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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477525

RESUMO

Adult humans and mice possess significant classical brown adipose tissues (BAT) and, upon cold-induction, acquire brown-like adipocytes in certain depots of white adipose tissues (WAT), known as beige adipose tissues or WAT browning/beiging. Activating thermogenic classical BAT or WAT beiging to generate heat limits diet-induced obesity or type-2 diabetes in mice. Adiponectin is a beneficial adipokine resisting diabetes, and causing "healthy obese" by increasing WAT expansion to limit lipotoxicity in other metabolic tissues during high-fat feeding. However, the role of its receptors, especially adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1), on cold-induced thermogenesis in vivo in BAT and in WAT beiging is still elusive. Here, we established a cold-induction procedure in transgenic mice over-expressing AdipoR1 and applied a live 3-D [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT (18F-FDG PET/CT) scanning to measure BAT activity by determining glucose uptake in cold-acclimated transgenic mice. Results showed that cold-acclimated mice over-expressing AdipoR1 had diminished cold-induced glucose uptake, enlarged adipocyte size in BAT and in browned WAT, and reduced surface BAT/body temperature in vivo. Furthermore, decreased gene expression, related to thermogenic Ucp1, BAT-specific markers, BAT-enriched mitochondrial markers, lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation, and increased expression of whitening genes in BAT or in browned subcutaneous inguinal WAT of AdipoR1 mice are congruent with results of PET/CT scanning and surface body temperature in vivo. Moreover, differentiated brown-like beige adipocytes isolated from pre-adipocytes in subcutaneous WAT of transgenic AdipoR1 mice also had similar effects of lowered expression of thermogenic Ucp1, BAT selective markers, and BAT mitochondrial markers. Therefore, this study combines in vitro and in vivo results with live 3-D scanning and reveals one of the many facets of the adiponectin receptors in regulating energy homeostasis, especially in the involvement of cold-induced thermogenesis.

2.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 8866946, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33294127

RESUMO

Background: Coronary heart disease is currently the leading cause of death in humans. Its poor prognosis and high mortality are associated with myocardial ischemia, which leads to metabolic disorder-related cardiomyocyte apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Previous cardiovascular metabolomics studies in humans and mice have shown that proline metabolism is severely altered after cardiomyocyte hypoxia. Proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) is located on the inner mitochondrial membrane and is an enzyme that catalyzes the first step of proline catabolism, which plays an important role in improving the cellular redox state. In vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation can mimic in vivo myocardial ischemic injury. This study is aimed at investigating whether enhancing proline metabolism by overexpressing PRODH can ameliorate hypoxia-induced injury in cardiomyocytes and to reveal the related altered metabolites and mechanistic pathway via untargeted metabolomics analysis. Methods and Results: First, through public database analysis and RT-qPCR and western blot analyses in a cardiomyocyte hypoxia model, we found that the expression of the proline-degrading enzyme PRODH was downregulated after myocardial infarction and hypoxia exposure. Second, LDH assays, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), DHE staining, flow cytometric apoptosis analysis with DCFH and Annexin V-FITC/PI, and western blot analysis were used to assess the injury level in cardiomyocytes. Enhanced proline metabolism induced by PRODH overexpression reduced the levels of reactive oxidative stress and apoptosis, whereas PRODH knockdown had the opposite effects. Third, untargeted metabolomics analysis revealed that the protective effect was associated with significant changes in metabolism linked to sphingolipid signaling pathways, unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis, phosphocreatine, glutathione disulfide, aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, and ABC transporters. Conclusions: Our study demonstrated a protective effect of enhanced proline metabolism in cardiomyocytes under hypoxia, providing a novel strategy for exploring new treatments for coronary heart disease.

