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1.
J Endod ; 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627784

RESUMO

Periapical lesions are inflammatory diseases that are mainly caused by microbial infection from the root canal system, affecting the integrity of alveolar bone, periapical cementum, and periodontal ligament. The invasion of pathogenic microorganisms activates local inflammation and the host immune response, especially the recruitment and differentiation of T cells. Many studies have discussed the fundamental roles of T cell-related immunological regulation and the possible clinical significance of cytokine disorders in periapical lesions. However, the oral pathogen-mediated T cell immune response is far more clarified. Therefore, in this review, we focus on the T cell immune response and T cell-associated cytokine network, which are tightly correlated with the pathogenesis of periapical lesions. Furthermore, we provide a comprehensive review of T cell-related osteoimmunology in the development of periapical lesions. Consequently, this review should help us understand the essence of the T cell-related pathology of periapical lesions and raise potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of apical periodontitis.

2.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 725131, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34630329

RESUMO

ß cell dysfunction and failure are driving forces of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) pathogenesis. Investigating the underlying mechanisms of ß cell dysfunction may provide novel targets for the development of next generation therapy for T2DM. Epigenetics is the study of gene expression changes that do not involve DNA sequence changes, including DNA methylation, histone modification, and non-coding RNAs. Specific epigenetic signatures at all levels, including DNA methylation, chromatin accessibility, histone modification, and non-coding RNA, define ß cell identity during embryonic development, postnatal maturation, and maintain ß cell function at homeostatic states. During progression of T2DM, overnutrition, inflammation, and other types of stress collaboratively disrupt the homeostatic epigenetic signatures in ß cells. Dysregulated epigenetic signatures, and the associating transcriptional outputs, lead to the dysfunction and eventual loss of ß cells. In this review, we will summarize recent discoveries of the establishment and disruption of ß cell-specific epigenetic signatures, and discuss the potential implication in therapeutic development.

3.
Anal Chem ; 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645259

RESUMO

Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus), which may cause gastrointestinal disorders in humans, is a pathogen commonly found in seafood. There are many methods for detecting V. parahaemolyticus, yet they have some shortcomings, such as high cost, labor-intensiveness, and complicated operation, which are impractical for resource-limited settings. Herein, we present a sequence-specific, label-free, and colorimetric method for visual detection of V. parahaemolyticus. This method utilizes CRISPR/Cas12a to specifically recognize the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) products for further trans-cleaving the G-quadruplex DNAzyme and depriving its peroxidase-mimicking activity. In this way, the results can be directly observed with the naked eyes via the color development of 2,2'-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS2-), which displays colorless for positive samples while green for target-free samples. We term such Cas12a-crRNA preventing ABTS2- from developing color by trimming the G-quadruplex DNAzyme as Cascade. The proposed method can detect 9.8 CFU (per reaction) of pure cultured V. parahaemolyticus, and the sensitivity is comparable to real-time LAMP. It has been applied for practical use and showed the capability to detect 6.1 × 102 CFU/mL V. parahaemolyticus in shrimp samples. Based on this, the newly established Cascade method can be employed as a universal biosensing strategy for pathogenic bacterial testing in the field.

4.
J Periodontol ; 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Periodontitis could lead to periodontal destruction such as the loss of alveolar bone. The issue that how to achieve the regeneration of alveolar bone and periodontal tissues under the inflammatory environment needs to be solved urgently. BMP9 is one of the most potent osteo-inductive BMPs and induces osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The aim of this study is to explore the possible effect of BMP9 on the osteogenic differentiation of inflammatory periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs). METHODS: Human PDLSCs were cultured in osteo-inductive medium with 1µg/mL lipopolysaccharide Porphyromonas gingivitis (LPS-PG). Adenoviral vector expressing system was used to overexpress target genes. In vitro expression of osteogenic markers was assessed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR, western blotting, alkaline phosphatase assay, and alizarin red staining. Subcutaneous implantation nude mice models were used to evaluate the effects of BMP9 on PDLSCs in vivo. Micro-CT, H&E staining, and trichrome staining were performed to assess ectopic bone formation. RESULTS: In the LPS-PG induced inflammatory environment, BMP9 promoted osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs, but upregulated the expression of inflammatory markers (P>0.05); NELL1 downregulated the expression of inflammation genes in PDLSCs induced by BMP9, while augmenting BMP9 induced osteogenesis of the cells both in vitro and in vivo. In the above process, the MAPK/p38/ERK signaling pathway was triggered by NELL1. CONCLUSION: The combination use of BMP9 and NELL1 might have the potential to promote the regeneration of alveolar bone in periodontitis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2127587, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596673

