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1.
J Cell Physiol ; 235(1): 611-618, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283007

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. More than 90% of primary HCC is HCC. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and alcohol consumption have been widely accepted as two major risk factors for developing HCC. Herein, we aimed to identify DNA methylation genes related to both HCV infection and alcohol consumption. In this study, we identified methylation genes that were associated with the risk of HCV infection and alcohol consumption, respectively, by a large-scale bioinformatic analysis. Through PPI network analysis, we revealed the associations between the two types of genes and found six hub genes-TAF1, SAT1, Phospholipase C-beta 2, FGD1, ARHGAP4, and ARHGEF9-that may be associated with both HCV infection and alcohol consumption. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis was used to analyze the function which these genes in the network enriched. Among them, TAF1, SAT1, and ARHGEF9 were methylated genes that have been found to be related to tumor progression in HCC patients. Through independent data sets, we verified the methylation pattern of these six genes in HCC samples that had both HCV infection and alcohol consumption risks. Furthermore, we found that three of the six methylated genes were also associated with the prognosis of HCC patients. To summarize, we identified six hub genes that were associated with both HCV infection and alcohol consumption in the progress of HCC. The six methylation genes that might play an important role in both HCV infection and alcohol consumption would be potential therapy targets for HCC.

2.
Toxicol In Vitro ; 62: 104668, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629073

RESUMO

Methamphetamine (MA) has a high uptake in lung, but the precise mechanism of MA-induced lung toxicity remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of MA abuse in remodeling of pulmonary arteries and to explore the possible correlation of the association of the remodeling with the redox imbalance in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group and MA group for the experimental study. We employed H&E staining, western blot, immunofluorescence, knockdown, flow in our experimental approach. Our studies shows that chronic exposure to MA led to weight loss, increased pulmonary arterial pressure, hypertrophy of right ventricle and remodeling of pulmonary arterial wall of rats. Our cell culture study with PASMCs indicates that MA significantly induced the imbalance between proliferation and apoptosis by upregulating the level of PCNA, Bcl-2 and reduction in the expression of BAX and Caspase 3. MA markedly prevented the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 to inhibit antioxidation. The knockdown of Nrf2 expression using siRNA significantly elevated the expression of SOD2/GCS and the production of ROS in PASMCs and even scaled up the amount of PASMCs induced by MA. Linear regression analysis showed that knockdown of Nrf2 promoted the positive correlation of relative ROS level with proliferation of PASMCs. Therefore, chronic exposure to MA induces pulmonary arterial remodeling by Nrf2-mediated imbalance of redox system to aggravate oxidative stress, and Nrf2 is a possible target for the treatment of MA-lung toxicity.

3.
J Cell Physiol ; 235(2): 993-1000, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332778

RESUMO

Cervical cancer is a tumor with the second highest morbidity and mortality in the world, and it is also the most common cancer and the eighth lethal factor among malignant tumors in Chinese female. This study aimed to identify long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) that related to diagnosis and prognosis in cervical cancer to improve early diagnosis and treatment. First, we extracted transcriptome profilings of cervical cancer samples from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) database, and then extracted the lncRNAs and mRNAs expression profiles. Based on the lncRNAs expression profiles of test set, we screened lncRNAs that related to progression of cervical cancer tumors. We found six lncRNAs associated with tumor progression in cervical cancer patients, in which five lncRNAs have highly similar expression patterns but the other one has the opposite expression pattern. We found that these six lncRNAs might be related to keratinization and immunity by enrichment analysis, and two of them (AC126474 and C5orf66-AS1) were associated with prognosis in patients with cervical cancer. And these results were validated using the validation set. Overall, we identified six lncRNAs that played an important role in the development of cervical cancer, and two of them might be associated with the prognosis of cervical cancer, which provides new insight into the diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer.