3.
ACS Omega ; 5(43): 28212-28223, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33163804

RESUMO

The CuO-La2O3/ZrO2 catalysts calcined at different temperatures from 500 to 800 °C were studied for the hydrogenation of oxalates to ethylene glycol (EG). Along with the increase of calcination temperatures, the BET surface area, pore volume, and Cu dispersion decreased, whereas the crystallite sizes of Cu species increased. Interestingly, the superior performance such as a 98% selectivity of EG in dimethyl oxalate hydrogenation or a 96.5% selectivity of EG in diethyl oxalate hydrogenation was obtained over the catalyst calcined at 700 °C. Essentially, the surface synergism between Cu species and monoclinic ZrO2 was enhanced by the higher calcination temperature, resulting in the remarkable surface adsorption and activation of H2. Besides, the increase of calcination temperature significantly reduced the surface acidity and basicity, which could effectively suppress the byproduct formation.

4.
Opt Express ; 28(20): 28819-28830, 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33114792

RESUMO

We present a reference-free method to determine electrical parameters of thin conducting films by steady state transmission-mode terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). We demonstrate that the frequency-dependent AC conductivity of graphene can be acquired by comparing the directly transmitted THz pulse with a transient internal reflection within the substrate which avoids the need for a standard reference scan. The DC sheet conductivity, scattering time, carrier density, mobility, and Fermi velocity of graphene are retrieved subsequently by fitting the AC conductivity with the Drude model. This reference-free method was investigated with two complementary THz setups: one commercial fibre-coupled THz spectrometer with fast scanning rate (0.2-1.5 THz) and one air-plasma based ultra-broadband THz spectrometer for greatly extended frequency range (2-10 THz). Certain propagation correction terms for more accurate retrieval of electrical parameters are discussed.

5.
Polymers (Basel) ; 12(10)2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998274

RESUMO

A new kind of bifunctional microcapsule containing a n-octadecane (OD) and thyme oil (TO) core based on polyurea shell designed for thermal energy storage and antibiosis was prepared successfully through interfacial polymerization. The scanning electron microscopic investigations reveal that the obtained composite microcapsules present the regular spherical morphology and the transmission electron microscopic observations confirm the clear core-shell structure. Morphological and chemical structure analyses prove the successful synthesis of bifunctional microcapsules. Thermogravimetric analysis indicates that the polyurea shell can protect the composite cores effectively. Differential scanning calorimetry examination shows that the bifunctional microcapsules can maintain high thermal storage capacity and the encapsulation efficiency of OD increases with the increase in TO. The supercooling crystallization can be notably suppressed by adding 7 wt.% of n-octadecanol. A study on the release behavior of TO from the bifunctional microcapsules reveals that the Higuchi kinetic model could better fit the TO release profile. The antibacterial results demonstrate that the bifunctional microcapsules can effectively inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and the inhibition rate can reach as high as 99.9% when the mass concentration of microcapsules is over 3 wt.%.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770521

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the potential association between the lowering of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) with contemporary lipid-lowering medicines and cognitive function. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in databases including PubMed, Embase, and the Web of Science and all databases in the Cochrane Library and ClinicalTrials.gov were collected from inception to January 1, 2020. The cognitive function of patients receiving proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors, statins and ezetimibe was evaluated using meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 2910 studies were obtained from databases and other sources. Thirty-three studies were selected by screening, including 11 studies on alirocumab, 9 studies on evolocumab, 11 studies on statins and 2 studies on ezetimibe. In our study, a total of 128,691 patients with no cognitive impairment were divided into an intervention group (66,330 patients) and a control group (62,361 patients). The data were subjected to a random-effects model or a fixed-effects model for meta-analysis. The contemporary lipid-lowering medicines significantly reduced LDL-C in terms of both percentage (WMD: -45.06%, 95% CI -50.12% to -40.00%, P < 0.001) and absolute value (WMD: -64.01 mg/dL, 95% CI -72.25 to -55.78, P < 0.001). Compared with the control group, patients receiving treatment with contemporary lipid-lowering medicines did not show a significant difference in the rate of neurocognitive disorder (RR: 1.02, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.16, I2 = 0.0%, p = 0.696). Subgroup analysis was performed according to the intervention and LDL-C stratification. The result of this subgroup analysis was consistent with the main findings. Regarding global cognitive performance, no difference in major cognition was found among the pooled data (SMD: 0.02, 95% CI -0.01 to 0.04, P = 0.002), except for psychomotor speed (SMD: 0.09, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.16, P = 0.0024). CONCLUSIONS: Contemporary lipid-lowering medicines were not associated with cognitive impairment in RCTs. A low LDL-C level did not influence the incidence of cognitive disorder or global cognitive performance.

