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1.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 11645-11651, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34822249

RESUMO

Solution-processed quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D) perovskites with self-assembled multiple quantum well (QW) structures exhibit enhanced exciton binding energy, which is ideal for use as light emitters. Here, we have found that postannealing is important to promoting the QWs' composition transfer, and we explored the correlation among the annealing time, the external quantum efficiency (EQE), and the operational stability of the device. During thermal annealing, the low-n QWs will gradually convert to high-n phases, accompanied by an increase in grain size. The EQE and working stability of the device exhibit different annealing-time dependences; that is, with the extension of the annealing time, the EQE gradually decreases while the working stability improves. By introducing trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TPTA) to passivate the emitting-region defects, the annealing-time dependence of the EQE was effectively eliminated due to the reduction of the nonradiative recombination rate, wherefore high efficiency and stability can be achieved simultaneously. Our research provides an effective way to develop highly efficiency and stable perovskite light-emitting diodes.

2.
Chem Sci ; 12(39): 13083-13091, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34745539

RESUMO

Fluorescent polymers are suffering from low electroluminescence efficiency because triplet excitons formed by electrical excitation are wasted through nonradiative pathways. Here we demonstrate the design of hyperfluorescent polymers by employing through-space charge transfer (TSCT) polystyrenes as sensitizers for triplet exciton utilization and classic fluorescent chromophores as emitters for light emission. The TSCT polystyrene sensitizers not only have high reverse intersystem crossing rates for rapid conversion of triplet excitons into singlet ones, but also possess tunable emission bands to overlap the absorption spectra of fluorescent emitters with different bandgaps, allowing efficient energy transfer from the sensitizers to emitters. The resultant hyperfluorescent polymers exhibit full-color electroluminescence with peaks expanding from 466 to 640 nm, and maximum external quantum efficiencies of 10.3-19.2%, much higher than those of control fluorescent polymers (2.0-3.6%). These findings shed light on the potential of hyperfluorescent polymers in developing high-efficiency solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes and provide new insights to overcome the electroluminescence efficiency limitation for fluorescent polymers.

3.
iScience ; 24(10): 103104, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611609

RESUMO

Indoor photovoltaic (IPV) with power output over 100 µW is promising to power the numerous sensor nodes in the Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystem. All polymer photovoltaic has the advantages of excellent thermal stability and superior mechanical properties. In this work, we fabricate the first all-polymer indoor photovoltaic module with the active area of 10 cm2. The module uses polymer donor CD1 and new polymer acceptor PBN-21 with medium optical band gap of 1.9 eV as the active layer. It is processed with eco-friendly solvent tetrahydrofuran and the morphology can be improved by blade coating at 55°C. Under light emitting diode illumination at 1000 lux, the module exhibits a power conversion efficiency of 12.04% and a power output of 367.2 µW. The sufficient power output, high efficiency, excellent stability, and eco-friendly processing indicate that all-polymer indoor photovoltaic is a promising approach to achieve the self-powered of sensor nodes in the IoT ecosystem.

4.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 16(1): 612, 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663369

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Evidence linking total testosterone and bone mineral density (BMD) in adults is very limited. According to our review of the literature, only a few reports have focused on the relationship between total testosterone and bone mineral density in adults. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between total testosterone and total bone mineral density in adults aged 40-60 years. METHODS: We used a cross-sectional study of a non-institutionalized U.S. population sample from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A weighted multivariate linear regression model was used to evaluate the relationship between total testosterone and total bone mineral density. Subgroup analyses were further performed. RESULTS: In multiple regression models adjusted for potential confounders, total testosterone levels were inversely associated with total bone mineral density. However, in the sex-stratified subgroup analysis, the association between total testosterone levels and total bone mineral density was not significant in female adolescents. There was no negative association between total testosterone and total BMD among men, adults 40 to 60 years of age, and other racial/ethnic groups. There is a negative association between total testosterone and total bone mineral density when total testosterone concentration is greater than 500 ng/dL among Non-Hispanic black. CONCLUSION: Our statistical results show that the association between total testosterone levels and total bone mineral density varies by gender and race. Elevated total testosterone levels below 500 ng/dL have adverse effects on bone health. Total testosterone concentrations below 500 ng/dL may have no effect on bone health.