RESUMO

Importance: Angiotensin II is significantly associated with the pathogenesis of acute aortic dissection. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor agonistic autoantibodies (AT1-AAs) can mimic the effect of angiotensin II. Objective: To investigate the association between AT1-AAs and all-cause and cause-specific mortality risk in patients with acute aortic dissection. Design, Setting, and Participants: A total of 662 patients with clinically suspected aortic dissection from 3 medical centers in Wuhan, China, were enrolled in this cohort study from August 1, 2014, to July 31, 2016. Of these, 315 patients were included in the 3-year follow-up study. Follow-up was mainly performed via telephone interviews and outpatient clinic visits. Data analysis was conducted from March 1 to May 31, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes of interest were all-cause mortality, death due to aortic dissection, and late aortic-related adverse events. Results: The full study cohort included 315 patients with AAD (mean [SD] age, 56.2 [12.7] years; 230 men [73.0%]). Ninety-two patients (29.2%) were positive for AT1-AAs. The mortality of AT1-AA-positive patients was significantly higher than that of AT1-AA-negative patients (40 [43.5%] vs 37 [16.6%]; P < .001). The mortality risk in AT1-AA-positive patients was always significantly higher than that in AT1-AA-negative patients in patients with both type A and type B dissection. Multivariable analysis showed that the risk of AT1-AA-positive patients for type A dissection was significantly higher than that of AT1-AA-negative patients (odds ratio [OR], 1.88; 95% CI, 1.12-3.13; P = .02). The Cox proportional hazards regression model showed a significant increase of all-cause mortality risk (OR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.44-3.57; P < .001) and late aortic-related adverse events (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.06-2.36; P = .03) among AT1-AA-positive patients during the follow-up period compared with AT1-AA-negative patients. Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study first detected AT1-AAs in patients with acute aortic dissection. The presence of AT1-AAs was associated with significantly higher all-cause and cause-specific mortality during a follow-up period of 3 years. The antibodies may be a risk factor for aortic dissection.

6.
Appl Spectrosc ; : 37028211050663, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643137

RESUMO

Tumor detection supported by Raman spectroscopy is becoming increasingly popular, yet the relevance of spectral variation and feature selection retains unclear. Here we determined the correlation and difference between spectral characteristic and feature evaluation for leukocytes and tumor cells. Some peaks were found to show noticeable spectral differences, and their intensity distributions were investigated, finding using log-normal distribution to describe Raman intensity pattern may be more appropriate. Further the importance of all Raman features was calculated, where some other peak features occupied the top status. By surveying the intensity variation and feature evaluation for those peaks, we concluded the peak with the highest importance does not correspond to the peak location with the most noticeable intensity difference in spectra. Moreover, the peak intensity ratio of I1517/I719 associated with protein to nucleic acid level presented the maximum separation, thus, it can be recognized as a special indicator to develop an alternative cancer detection. It is inspiring to introduce advanced statistical models into bio-spectroscopic fields but those intrinsic spectral variations rather than classification performance should be valued. Our explorations can provide possibilities to reveal the essences within tumor carcinogenesis based on Raman spectroscopy, further overwhelming the obstacles during the translation into clinical applications.

7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(12): 2949-2962, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467685

RESUMO

To analyze the use of outcome indicators of randomized controlled trial(RCT) of acupuncture in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke in recent three years, so as to provide a basis for building a study on the core outcome indicators for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke with acupuncture. The RCTs of acupuncture treatment for acute ischemic stroke in recent three years were collec-ted through computer retrieval of eight Chinese and English databases and two clinical trial registries at home and abroad. Literature was screened out, and data was extracted. Risk of assessment bias tool Cochrane 6.1 was used for bias risk assessment, outcome indicators were summarized and analyzed. A total of 47 RCTs were included, and 3 studies were trials registration scheme. Outcome indicators were divided into 6 categories according to functional attributes, namely physical symptoms/signs, physical and chemical examination, quality of life, traditional Chinese medicine symptoms/syndromes, safety events and long-term prognosis. The study found that in addition to the common problems in previous studies covered by the status quo of outcome indicators selection of RCT of acupuncture in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke, there were also the other problems as follows: emphasis on macroscopic efficacy indicators but neglect of acupuncture specific indicators, lack of characteristic indicators and economic indicators of traditional Chinese medicine therapy, and unification of indicators measurement tool and measurement time point. In the future, the outcome indicators set for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke with acupuncture shall be established, and the core outcome indicators set shall be in line with the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine treatment.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Isquemia Encefálica , AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(12): 2972-2983, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467687