7.
J Hazard Mater ; 399: 123044, 2020 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521315

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) pollution becomes a research hotspot and many studies focus on threats of MPs, but few have integrated multi-level indicators to assess response to MPs of organisms. Here we exposed guppy (Poecilia reticulata) to MPs (polystyrene; 32-40 µm diameter) with two concentrations (100 and 1000 µg/L) for 28 days. We found that higher accumulation of MPs appeared in guppy gill than that in gut. MPs had no obvious effect on guppy growth but significantly inhibited the condition factor. Oxidative stress presented in guppy viscera with activated antioxidants. The decline of Na+/K+-ATP activity in guppy indicated that MPs might interfere with the osmotic balance of gills. MPs reduced body molar ratio of C:N and δ13C value, but no apparent impact on δ15N. It implied that MPs probably altered elemental transition. Eventually, through integrated biomarkers response index (IBR) of guppy, we found that catalase activity was the highest index in response to MPs, and the response of growth performance to MPs was lower than that of oxidative stress and element alteration. Risks of MPs aggravated in a concentration-dependent manner. These findings suggested that multi-level IBR approach should be adopted to quantify effects of MPs on aquatic organisms, especially on fish.

8.
Appl Radiat Isot ; 162: 109199, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32501233

RESUMO

Several methods have been developed to label compounds with 18F. However, in general these are laborious and require a multistep synthesis. A method based on the chelation of 18F-aluminum fluoride ([18F]AlF) by 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA) was developed recently. The present work was aimed to radiolabel hexavalent lactoside (NOTA-HL) by [18F]AlF method for PET imaging of asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR). METHODS: hexavalent lactoside was conjugated with the NOTA chelate and labeled with 18F in a one-pot method. The labeling procedure was investigated with different amounts of NOTA-HL and aluminum concentration. Radiochemical yield and radiochemical purity were determined by radio-TLC and radio-HPLC respectively. In vitro stability study of [18F]AlF-HL were carried out. PET/CT imaging of normal mice injected with [18F]AlF-NOTA-HL was performed. RESULTS: The Radiochemical yield of [18F]AlF-NOTA-HL was higher with more precursor and optimal Al+ concentration. The radiochemical purity of labeled product was >95% after purified by Sep-Pak cartridge to remove unbound [18F]AlF. The radiolabeling, including purification, was performed in 30 min [18F]AlF-NOTA-HL exhibited good in vitro stability. PET studies in normal mice revealed high specific accumulation of activity in the liver. CONCLUSION: NOTA-HL could be labeled rapidly and efficiently with aqueous 18F using AlF method. [18F]AlF-NOTA-HL would provide another efficient approach for PET imaging of ASGPR.

9.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 528(3): 574-579, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505355

RESUMO

Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury, a complicated pathophysiological process, is regulated by lots of signaling pathways. Here in our present study, we identified TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), an IKK-related serine/threonine kinase, as a protective regulator in MI/R injury. Our results indicated that TBK1 was decreased in MI/R injury in mice. However, after overexpressing TBK1 through an intramyocardial injection of TBK1 adenovirus, TBK1 overexpression improved cardiac function detected by echocardiography, decreased infarct size detected by Evans Blue and TTC staining, reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis measured by TUNEL staining and alleviated disruption of mitochondria and cardiac muscle fibers detected by TEM in response to MI/R injury. Consistently, TBK1 overexpression ameliorated mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (OCR) in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) in response to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury. Mechanistically, TBK1 overexpression upregulated Bcl-2 (an anti-apoptotic protein) but downregulated Bax (a pro-apoptotic protein) in vivo and in vitro. Collectively, our findings uncovered a pivotal function of TBK1 in MI/R injury through regulating the levels of apoptotic proteins for the first time, which might represent a promising target in treating MI/R patients in the future.