5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19643, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608198

RESUMO

Interactions between the decline of Mongolian pine woodlands and fungal communities and invasive pests in northeastern China are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the fungal communities occurring in three tree samples: the woodwasp Sirex noctilio infested, healthy uninfested and unhealthy uninfested Mongolian pine trees. We analyzed the relationships of the Mongolian pine decline with fungal infection and woodwasp infestation. Twenty-six fungal species were identified from the sampled trees. Each tree sample harbored a fungal endophyte community with a unique structure. Pathogenic fungi richness was four times higher in infested and unhealthy un-infested trees compared to that in healthy uninfested trees. Sphaeropsis sapinea was the most dominant pathogenic fungus in the sampled Mongolian pine trees. The number of S. noctilio was higher than native bark beetles in the declining Mongolian pine trees. The invasion of the woodwasp appeared to be promoted by the fungal infection in the Mongolian pine trees. The incidence of S. noctilio infestation was higher in the fungi infected trees (83.22%) than those without infection (38.72%). S. sapinea population exhibited positive associations with within-tree colonization of S. noctilio and bark beetle. Collectively, these data indicate that the fungal disease may have caused as the initial reason the decline of the Mongolian pine trees, and also provided convenient conditions for the successful colonization of the woodwasp. The woodwasps attack the Mongolian pine trees infected by fungi and accelerated its decline.

6.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), is the most severe pest attacking rice crops using sucking mouthparts. It causes significant damages to rice growth and food production worldwide. With the long-term and wide use of insecticides, field populations of BPH have developed resistance to many insecticides. RESULTS: Here, we showed that upregulation of an ATP-binding cassette transporter gene NlMdr49-like contributes to imidacloprid resistance in field populations of BPH. A comparative transcriptome analysis was performed to evaluate the gene expression in two field populations (JXSG18 and YNTC18). Compared with a susceptible strain (Sus), 202 upregulated genes and 170 downregulated genes were identified in both field populations. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) are mainly linked to metabolic process and transmembrane transport. Among the candidate DEGs, NlMdr49-like was significantly upregulated in both field populations. Based on the genome and transcriptome of BPH, the full-length complementary DNA of NlMdr49-like was sequenced and its molecular characteristics were analyzed. Expression pattern analysis of various tissues showed that NlMdr49-like was predominantly expressed in midgut and Malpighian tubules which are important excretion organs. Knocking down NlMdr49-like reduced BPH resistance to imidacloprid, but did not affect its resistance to the other nine insecticides (chlorpyrifos, thiamethoxam, nitenpyram, dinotefuran, sulfoxaflor, triflumezopyrim, ethiprole, buprofezin and pymetrozine). Furthermore, a transgenic strain of Drosophila melanogaster overexpressing NlMdr49-like was less susceptible to imidacloprid. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that upregulation of NlMdr49-like is another mechanism contributing to imidacloprid resistance in N. lugens. This result is helpful to further understand the resistance mechanism of N. lugens to imidacloprid.

