered as "garbage bins" for unwanted from cells, are now understood to perform a variety of functions in interactions within the tumor microenvironment. Exosome-mediated regulation processes are rebuilt under the irradiation stimuli, because the exosome production, uptake, and contents are markedly modified by irradiation. In turn, irradiation-modified exosomes may modulate the cell response to irradiation through feedback regulation. Here, we review current knowledge and discuss the roles of exosome-mediated interactions between cells under radiotherapy conditions.

17.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 230, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33603089

RESUMO

Wnt signaling dysfunction and gut dysbiosis may lead to liver fibrosis, yet the underlying mechanisms are not well elucidated. This study demonstrated the role of RSPO4, a Wnt signaling agonist, in liver fibrogenesis and its impact on the gut microbiome. RSPO4 gene in CCl4-induced fibrotic-liver rats was knockout by Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) system, with healthy rats served as the control. Tissue samples and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) isolated from rats were examined for curative effect of RSPO4-CRISPR treatment. Fecal sample were collected and analyzed with 16 S rRNA sequencing. We found RSPO4-CRISPR relieved liver fibrosis in rats and reversed HSC activation. Further, results showed RSPO4-CRISPR tended to restore the microflora composition. Significance species between groups were identified. Bacteroides and Escherichia-Shigella were the key microbes in the model and negative group, whereas Lactobacillus, Romboutsia, and Lachnospiraceae NK4A136 group were abundant in the control. Notably, Bacteroidales S24-7 group and Ruminococcaceae UCG-005 were the significantly enriched in CRISPR group. We show that the microbiome of rats treated with RSPO4-CRISPR presents a trend towards the restoration of the original condition. Our findings pave a new way to evaluate the curative effect of liver fibrosis treatment.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33621040

RESUMO

A key issue in attaining highly efficient supported catalysts for the hydrogenation of unsaturated polymers arises from the entanglement between the number of exposed active sites and the severe internal mass transfer limitation caused by their large molecular size. Hence, an ultrasmall N-doped carbon nanosphere with Ni NPs and CQDs embedded (Ni-CQDs/NCNs) was reasonably constructed by low-temperature (400 °C) pyrolysis of the precursor CQDs@Nano-Ni-ZIFs. As-prepared Ni-CQDs/NCNs exhibited superior catalytic activity to a commercial 10% Pd/C catalyst in petroleum resin hydrogenation under a low temperature of 150 °C, which is 100 and 60 °C lower than that of previously reported Ni- and Pd-based catalysts, respectively. The excellent catalytic activity of Ni-CQDs/NCNs mainly contributes to the following factors: first, its ultrasmall structure (ca. 50 nm) eliminates the internal mass transfer limitation; second, the CQDs and N-doped carbon matrix stabilize the 53.1 wt % high-loading Ni NPs at a small size of 5.6 nm, providing abundant active sites; and third, the electronic regulation of N-doped carbon enhances the intrinsic activity of Ni, which was revealed by the experiments and DFT calculations. Besides, Ni-CQDs/NCNs exhibits long-term stability and appreciable magnetic separation performance, making it a considerable candidate for industrial application. This work not only offers a facile approach to prepare nano MOF-derived catalysts but also gives helpful instruction to the rational design of heterogeneous catalysts for the reaction involving large molecules.

19.
Clin Exp Med ; 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630201

RESUMO

Kawasaki disease is a kind of self-limited systemic vasculitis involving middle and small arteries, which usually occurs in children under 5 years old. Excessive inflammatory response caused by activation of monocytes is one of the important mechanisms of Kawasaki disease. Activated monocytes secrete large amounts of inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α and IL-1ß. Activin A, a member of transforming growth factor-ß superfamily, is a multifunctional growth and transforming factor. Several experimental evidences pinpoint that Activin A can regulate multiple biological function of the immune system. However, whether Activin A is involved in regulation of activation of monocytes in Kawasaki disease was not well characterized. Here, this study showed that the expression of Activin A in serum decreased in acute-phase Kawasaki disease. Furthermore, Activin A inhibits activin type IIA receptor, activin type IB receptor, CD86 and CD80 expression in over-activated monocytes. In addition, Activin A inhibited Smad3 expression and NF-κB signaling pathways. Specific function and mechanism of Activin A in acute-phase Kawasaki disease need further study.

20.
Environ Int ; 150: 106425, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581418

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the role of total mercury (T-Hg) in placenta as a biomarker of prenatal mercury (Hg) exposure and determine the association between prenatal Hg exposure and risk for neural tube defects (NTDs) in offspring. METHODS: Total Hg concentrations in placental tissue were detected in 408 NTD cases and 593 healthy controls enrolled in Shanxi province in northern China. Methylmercury (MeHg) and T-Hg were also detected in the umbilical cord of 147 NTD cases and 140 healthy controls. In addition, MeHg and T-Hg were detected in fetal kidney, liver, and brain tissues of 51 NTD cases. Spearman's rank correlation (rs) was used to evaluate the correlations between placental T-Hg and T-Hg in umbilical cord and fetal kidney, liver, and brain tissues. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare T-Hg amounts between case and control groups. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between placental T-Hg and risk for NTDs. RESULTS: Placental T-Hg was significantly correlated with T-Hg in umbilical cord (rs = 0.479), kidney (rs = 0.718), liver (rs = 0.656), and brain (rs = 0.512) tissues (all p < 0.001). The median (25th percentile-75th percentile) concentration for placental T-Hg in the NTD case group was 8.91 (5.00-17.1) ng/g dry weight (d.w.), significantly higher than that in the healthy control group (4.99 [3.26-7.93] ng/g d.w., p < 0.001). After adjusting for potential confounders, higher levels of T-Hg in placenta were associated with increased risk for NTDs in offspring (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.13-2.76), and a dose-response relationship was found (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The concentration of T-Hg in placenta is a good biomarker for estimating prenatal Hg exposure, which is associated with increased risk for NTDs.

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