4.
J Cell Physiol ; 235(2): 1700-1710, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456244

RESUMO

This study aimed to explore the roles of miR-214 and MALAT1 rs619586 polymorphism in the control and survival of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) via Cox regression analyses. The levels of MALAT1, miR-214, and CTNNB1 in different experimental groups were compared to study the interaction among MALAT1, miR-214, and CTNNB1. MTT and colony assays were used to investigate the role of rs619586 polymorphism in cell growth. The G allele of rs619586 polymorphism obviously decreased the 5-year survival of patients with DTC. Additionally, compared with AA-genotyped patients, patients carrying the AG/GG genotypes of MALAT1 rs619586 polymorphism showed much higher levels of DTC grade and CTNNB1 expression, along with lower levels of MALAT1 and miR-214 expression. Furthermore, the transcription activity of MALAT1 was significantly lowered by the rs619586G allele or miR-214 mimic, while the miR-214 inhibitor upregulated the luciferase activity of MALAT1. Additionally, miR-214 inhibited CTNNB1 expression by targeting CTNNB1 3'-untranslated region. Finally, the G allele of MALAT1 rs619586 polymorphism apparently promoted cell proliferation. Our study indicated that miR-214 inhibited MALAT1 expression by directly binding to the G allele of MALAT1 rs619586 polymorphism, thus inhibiting CTNNB1 expression and promoting cell proliferation in the pathogenesis of DTC. Therefore, MALAT1 rs619586 polymorphism could be used to predict the prognosis of DTC.

5.
J Cell Biochem ; 121(1): 574-586, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407410

RESUMO

The NAD-dependent deacetylase Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) plays a vital role in leukemogenesis. Nicotinamide (NAM) is the principal NAD+ precursor and a noncompetitive inhibitor of SIRT1. In our study, we showed that NAM enhanced the sensitivity of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) to doxorubicin (DOX) via SIRT1. We found that SIRT1 high expression in CML patients was associated with disease progression and drug resistance. Exogenous NAM efficiently repressed the deacetylation activity of SIRT1 and induced the apoptosis of DOX-resistant K562 cells (K562R) in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, the combination of NAM and DOX significantly inhibited tumor cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis. The knockdown of SIRT1 in K562R cells enhanced NAM+DOX-induced apoptosis. SIRT1 rescue in K562R reduced the NAM+DOX-induced apoptosis. Mechanistically, the combinatory treatment significantly increased the cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP in K562R in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest the potential role of NAM in increasing the sensitivity of CML to DOX via the inhibition of SIRT1.

6.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124700, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524602

RESUMO

An eight-year field trial was conducted to investigate the effects of four different N fertilization treatments of urea (CO(NH2)2, the control), ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4), ammonium chloride (NH4Cl), and ammonium hydrogen phosphate [(NH4)2HPO4]) on cadmium (Cd) phytotoxicity in rice and soil microbial communities in a Cd-contaminated paddy of southern China. The results demonstrate that the different N treatments exerted different effects: the application of (NH4)2HPO4 and (NH4)2SO4 significantly increased rice grain yield and decreased soil-extractable Cd content when compared with those of the control, while NH4Cl had a converse effect. Expression of genes related to Cd uptake (IRT and NRAPM genes) and transport (HMA genes) by roots may be responsible for Cd phytotoxicity in rice grown in the different N fertilization treatments. Our results further demonstrate that N fertilization had stronger effects on soil bacterial communities than fungal communities. The bacterial and fungal keystone species were identified by phylogenetic molecular ecological network (pMEN) analysis and mainly fell into the categories of Gammaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria for the bacterial species and Ascomycota for the fungal species; all of these keystone species were highly enriched in the (NH4)2HPO4 treatment. Soil pH and soil available-Cd content emerged as the major determinants of microbial network connectors. These results could provide effective fertilizing strategies for alleviating Cd phytotoxicity in rice and enhance the understanding of its underlying microbial mechanisms.

7.
Life Sci ; 239: 116882, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705915

RESUMO

AIMS: Free fatty acids (FFA) is a key contributor to insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. However, the precise mechanism underlying the role of FFA remains elusive. This study aimed to investigate the role of NLRP3 (NOD-like receptor pyrin domain containing-3) inflammasome in FFA induced endothelial dysfunction. MAIN METHODS: HUVECs were transfected with NLRP3 siRNA and then stimulated with LPS and palmitate. C57 BL/6 J mice transfected with NLRP3 Lenti-Virus were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD). The levels of NLRP3 inflammasome, AMPKα (AMP-activated protein kinase), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and the activity of the insulin signal pathway, in endothelial cells were determined via Western blotting. Endothelial function was determined by measuring the level of endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. KEY FINDINGS: FFA could activate NLRP3 inflammasome and induce IL-1ß release both in vitro. and in vivo. Using siRNA and Lenti-Virus to inhibit NLRP3 abolished palmitate-induced IL-1ß release and restored impaired phosphorylation of IRS-1 (Tyr), Akt (Ser473) and eNOS (Ser1177) and ACh-mediated endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation induced by palmitate. AMPKα activator AICAR(5-aminoimidazole-4-carbox-amide-1-ß-d-ribofuranoside) inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation and decreased IL-1ß release and restored impaired insulin signal pathway induced by palmitate. SIGNIFICANCE: NLRP3 inflammasome activation via AMPKα inactivation mediated palmitate-induced endothelial dysfunction through involves IL-1ß-induced insulin signal pathway.