7.
Front Public Health ; 9: 725648, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616707

RESUMO

Background: Lack of quantification of direct and indirect exposure of ophthalmologists during ophthalmic diagnostic process makes it hard to estimate the infectious risk of aerosol pathogen faced by ophthalmologists at working environment. Methods: Accurate numerical models of thermal manikins and computational fluid dynamics simulations were used to investigate direct (droplet inhalation and mucosal deposition) and indirect exposure (droplets on working equipment) within a half-minute procedure. Three ophthalmic examination or treatment scenarios (direct ophthalmoscopic examination, slit-lamp microscopic examination, and ophthalmic operation) were selected as typical exposure distance, two breathing modes (normal breathing and coughing), three levels of ambient RH (40, 70, and 95%) and three initial droplet sizes (50, 70, and 100 µm) were considered as common working environmental condition. Results: The exposure of an ophthalmologist to a patient's expiratory droplets during a direct ophthalmoscopic examination was found to be 95 times that of a person during normal interpersonal interaction at a distance of 1 m and 12.1, 8.8, and 9.7 times that of an ophthalmologist during a slit-lamp microscopic examination, a surgeon during an ophthalmic operation and an assistant during an ophthalmic operation, respectively. The ophthalmologist's direct exposure to droplets when the patient cough-exhaled was ~7.6 times that when the patient breath-exhaled. Compared with high indoor RH, direct droplet exposure was higher and indirect droplet exposure was lower when the indoor RH was 40%. Conclusion: During the course of performing ophthalmic examinations or treatment, ophthalmologists typically face a high risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection by droplet transmission.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Oftalmologistas , Simulação por Computador , Expiração , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(41): 23711-23717, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642714

RESUMO

Ba2+ ions co-doped SiO2-SnO2:Er3+ thin films are prepared using a sol-gel method combined with a spin-coating technique and post-annealing treatment. The influence of Ba2+ ion doping on the photoluminescence properties of thin films is carefully investigated. The enhancement of near-infrared (NIR) emission of Er3+ ions by as much as 12 times is obtained via co-doping with Ba2+ ions. To illustrate the relevant mechanisms, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and comprehensive spectroscopic measurements are carried out. The enhanced NIR emission induced by Ba2+ co-doping can be explained by more oxygen vacancies, improved crystallinity and strong cross-relaxation processes between Er3+ ions. The incorporation of Ba2+ ions into SiO2-SnO2:Er3+ thin films results in a considerable enhancement in the NIR emission, making the thin films more suitable for Si-based optical lasers and amplifiers.

9.
Purinergic Signal ; 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34713379

RESUMO

Quinacrine, a fluorescent amphipathic amine, has been used as a vital fluorescent probe to visualize vesicular storage of ATP in the field of purinergic signaling. However, the mechanism(s) by which quinacrine represents vesicular ATP storage remains to be clarified. The present study investigated the validity of the use of quinacrine as a vial fluorescent probe for ATP-storing organelles. Vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT), an essential component for vesicular storage and ATP release, is present in very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-containing secretory vesicles in hepatocytes. VNUT gene knockout (Vnut-/-) or clodronate treatment, a VNUT inhibitor, disappeared vesicular ATP release (Tatsushima et al., Biochim Biophys Acta Molecular Basis of Disease 2021, e166013). Upon incubation of mice's primary hepatocytes, quinacrine accumulates in a granular pattern into the cytoplasm, sensitive to 0.1-µM bafilomycin A1, a vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) inhibitor. Neither Vnut-/- nor treatment of clodronate affected quinacrine granular accumulation. In vitro, quinacrine is accumulated into liposomes upon imposing inside acidic transmembranous pH gradient (∆pH) irrespective of the presence or absence of ATP. Neither ATP binding on VNUT nor VNUT-mediated uptake of ATP was affected by quinacrine. Consistently, VNUT-mediated uptake of quinacrine was negligible or under the detection limit. From these results, it is concluded that vesicular quinacrine accumulation is not due to a consequence of its interaction with ATP but due to ∆pH-driven concentration across the membranes as an amphipathic amine. Thus, quinacrine is not a vital fluorescent probe for vesicular ATP storage.