10.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 178: 114065, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492448

RESUMO

At present, ischemic heart failure (HF) caused by coronary heart disease (CHD) has a high morbidity and mortality, placing a heavy burden on global human health. L-Proline (Pro), a nonessential amino acid and the foundation of proteins in the human body, was found to be protective against oxidative stress in various diseases. However, the role of Pro in cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains unclear. In vivo, adult mice were subjected to left anterior descending (LAD) artery ligation for 4 weeks with or without Pro treatment. In vitro, H9c2 cardiomyocytes were pretreated with or without Pro, followed by treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (200 µM) for 6 and 12 h. Our data showed that Pro metabolism was disturbing after myocardial infarction (MI). Pro treatment improved cardiac remodeling, reduced infarct size, and decreased oxidative stress and apoptosis in mouse hearts after MI. Pro inhibited the H2O2-induced increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) in H9c2 cells and protected against H2O2-induced apoptosis. Mechanistically, by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and pathway analysis, Pro was shown to exert a protective effect through H2O2 catabolic processes and apoptotic processes, especially oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Taken together, our findings suggested that Pro protects against MI injury at least partially via redox regulation, highlighting the potential of Pro as a novel therapy for ischemic HF caused by CHD.

11.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(14): 16841-16848, 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223174

RESUMO

A sodium-ethylenediamine graphite intercalation compound (Na(ethylenediamine)C15: "GIC") made from graphite flakes was used to study the microwave absorption performance of a GIC for the first time. Compared with the pristine graphite flakes, the neighboring layers in this GIC are pillared by Na(ethylenediamine)+ and possess a larger layer distance and improved electrical conductivity. Owing to the electrical conductivity of this GIC, only half of the loading content, compared to graphite flakes, is needed to achieve an outstanding absorption of -75.6 dB at 9.25 GHz (10.0 wt % GIC in paraffin in a 4.0 mm thick sample), but for graphite, 20.0 wt % is required for an absorption of -37.6 dB.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nontyphoid Salmonella and Shigella can cause gastroenteritis in humans. Ceftriaxone (CRO) has been used to treat their infection, however, development of CRO resistance are often associated with plasmid-mediated blaCMY. Here, we investigated the presence of plasmid-mediated ISEcp-1 tnpA-blaCMY-2-blc-sugE and the role of these genes in regulation of CRO susceptibility in different hosts. METHODS: 194 strains of Salmonella serovars and Shigella were tested for CRO susceptibility. Non-susceptibility strains were examined for plasmid-mediated ISEcp-1 tnpA-blaCMY-2-blc-sugE by PCR amplification, Southern blot, and DNA sequencing. The plasmid profiles were determined by HindIII-digested restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Four recombinant plasmids with different genes from ISEcp-1 tnpA-blaCMY-2-blc-sugE were constructed and then were transferred into Escherichia coli and different Salmonella serovars to evaluate the CRO susceptibility. RESULTS: Among 20 CRO-nonsusceptible isolates of Salmonella Choleraesuis (5), S. Typhimurium (4), S. Mons (1), S. Stanley (2) and Shigella sonnei (8) with plasmid-mediated blaCMY-2, 19 isolates carried the ISEcp-1 tnpA-blaCMY-2-blc-sugE and only one isolate with tnpA-blaCMY-2. Transformation of these plasmids into E. coli pir116 produced multidrug resistance. Furthermore, PCR-RFLP analysis determined 5 different plasmid profiles and identical RFLP pattern between S. Typhimurium and S. sonnei. Transformation of the recombinant plasmids into E. coli and different Salmonella serovars resulted in phenotypes ranging from susceptible to resistant (especially inducible resistance) to CRO that were dependent on the genes, and host. CONCLUSION: The CRO susceptibility associated with the ISEcp-1 tnpA-blaCMY-2-blc-sugE element is regulated positively by ISEcp-1 tnpA and SugE and negatively regulated by Blc and unknown species-dependent host factor(s).