RESUMO

There have been many clinical trials, systematic reviews/Meta-analysis proving that Xingnaojing Injection has a good clinical efficacy in treatment of cerebral ischaemic stroke, but with fewer comprehensive descriptions. In this study, an overview of systematic reviews/Meta-analysis of Xingnaojing Injection in treating cerebral ischaemic stroke was performed to provide current situation of evidences and basis for clinical practice. CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, CBM, EMbase, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science were retrieved through computers. A total of 6 literatures were included in this study. By AMSTAR-2 checklist and GRADE, the quality of included systematic reviews and the efficacy of Xingnaojing Injection were evaluated. The results of AMSTAR-2 checklist showed an extremely low quality for all of the 6 systematic reviews. According to the results of GRADE evaluation, among 55 outcomes, there were 2 outcomes with a medium quality, 4 outcomes with a low quality and 49 outcomes with an extremely low quality. The 6 systematic reviews reached a consistent conclusion that Xingnaojing Injection was effective in the treatment of cerebral ischaemic stroke. This therapy could improve the total efficacy, neurological deficit scores, hemodynamic and hemodynamic parameters. However, the methodolo-gical quality of all literatures was extremely low. The evidence levels of outcomes were between extremely low to medium. The effectiveness of Xingnaojing Injection in the treatment of cerebral ischaemic stroke still needs to be further verified by more high-quality studies. In the future, relevant clinical studies and systematic reviews/Meta-analysis shall be carried out in a strict accordance with relevant regulations.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Humanos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17791, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493750

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to explore whether uric acid (UA) can independently act as a prognostic factor and critical marker of the 2019 novel corona virus disease (COVID-19). A multicenter, retrospective, and observational study including 540 patients with confirmed COVID-19 was carried out at four designated hospitals in Wuhan. Demographic, clinical, laboratory data were collected and analyzed. The primary end point was in-hospital death of patients with COVID-19. The concentration of admission UA (adUA) and the lowest concentration of uric acid during hospitalization (lowUA) in the dead patients were significantly lower than those in the survivors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed the concentration of lowUA (OR 0.986, 95% CI 0.980-0.992, p < 0.001) was able to independently predict the risk of in-hospital death. The mean survival time in the low-level group of lowUA was significantly lower than other groups. When lowUA was ≤ 166 µmol/L, the sensitivity and specificity in predicting hospital short-term mortality were 76.9%, (95% CI 68.5-85.1%) and 74.9% (95% CI 70.3-78.9%). This retrospective study determined that the lowest concentration of UA during hospitalization can be used as a prognostic indicator and a marker of disease severity in severe patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/diagnóstico , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
10.
Adv Mater ; : e2103320, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569100

RESUMO

Past research aimed at increasing the sensitivity of capacitive pressure sensors has mostly focused on developing dielectric layers with surface/porous structures or higher dielectric constants. However, such strategies have only been effective in improving sensitivities at low pressure ranges (e.g., up to 3 kPa). To overcome this well-known obstacle, herein, a flexible hybrid-response pressure sensor (HRPS) composed of an electrically conductive porous nanocomposite (PNC) laminated with an ultrathin dielectric layer is devised. Using a nickel foam template, the PNC is fabricated with carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-doped Ecoflex to be 86% porous and electrically conductive. The PNC exhibits hybrid piezoresistive and piezocapacitive responses, resulting in significantly enhanced sensitivities (i.e., more than 400%) over wide pressure ranges, from 3.13 kPa-1 within 0-1 kPa to 0.43 kPa-1 within 30-50 kPa. The effect of the hybrid responses is differentiated from the effect of porosity or high dielectric constants by comparing the HRPS with its purely piezocapacitive counterparts. Fundamental understanding of the HRPS and the prediction of optimal CNT doping are achieved through simplified analytical models. The HRPS is able to measure pressures from as subtle as the temporal arterial pulse to as large as footsteps.