10.
J Cancer ; 12(20): 6189-6197, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34539892

RESUMO

Purpose: Brain gliomas are the most common primary malignant tumors of the central nervous system and one of the leading causes of death in patients with intracranial tumors. The lncRNA RPL34-AS1 is significantly upregulated in glioma tissues. However, the biological function of RPL34-AS1, especially in proliferation in glioma, remains unclear. Methods: The role of RPL34-AS1 in proliferation and angiogenesis in glioma cells was investigated using the LN229, U87, and U251 glioma cell lines. The levels of RPL34-AS1 were detected using real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. CCK-8 and colony formation assays were performed to determine the role of RPL34-AS1 in proliferation and survival, and its role in angiogenesis was assessed by an endothelial tube formation assay. Changes in protein levels were assessed by western blotting. Results: RPL34-AS1 was upregulated in glioma tissues and was correlated with tumor grade. RPL34-AS1 expression was also higher in glioma cells than in normal astrocytes. Knockdown of RPL34-AS1 blocked glioma cell proliferation by inhibiting angiogenesis. This effect occurred through decreased ERK/AKT signaling. Conclusions: This study suggests that RPL34-AS1 affects cell proliferation and angiogenesis in glioma and therefore may potentially serve as a valuable diagnostic and prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target in patients with glioma.

11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(12): 3016-3023, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467691

RESUMO

The acupoint application of Euodiae Fructus at Yongquan(KI1) can significantly improve the sleep quality of patients with insomnia with berberine as the main effective component for the efficacy. Nineteen active compounds and 203 drug targets were screened out from Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform(TCMSP). After comparison with GeneCards and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man(OMIM), 24 common genes of diseases and drugs were obtained. STRING 11.0 was used to construct a protein-protein interaction(PPI) network of the overlapping genes, and Matthews correlation coefficient(MCC) was employed to screen the core genes, which were then subjected to enrichment analysis with gene ontology(GO) and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes(KEGG). The results revealed that the main compounds of Euodiae Fructus, such as berberine and rutaecarpine, participated in the biological processes(such as neurotransmitter receptor activity) by regulating C-reactive protein(CRP), estrogen receptor 1(ESR1), 5-hydroxytryptamine(5-HT) receptor, and interleukin-6(IL-6) to exert sedative, anxiolytic, and antidepressant effects. Sixty 4-week-old SPF mice were randomly divided into a control group, a model group, a positive drug(diazepam tablets) group, and low-, medium-, and high-dose berberine groups. Medication with corresponding drugs was performed for one week. The results demonstrated that berberine was potent in reducing the activities and standing times of mice, down-regulating the levels of CRP and IL-6 mRNA in the hypothalamus, and up-regulating the expression of 5-HT(P<0.01); however, no significant effect on ESR1 was observed. The network of Euodiae Fructus in treating insomnia was constructed by network pharmacology and verified by tests. The findings indicated that the therapeutic efficacy of Euodiae Fructus in treating insomnia was achieved by participating in multiple biological processes, such as neurotransmitter receptor activity, which provided a scientific basis for its clinical application.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Animais , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Ontologia Genética , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Camundongos , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/tratamento farmacológico , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/genética
12.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e047081, 2021 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588240

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate dry eye disease (DED) in patients affected by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of the literature on PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library databases from conception to 30 April 2020 for studies related to dry eye, secondary Sjögren's syndrome (sSS) and SLE. Original full-text articles with the number of patients diagnosed with SLE of over 15 were included. The risk of bias was evaluated with a validated critical appraisal tool which assessed study quality based on confounding factors, selection bias, bias related to measurement and bias related to data analysis. Data were extracted and pooled to evaluate the overall prevalence of DED with the random-effect model and sSS with the fixed effect model. RESULTS: A total of 29 studies were included and 18 273 participants were involved. The pooled data showed that the overall prevalence of DED was 16% (95% CI 10% to 21%, p<0.001) in patients of SLE. Dry eye symptoms and abnormal Schirmer's test were found in 26% (95% CI 20% to 32%, p<0.001) and 24% (95% CI 14% to 34%, p<0.001) of patients with SLE, respectively. 12% (95% CI 9% to 15%, p<0.001) of patients also met the criteria of sSS. The OR of DED in patients with SLE was 4.26 (95% CI 3.47 to 5.05, p<0.001) compared with healthy controls. The meta-regression analysis showed that the sample size (p=0.004) and study location (p=0.022) could be the source of heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: DED and sSS are both common in patients with SLE.