13.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol ; 75(6): 584-595, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32205566

RESUMO

Vascular remodeling is one of the most critical complications caused by hypertension. Previous studies have demonstrated that rosuvastatin has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiplatelet effects and therefore can be used to treat cardiovascular disease. In this study, we explored the beneficial effects of rosuvastatin in reversing aortic remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats. After treating with different doses of rosuvastatin, its antilipid, antiapoptosis, and anti-inflammatory effects were determined. We also examined whether rosuvastatin can improve the structure and function of the aorta. We found that rosuvastatin treatment of spontaneously hypertensive rats for 2 months at 2 different doses can effectively reduce the media thickness of the aorta compared with the control group. Similarly, rosuvastatin improved the vascular relaxation function of the aortic rings at a high level of acetylcholine in vitro. Mechanistically, it was found that rosuvastatin increased the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and plasma nitrite/nitrate levels. Besides, rosuvastatin suppressed the apoptosis and inflammation and upregulated the expression of gap-junction complex connexin 43 both in media and endothelium. Finally, rosuvastatin inhibited the AT1R/PKCα/HSP70 signaling transduction pathway. In summary, these findings demonstrated that rosuvastatin could improve the vascular structure and function mainly by increasing endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and preventing apoptosis and inflammation. This study provided evidence that rosuvastatin has beneficial effects in reversing the remodeling of the aorta due to hypertension.

14.
Polymers (Basel) ; 12(2)2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024144

RESUMO

Reactive dyes containing cationic groups have great potentiality as novel dyes, which can be applicable to one-bath dyeing of wool/acrylic blended fabrics. In this work, four novel heterocyclic reactive dyes containing cationic groups were designed by using m-aminophenyltrimethylammonium salt or N-(2-aminoethyl) pyridinium chloride salt as cationic groups, N, N-diethyl-1,3-benzenediamine as a coupling component, 2-amino-6-methoxybenzothiazole, 2-aminobenzothiazole or 3-amino-5-nitrobenzoisothiazole as diazo components. These dyes based on benzothiazole derivative chromophores not only showed beautiful color, including blue-green and fuchsia, but also had larger tinctorial strength with a high molar extinction coefficient, further reducing the dosage of dyes to achieve same color depth. Factors affecting the dyeability on fabrics, such as pH value, dyeing temperature and dye concentration were discussed. Excellent dyeing behavior, levelling properties and good fastness on wool/acrylic blended fabric were obtained. What' more, excellent anti-ultraviolet and antibacterial properties were obtained for textiles with these dyes. The application of these dyes with large molar extinction coefficients presents a wide range of possibilities for the further development of cleaner production and eco-friendly dyeing, even functional textiles.

15.
Exp Ther Med ; 19(1): 499-510, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31897097

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease with worldwide prevalence that is associated with a decrease in the number and function of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). The aim of the present study was to explore the potential hub genes of EPCs in patients with type 2 DM. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened from a public microarray dataset (accession no. GSE43950). Pathway and functional enrichment analyses were performed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was visualized. The most significantly clustered modules and hub genes were identified using Cytoscape. Furthermore, hub genes were validated by quantitative PCR analysis of EPCs isolated from diabetic and normal subjects. Subsequently, weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was performed to identify the modules incorporating the genes exhibiting the most significant variance. A total of 970 DEGs were obtained and they were mainly accumulated in inflammation-associated pathways. A total of 9 hub genes were extracted from the PPI network and the highest differential expression was determined for the interleukin 8 (IL8) and CXC chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL1) genes. In the WGCNA performed to determine the modules associated with type 2 DM, one module incorporated IL8 and CXCL1. Finally, pathway enrichment of 10% genes in the pink module ordered by intramodular connectivity (IC) was associated with the IL17 and the chemokine signaling pathways. The present results revealed that the expression of IL8 and CXCL1 may serve important roles in the pathophysiology of EPCs during type 2 DM and inflammatory response may be critical for the reduced number and hypofunction of EPCs isolated from patients with diabetes.