11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(12): 2942-2948, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467684

RESUMO

To systematically search and sort out the clinical randomized controlled trial(RCT) on the prevention and treatment of acute cerebral infarction with traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) by using the method of evidence map, and to understand the evidence distribution of related studies. CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, CBM, PubMed, EMbase, Cochrane Library and Web of Science were retrieved from January 2016 to September 2020, and literatures related to the prevention and treatment of acute cerebral infarction with traditional Chinese medicine were included. Text description combined with table and bubble chart were used to analyze the distribution characteristics of evidence. A total of 1 102 clinical articles in recent five years were retrieved. The annual trend of clinical study publication, study size, TCM therapy category and main scheme, and study literature quality were analyzed. We find that TCM treatment of acute cerebral infarction has become a hot topic of clinical research, the number of literature showed a trend of increased year by year, various means of intervention of TCM in the treatment of the advantages of increasingly highlight. Follow-up clinical research should highlight the characteristics of TCM: in the analysis of outcome indicators; increase the neuropsychological patients after stroke and cognitive ability, and the theory of combined treatment of TCM disease when thoughts; At the same time, the quality of clinical research needs to be improved. At present, there is still a lack of unified standards for the production of evidence map. This study is the first to explore the application of evidence map to summarize and display the clinical research status of TCM treatment of acute cerebral infarction, and combine it with the setting of priority areas of TCM clinical research, so as to provide a reference basis for determining the priority topic selection of TCM treatment optimization research.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Infarto Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico
12.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(12): 2963-2971, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467686

RESUMO

To overview the systematic reviews of Panax notoginseng saponins in the treatment of acute cerebral infarction. CNKI, CBM, Wanfang, VIP, PubMed, Cochrane Library and EMbase databases were retrieved to collect the systematic reviews of the efficacy of P. notoginseng saponins in the treatment of acute cerebral infarction. The retrieval time was from the time of database establishment to January 2021. After two researchers independently screened out the literature and extracted the data, AMSTAR-2 scale was used to evaluate the methodological quality of the included systematic reviews, GRADE system was used to grade the quality of evidences of the outcome indicators, and the efficacy evaluation was summarized. A total of 5 systematic reviews were included. AMSTAR-2 evaluation results showed that 3 items were relatively complete, while 4 items had a poor overall quality. P. notoginseng saponins combined with conventional Western medicine therapy was superior to single conventional therapy in the recovery of neurological function, enhancement of the total effective rate in clinic, and improvement of activities of daily living. GRADE evaluation results showed that the quality of evidence was from low quality to very low quality. In conclusion, in the treatment of acute cerebral infarction, P. notoginseng saponins can improve the clinical efficacy, with a good safety but a not high methodological quality and a low evidence quality. It is suggested that high-quality clinical studies shall be further carried out to provide evidence-based basis for the application of P. notoginseng saponins in the treatment of acute cerebral infarction.


Assuntos
Panax notoginseng , Saponinas , Atividades Cotidianas , Infarto Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
13.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 125931, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492861

RESUMO

Contamination characteristics, equilibrium partitioning and risk assessment of phthalate esters (PAEs) were investigated in seawater, sediment and biological samples collected from the Xiangshan Bay area during an annual investigation between January and November 2019. PAE concentrations detected in the mariculture environment in surface seawater, sediment, and biological samples were 172-3365 ng/L, 190-2430 µg/kg (dry weight [dw]), and 820-4926 µg/kg (dw), respectively. The dominant congeners in different media included di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). The inner bay and the bay mouth were the gathering area of PAEs and heavily influenced by the mariculture activities, river inputs, and anthropogenic activities. The bioaccumulation of PAEs demonstrated benthic feeding fishes with relatively high trophic levels concentrated high levels of phthalates. The mobility of PAEs in sediment-seawater showed that the transfer tendency of low-molecular weight species was from the sediment to the water, which was in contrast with those of high-molecular weight PAEs. DEHP, DiBP and DnBP had various degrees of ecological risks in the aquatic environment, whereas only the DiBP posed potential risks in sediments. The current assessment of carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic risks posed by fish consumption were within acceptable limits for humans.