Assuntos
Síndromes do Olho Seco , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico , Síndrome de Sjogren , Síndromes do Olho Seco/epidemiologia , Síndromes do Olho Seco/etiologia , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Síndrome de Sjogren/complicações , Síndrome de Sjogren/epidemiologia
13.
Biosci Trends ; 15(5): 266-275, 2021 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483225

RESUMO

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) refers to infectious inflammation of the lung parenchyma developing outside of a hospital. CAP has quite a high mortality and morbidity rate worldwide, and especially among elderly patients. The increasing burden of CAP is due to antibiotic resistance, the growth of the elderly population, and underlying comorbidities. Streptococcus pneumoniae remains the most common bacterial pathogen causing CAP, but multi-drug resistance bacteria and potential pathogens have increased the difficulty and challenges of managing CAP. Although preventive measures, diagnostic techniques, and treatment strategies are constantly advancing and improving, the susceptibility of multi-drug resistant pathogens, such as including Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, has not improved significantly in recent decades, thus highlighting the importance and necessity of developing new antibiotics for the treatment of CAP. New antimicrobials have been approved over the past few years that will expand treatment options for CAP, and especially for patients with potential comorbidities. This situation also offers the chance to reduce the abuse of antibiotics, their toxicities, and their adverse reactions and to provide effective personalized antibiotic treatment.

14.
Chin Neurosurg J ; 7(1): 37, 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumors are the second most common cause of death in humans worldwide, second only to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Although methods and techniques for the treatment of tumors continue to improve, the effect is not satisfactory. These may lack effective therapeutic targets. This study aimed to evaluate the value of SNHG12 as a biomarker in the prognosis and clinical characteristics of various cancer patients. METHODS: We analyzed SNHG12 expression and plotted the survival curves of all cancer samples in the TCGA database using the GEPIA tool. Then, we searched for eligible papers up to April 1, 2019, in databases. Next, the data were extracted from studies examining SNHG12 expression, overall survival and clinicopathological features in patients with malignant tumors. We used Review Manager 5.3 and Stata 15 software to analyze the statistical data. RESULTS: In the TCGA database, abnormally high expression of SNHG12 in tumor samples indicates that the patient has a poor prognosis. Results of meta-analysis is that SNHG12 high expression is related to low overall survival (HR = 2.72, 95% CI = 1.95-3.8, P < 0.00001), high tumor stage (OR = 3.94, 95% CI = 2.80-5.53, P < 0.00001), high grade (OR = 2.04, 95% CI = 1.18-3.51, P = 0.01), distant metastasis (OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.40-3.46, P = 0.0006), tumor size (OR = 2.79, 95% CI = 1.89-4.14, P < 0.00001), and lymph node metastasis (OR = 2.66, 95% CI = 1.65-4.29, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirmed that the high expression level of SNHG12 is closely related to the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of patients and is a new predictive biomarker for various cancer patients.