16.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 465(1-2): 103-114, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31858380

RESUMO

MicroRNA-125b (miR-125b) reduces myocardial infarct area and restrains myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (I/R). In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC)-derived exosomes carrying miR-125b on I/R rats. The myocardial I/R model in rats was constructed by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Rats were randomly divided into I/R and Sham group. Lv-cel-miR-67 (control) or Lv-miR-125b was transfected into BMSCs. Exosomes were extracted from transfected BMSCs, and separately named BMSC-Exo-67, BMSC-Exo-125b, and BMSC-Exo. MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to detect the viability and apoptosis of I/R myocardium cells, respectively. The expression of cell apoptosis proteins and the levels of inflammatory factors were examined by Western blot and ELISA assay, respectively. The target relationship between miR-125b and SIRT7 was predicted by using StarBase3.0, and was confirmed by using dual-luciferase reporter gene assay. qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry staining, and Western blot were used to evaluate the expression of SIRT7 in myocardium tissues in I/R rats. BMSC-derived exosomes were successfully isolated and identified by TEM and positive expression of CD9 and CD63. The expression of miR-125b was down-regulated in I/R myocardium tissues and cells. BMSC-Exo-125b significantly up-regulated miR-125b in I/R myocardium cells. The intervention of BMSC-Exo-125b significantly increased the cell viability, decreased the apoptotic ratio, down-regulated Bax and caspase-3, up-regulated Bcl-2, and decreased the levels of IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α in I/R myocardium cells. SIRT7 was a target of miR-125b, and BMSC-Exo-125b significantly down-regulated SIRT7 in myocardium cells. In addition, the injection of BMSC-Exo-125b alleviated the pathological damages and down-regulated SIRT7 in myocardium tissues of I/R rats. BMSC-derived exosomes carrying miR-125b protected against myocardial I/R by targeting SIRT7.


Assuntos
Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Exossomos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , MicroRNAs , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica , Sirtuínas , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Células da Medula Óssea/patologia , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Exossomos/genética , Exossomos/metabolismo , Exossomos/patologia , Exossomos/transplante , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/patologia , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/genética , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/patologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/terapia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sirtuínas/genética , Sirtuínas/metabolismo
17.
Can J Physiol Pharmacol ; 97(10): 945-951, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397599

RESUMO

The aim of our work was to test whether thymosin beta 4 protected endothelial progenitor cells against apoptosis induced by advanced glycation endproducts and investigate the underlying mechanism. Treatment with thymosin beta 4 or transfection with microRNA-34a inhibitor enhanced cell viability, reduced apoptosis, abated oxidative stress, and attenuated mitochondrial dysfunction in endothelial progenitor cells exposed to advanced glycation endproducts. Incubation with advanced glycation endproducts led to increased levels of microRNA-34a, which was attenuated by treatment with thymosin beta 4. Transfection with microRNA-34a reversed the beneficial effect of thymosin beta 4 against injuries induced by advanced glycation endproducts. The microRNA-34a could directly bind to the 3'UTRs of the mRNA of B-cell lymphoma 2, and thymosin beta 4 treatment upregulated B-cell lymphoma 2 expression in endothelial progenitor cells exposed to advanced glycation endproducts. More importantly, knockdown of B-cell lymphoma 2 abolished the protection of thymosin beta 4 and microRNA-34a inhibitor against advanced glycation endproducts. In conclusion, inhibition of microRNA-34a mediated protection of thymosin beta 4 in endothelial progenitor cells against advanced glycation endproducts by targeting B-cell lymphoma 2, which was helpful for understanding the therapeutic potential of thymosin beta 4 for diabetic patients.