Assuntos
Ésteres , Ácidos Ftálicos , Aquicultura , China , Dibutilftalato , Humanos , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , Plásticos/toxicidade , Medição de Risco
14.
Int Endod J ; 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592001

RESUMO

AIM: To detemine the microorganism in root canal systems of root filled teeth with periapical disease and their relationship with clinical symptoms using next-generation sequencing (NGS). METHODOLOGY: The roots of 10 extracted teeth were collected from ten patients who presented with post-treatment apical periodontitis (6 with symptoms and 4 without symptoms). Each root was divided horizontally into two parts (apical and coronal segments) and cryo-pulverized. Microbial communities were detected using 16S rDNA hypervariable V3-V4 region. The diversity, principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) were performed in the symptomatic and asymptomatic groups (apical and coronal parts, respectively). A Mann-Whitney test and an analysis of similarities were applied for intergroup analysis, at a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: A total of 23 phyla, 257 genera, and 425 species were detected. Firmicutes was the most abundant phylum in all samples. Three phyla (Fusobacteria, Synergistetes and unidentified_Bacteria) and seven genera (Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas, Phocaeicola, Olsenella, Campylobacter, Tannerella and Fretibacterium) were significantly more abundant in the symptomatic patients (P < 0.05), whereas asymptomatic patients had more Sphingomonas. The species more significantly abundant in the symptomatic samples were Porphyromonas gingivalis, Phocaeicola abscessus, Campylobacter showae, Tannerella forsythia and Olsenella uli (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: A higher microbial diversity was observed in root filled teeth with post-treatment apical periodontitis compared to earlier reports. Several genera and species in root canal systems might be associated with clinical symptoms of post-treatment apical periodontitis.

15.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 50: 128338, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469710

RESUMO

7-Hydroxyneolamellarin A (7-OH-Neo A, 1), a natural marine product derived from sponge Dendrilla nigra, was first synthesized with 10% overall yield under the instruction of convergent synthetic strategy. We found that 7-OH-Neo A could attenuate the accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein and inhibit vascular epidermal growth factor (VEGF) transcriptional activity, showing well inhibitory effect on HIF-1 signaling pathway. Meantime, 7-OH-Neo A had the well anti-tumor activities, such as inhibiting tumor angiogenesis, proliferation, migration and invasion. More importantly, 7-OH-Neo A exhibited profound anti-tumor effect in mice breast cancer model by suppressing the accumulation of HIF-1α in tumor tissue. Mechanism study demonstrated that 7-OH-Neo A might target the protein with the ability of stabilizing HIF-1α in hypoxia. Due to the excellent water solubility, superior anti-tumor activity and good biocompatibility, 7-OH-Neo A shows the promising potential for being exploited as an anti-tumor agent in near future.

16.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(82): 10795-10798, 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590098

RESUMO

A solvent-assisted strategy was proposed by controlling the coordination equilibrium to fabricate hierarchical-porous metal-organic frameworks (HP-MOFs). The obtained HP-MOFs showed remarkable enhancement in catalytic efficiency in Lewis acid catalysis resulting from the joint efforts of the hierarchical pores and the exposed metal clusters.

17.
PLoS Genet ; 17(8): e1009705, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34437539

RESUMO

Whole-genome duplication and genome compaction are thought to have played important roles in teleost fish evolution. Ayu (or sweetfish), Plecoglossus altivelis, belongs to the superorder Stomiati, order Osmeriformes. Stomiati is phylogenetically classified as sister taxa of Neoteleostei. Thus, ayu holds an important position in the fish tree of life. Although ayu is economically important for the food industry and recreational fishing in Japan, few genomic resources are available for this species. To address this problem, we produced a draft genome sequence of ayu by whole-genome shotgun sequencing and constructed linkage maps using a genotyping-by-sequencing approach. Syntenic analyses of ayu and other teleost fish provided information about chromosomal rearrangements during the divergence of Stomiati, Protacanthopterygii and Neoteleostei. The size of the ayu genome indicates that genome compaction occurred after the divergence of the family Osmeridae. Ayu has an XX/XY sex-determination system for which we identified sex-associated loci by a genome-wide association study by genotyping-by-sequencing and whole-genome resequencing using wild populations. Genome-wide association mapping using wild ayu populations revealed three sex-linked scaffolds (total, 2.03 Mb). Comparison of whole-genome resequencing mapping coverage between males and females identified male-specific regions in sex-linked scaffolds. A duplicate copy of the anti-Müllerian hormone type-II receptor gene (amhr2bY) was found within these male-specific regions, distinct from the autosomal copy of amhr2. Expression of the Y-linked amhr2 gene was male-specific in sox9b-positive somatic cells surrounding germ cells in undifferentiated gonads, whereas autosomal amhr2 transcripts were detected in somatic cells in sexually undifferentiated gonads of both genetic males and females. Loss-of-function mutation for amhr2bY induced male to female sex reversal. Taken together with the known role of Amh and Amhr2 in sex differentiation, these results indicate that the paralog of amhr2 on the ayu Y chromosome determines genetic sex, and the male-specific amh-amhr2 pathway is critical for testicular differentiation in ayu.