15.
Neuroscience ; 473: 29-43, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425157

RESUMO

Chronic stress causes the abnormality of olfactory bulb (OB) in both anxiety and depression, however, the unique and common neurobiological underpinnings are still poorly understood. Previously, we built the three groups by chronic mild stress (CMS), depression-susceptible (Dep-Sus): with depression-like behavior, anxiety-susceptible (Anx-Sus): with anxiety-like behavior and insusceptible (Insus): without depression- and anxiety-like behaviors. To continuously explore the protein expression changes in these three groups, comparative quantitative proteomics analysis was conducted on the rat OB as crucial part of the olfactory system. Next, bioinformatics analyses were implemented whereas protein expressions were independently analyzed by parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) or Western blot (WB). The OB-proteome analysis identified totally 133 differentially expressed proteins as a CMS response. These deregulated proteins were involved in multiple functions and significant pathways potentially correlated with phenotypes of maladaptive behavior of depression or anxiety as well as adaptive behavior, and hence might act as potential candidate protein targets. The subsequent PRM-based or WB-based analyses showed that changes in Nefl, Mtmr7 and Tk2; Prkaca, Coa3, Cox6c2, Lamc1 and Tubal3; and Pabpn1, Nme3, Sos1 and Lum were uniquely associated with Dep-Sus, Anx-Sus, and Insus groups, respectively. These phenotype-specific deregulated proteins were primarily involved in multiple metabolic and signaling pathways, suggesting that the identical CMS differently impacted the olfactory protein regulation system and biological processes. To sum up, our present data as a useful proteomics underpinning provided the common and distinct molecular insights into the biochemical understanding of OB dysfunction underlying susceptibility and resiliency to chronic-stress-induced anxiety or depression.


Assuntos
Depressão , Bulbo Olfatório , Animais , Ansiedade , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteômica , Ratos
16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(28): 33321-33327, 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227795

RESUMO

Organic thermoelectric materials play a vital role in flexible power generating applications, such as wearable electronics and sensor networks. While there is a wealth of research on p-type organic thermoelectric materials, developments on n-type counterparts as complementary are comparatively limited. Herein, we report a new kind of n-type small-molecule thermoelectric materials based on B←N-incorporated dibenzo-azaacenes 1,2-DBNA-2 and 1,2-DBNA-5. Because of the low-lying lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy levels, 1,2-DBNA-2 and 1,2-DBNA-5 could be efficiently n-doped, and the rigid and almost planar skeleton could ensure good carrier transfer. When doped with a typical n-dopant (4-(1,3-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)phenyl)dimethylamine (N-DMBI), 1,2-DBNA-5 exhibits a moderate conductivity of 0.01 S cm-1 and a power factor of 0.06 µW m-1 K-2 with a Seebeck coefficient of -244.4 µV K-1 in thermoelectric devices. These results not only demonstrate that B←N-incorporated dibenzo-azaacenes are a novel class of n-type thermoelectric materials but also highlight a new strategy to develop n-type organic thermoelectric materials.

17.
Ophthalmol Ther ; 10(3): 465-494, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218424

RESUMO

The prevalence of chronic fundus diseases is increasing with the aging of the general population. The treatment of these intraocular diseases relies on invasive drug delivery because of the globular structure and multiple barriers of the eye. Frequent intraocular injections bring heavy burdens to the medical care system and patients. The use of topical drugs to treat retinal diseases has always been an attractive solution. The fast development of new materials and technologies brings the possibility to develop innovative topical formulations. This article reviews anatomical and physiological barriers of the eye which affect the bioavailability of topical drugs. In addition, we summarize innovative topical formulations which enhance the permeability of drugs through the ocular surface and/or extend the drug retention time in the eye. This article also reviews the differences of eyes between different laboratory animals to address the translational challenges of preclinical models. The fast development of in vitro eye models may provide more tools to increase the clinical translationality of topical formulations for intraocular diseases. Clinical successes of topical formulations rely on continuous and collaborative efforts between different disciplines.