Assuntos
Células Progenitoras Endoteliais/patologia , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Timosina/farmacologia , Apoptose/genética , Células Cultivadas , Células Progenitoras Endoteliais/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares , MicroRNAs/antagonistas & inibidores , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Cultura Primária de Células , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
18.
Adv Mater ; 31(35): e1903615, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264306

RESUMO

To date, thousands of publications have reported chemical vapor deposition growth of "single layer" graphene, but none of them has described truly single layer graphene over large area because a fraction of the area has adlayers. It is found that the amount of subsurface carbon (leading to additional nuclei) in Cu foils directly correlates with the extent of adlayer growth. Annealing in hydrogen gas atmosphere depletes the subsurface carbon in the Cu foil. Adlayer-free single crystal and polycrystalline single layer graphene films are grown on Cu(111) and polycrystalline Cu foils containing no subsurface carbon, respectively. This single crystal graphene contains parallel, centimeter-long ≈100 nm wide "folds," separated by 20 to 50 µm, while folds (and wrinkles) are distributed quasi-randomly in the polycrystalline graphene film. High-performance field-effect transistors are readily fabricated in the large regions between adjacent parallel folds in the adlayer-free single crystal graphene film.

19.
Drug Deliv ; 26(1): 604-611, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204848

RESUMO

Intra-tracheal instillation of budesonide using surfactant as a vehicle significantly decreased the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia or death in preterm infants. The formularity of surfactant supplemented with budesonide and biophysical and chemical stability of the suspension has not been well reported. The aims are to investigate the biophysical and chemical stability of two surfactant preparations, Survanta and Curosurf, supplemented with budesonide. Biophysical property of the surface tension of Survanta and Survanta/budesonide suspension and of Curosurf and Curosurf/budesonide suspension was conducted by a pulsating bubble surfactometer and by a drop shape tensiometer. Chemical stability of Survanta/budesonide and of Curosurf/budesonide suspensions was tested by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis (HPLC). Pulmonary distribution of Survanta/18F-budesonide suspension was examined by a Nano/PET digital scan in rats. The Marangoni effect of Survanta, Curosurf, and budesonide was tested by digital high speed photography. For Survanta supplemented with budesonide, with a concentration ratio of ≥50, the surface tension-lowering activity was minimally affected. Similarly, the surface tension-lowering activity of Curosurf was not significantly affected by addition of budesonide, if the concentration ratio was ≥160. With these concentration ratios of both suspensions, HPLC analysis revealed no new compounds identified. Curosurf as compared to Survanta exhibited a significantly higher Marangoni effect. We conclude that with current dosage recommended for Survanta and Curosurf, both surfactant/budesonide suspensions are biophysically and chemically stable. Both surfactants can act as an effective vehicle for budesonide delivery.


Assuntos
Budesonida/química , Budesonida/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Surfactantes Pulmonares/química , Surfactantes Pulmonares/metabolismo , Animais , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/metabolismo , Injeção Intratimpânica/métodos , Masculino , Fosfolipídeos/química , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Tensão Superficial/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 65(4): 101-106, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078159

RESUMO

Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) improve neovascularization and endothelium regeneration. Transplantation with EPCs is a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of ischemic diseases. However, the transplanted EPCs are susceptible to adverse environments such as hypoxia, inflammation and oxidative stress. Oxidative stress-induced apoptosis of transplanted EPCs greatly reduces their therapeutic efficacy. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a highly immunogenic antigen. Recent findings suggest that low dose of LPS pretreatment has protective effect against apoptosis. In this study, the role of LPS in apoptosis of EPCs was investigated. Pretreatment with 1µg/ml LPS prevented oxidative stress-induced EPCs apoptosis and ROS generation, which effects were abolished by TAK-242, a specific TLR4 antagonist. Further investigation of the mechanisms demonstrated that the activation was mediated by TLR4, and that PI3K/Akt/ NF-κB p65 signaling pathway may play a critical role in the process.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Progenitoras Endoteliais/patologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo , Células Progenitoras Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
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