18.
J Hazard Mater ; 423(Pt A): 126962, 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464866

RESUMO

Colorimetric and fluorescent methods for Ochratoxin A (OTA) detection are convenient and well received. However, the pigments and autofluorescence originated from food matrices often interfere with detection signals. We have developed a strategy with colorimetric and fluorescent dual modes to solve this challenge. In the colorimetric mode, OTA aptamer (AP9) was assembled into a DNA triple-helix switch with a specially designed signal-amplifying sequence. The OTA-induced G-quadruplex (G4) of AP9 would open the switch and release the signal-amplifying sequence for colorimetric signal amplification. The G4 structures of AP9 were further utilized to combine with the fluorogenic dye ThT for fluorescent mode. By skillfully engineering DNA G4 assembly for signal amplification, there was no need for any DNA amplification or nanomaterials labeling. Detections could be carried out in a wide temperature range (22-37 â„ƒ) and finished rapidly (colorimetric mode, 60 min; fluorescent mode, 15 min). Broad linear ranges (colorimetric mode, 10-1.5 ×103 µg/kg; fluorescent mode, 0.05-1.0 ×103 µg/kg) were achieved. The limit of detection for colorimetric and fluorescent modes were 4 µg/kg and 0.01 µg/kg, respectively. The two modes have been successfully applied to detect OTA in samples with intrinsic pigments and autofluorescence, showing their applicability and reliability.

19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4731, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354053

RESUMO

Electrodermal devices that capture the physiological response of skin are crucial for monitoring vital signals, but they often require convoluted layered designs with either electronic or ionic active materials relying on complicated synthesis procedures, encapsulation, and packaging techniques. Here, we report that the ionic transport in living systems can provide a simple mode of iontronic sensing and bypass the need of artificial ionic materials. A simple skin-electrode mechanosensing structure (SEMS) is constructed, exhibiting high pressure-resolution and spatial-resolution, being capable of feeling touch and detecting weak physiological signals such as fingertip pulse under different skin humidity. Our mechanical analysis reveals the critical role of instability in high-aspect-ratio microstructures on sensing. We further demonstrate pressure mapping with millimeter-spatial-resolution using a fully textile SEMS-based glove. The simplicity and reliability of SEMS hold great promise of diverse healthcare applications, such as pulse detection and recovering the sensory capability in patients with tactile dysfunction.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele , Tato/fisiologia , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Simulação por Computador , Eletrodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Dedos/fisiologia , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Humanos , Mecanorreceptores/fisiologia , Pressão , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Razão Sinal-Ruído , Têxteis , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(35)2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446564

RESUMO

In macrophages, homeostatic and immune signals induce distinct sets of transcriptional responses, defining cellular identity and functional states. The activity of lineage-specific and signal-induced transcription factors are regulated by chromatin accessibility and other epigenetic modulators. Glucocorticoids are potent antiinflammatory drugs; however, the mechanisms by which they selectively attenuate inflammatory genes are not yet understood. Acting through the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), glucocorticoids directly repress inflammatory responses at transcriptional and epigenetic levels in macrophages. A major unanswered question relates to the sequence of events that result in the formation of repressive regions. In this study, we identify bromodomain containing 9 (BRD9), a component of SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, as a modulator of glucocorticoid responses in macrophages. Inhibition, degradation, or genetic depletion of BRD9 in bone marrow-derived macrophages significantly attenuated their responses to both liposaccharides and interferon inflammatory stimuli. Notably, BRD9-regulated genes extensively overlap with those regulated by the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone. Pharmacologic inhibition of BRD9 potentiated the antiinflammatory responses of dexamethasone, while the genetic deletion of BRD9 in macrophages reduced high-fat diet-induced adipose inflammation. Mechanistically, BRD9 colocalized at a subset of GR genomic binding sites, and depletion of BRD9 enhanced GR occupancy primarily at inflammatory-related genes to potentiate GR-induced repression. Collectively, these findings establish BRD9 as a genomic antagonist of GR at inflammatory-related genes in macrophages, and reveal a potential for BRD9 inhibitors to increase the therapeutic efficacies of glucocorticoids.

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