18.
Front Public Health ; 9: 696036, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34307289

RESUMO

Purpose: To compare the prevalence of computer vision syndrome in university students of different teaching modes during the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak period. Methods: A cross-sectional survey study using the validated Computer Vision Syndrome Questionnaire in Chinese medical students of Sichuan University who took classroom lectures and the same-grade foreign students from a Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) program who took online lectures with similar schedules. Results: A total of 137 responses from 63 Chinese students and 74 MBBS students were obtained. The highest frequency of digital screen time was 7-9 h (43.24%, 32/74) for MBBS students and 2-4 h (46.03%, 29/63) for Chinese students. The prevalence of computer vision syndrome among Chinese students and MBBS students were 50.79% and 74.32%, respectively (P = 0.004). The average numbers of reported symptoms were 5.00 ± 2.17 in Chinese students and 5.91 ± 1.90 in MBBS students (P = 0.01). The three most highly reported symptoms were "heavy eyelids" (53.97%), "dryness" (50.79%), and "feeling of a foreign body" (46.03%) in Chinese students and "dryness" (72.97%), "feeling of a foreign body" (62.16%), and "heavy eyelids" (58.11%) in MBBS students. The sum grades of computer vision syndrome had a moderate positive correlation with screen time (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.386, P < 0.001). The grades of symptoms of "feeling of a foreign body," "heavy eyelids," and "dryness" showed a weak positive correlation with screen time (Spearman's correlation coefficients were 0.220, 0.205, and 0.230, respectively). Conclusion: Online study may contribute to the prevalence of computer vision syndrome among university students.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estudantes de Medicina , Computadores , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Universidades
19.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 894, 2021 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34290349

RESUMO

Mitochondrial fusion and fission, which are strongly related to normal mitochondrial function, are referred to as mitochondrial dynamics. Mitochondrial fusion defects in the liver cause a non-alcoholic steatohepatitis-like phenotype and liver cancer. However, whether mitochondrial fission defect directly impair liver function and stimulate liver disease progression, too, is unclear. Dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) is a key factor controlling mitochondrial fission. We hypothesized that DRP1 defects are a causal factor directly involved in liver disease development and stimulate liver disease progression. Drp1 defects directly promoted endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, hepatocyte death, and subsequently induced infiltration of inflammatory macrophages. Drp1 deletion increased the expression of numerous genes involved in the immune response and DNA damage in Drp1LiKO mouse primary hepatocytes. We administered lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to liver-specific Drp1-knockout (Drp1LiKO) mice and observed an increased inflammatory cytokine expression in the liver and serum caused by exaggerated ER stress and enhanced inflammasome activation. This study indicates that Drp1 defect-induced mitochondrial dynamics dysfunction directly regulates the fate and function of hepatocytes and enhances LPS-induced acute liver injury in vivo.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/imunologia , Dinaminas/deficiência , Inflamação/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
20.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 17(6): 1088-1097, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167623

RESUMO

Berberine has shown an outstanding antioxidant activity, however the low bioavailability limits its applications in pharmaceutical platforms. Therefore, in this paper, after fabrication of the berberine-HSA nanoparticles by desolvation method, they were well characterized by TEM, SEM, DLS, and FTIR techniques. Afterwards the interaction of HSA and the berberine was evaluated by molecular docking analysis. Finally, the antioxidant activity of the berberine-HSA nanoparticles against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in cultured neurons as a model of AD was evaluated by cellular assays. The results showed that the prepared berberine-HSA nanoparticles have a spherical-shaped morphology with a size of around 100 nm and zeta potential value of -31.84 mV. The solubility value of nanoparticles was calculated to be 40.27%, with a berberine loading of 19.37%, berberine entrapment efficiency of 70.34%, and nanoparticles yield of 88.91%. Also, it was shown that the berberine is not significantly released from HSA nanoparticles within 24 hours. Afterwards, molecular docking investigation revealed that berberine spontaneously interacts with HSA through electrostatic interaction. Finally, cellular assays disclosed that the pretreatment of neuronal cultures with berberine-HSA nanoparticles decreased the H2O2-stimulated cytotoxicity and relevant morphological changes and enhanced the CAT activity. In conclusion, it can be indicated that the nanoformulation of the berberine can be used as a promising platform for inhibition of oxidative damage-induced Alzheimer's disease (AD).


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Berberina , Nanopartículas , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Albuminas , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Berberina/farmacologia , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estresse Oxidativo , Termodinâmica
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