8.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696999

RESUMO

To assess the spectrum of pediatric clinical phenotypes in TJP2 disease, we reviewed records of our seven patients in whom intrahepatic cholestasis was associated with biallelic TJP2 variants (13; 12 novel) and correlated clinical manifestations with mutation type. The effect of a splicing variant was analyzed with a minigene assay. The effects of three missense variants were analyzed with protein expression in vitro. Our patients had both remitting and persistent cholestasis. Three exhibited growth retardation. Six responded to treatment with cholestyramine, ursodeoxycholic acid, or both. Two had cholecystolithiasis. None required liver transplantation or developed hepatocellular or cholangiocellular malignancy. None manifested extrahepatic disease not attributable to effects of cholestasis. The variant c.2180-5T>G resulted in exon 15 skipping with in-frame deletion of 32 amino acid residues in TJP2. The three missense variants decreased but did not abolish TJP2 expression. Patients with truncating or canonical splice-site variants had clinically more severe disease. TJP2 disease in children includes a full clinical spectrum of severity, with mild or intermittent forms as well as the severe and minimal forms hitherto described. Biallelic TJP2 variants must be considered in children with clinically intermittent or resolved intrahepatic cholestasis.

9.
J Mater Chem B ; 7(46): 7406-7414, 2019 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710067

RESUMO

Photoimmunotherapy has attracted much attention recently for the treatment of metastatic tumors. The development of smart nanocomposites for imaging-guided therapies is needed to improve the efficacy of cancer treatment. Herein, a PEGylated nanocomposite was developed for photothermal-immunotherapy. In particular, this nanocomposite was formulated by hybridizing Fe3O4 nanoparticles (FNPs) with reduced-graphene oxide (rGO) through electrostatic interaction, modified by PEG-NH2 on the surface of FNPs/rGO. The FNPs/rGO-PEG nanocomposites are excellent agents for photothermal therapy (PTT) under irradiation by an 805 nm laser. This nanocomposite could promote the activity of the host antitumor immune response efficiently because of the reduction of tumor-associated macrophages by the incorporation of FNPs. In our experiments, we observed FNPs/rGO-PEG based PTT induced immunogenic cell death accompanied by the release of danger-associated molecular patterns. We also found that FNPs/rGO-PEG + laser irradiation of animal tumors could activate dendritic cells (DCs) in tumor draining lymph nodes. In vivo antitumor studies revealed that FNPs/rGO-PEG nanocomposites, when combined with laser irradiation, could result in desirable photothermal effects and destroy primary tumors. Moreover, intratumoral injection of FNPs/rGO-PEG nanocomposites into 4T1 orthotopic mouse breast tumors, in combination with near-infrared laser irradiation, significantly increased the median survival time of tumor-bearing animals. FNPs/rGO-PEG nanocomposites could also be used for magnetic resonance imaging, which may lead to a MRI-guided photothermal-immunotherapy for metastatic cancers. This study could lead to a cancer treatment strategy that combines PTT with immunotherapies using FNPs/rGO-PEG nanocomposites.

10.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 877, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cadmium (Cd) is a serious heavy metal (HM) soil pollutant. To alleviate or even eliminate HM pollution in soil, environmental-friendly methods are applied. One is that special plants are cultivated to absorb the HM in the contaminated soil. As an excellent economical plant with ornamental value and sound adaptability, V. bonariensis could be adapted to this very situation. In our study, the Cd tolerance in V. bonariensis was analyzed as well as an overall analysis of transcriptome. RESULTS: In this study, the tolerance of V. bonariensis to Cd stress was investigated in four aspects: germination, development, physiological changes, and molecular alterations. The results showed that as a non-hyperaccumulator, V. bonariensis did possess the Cd tolerance and the capability to concentration Cd. Under Cd stress, all 237, 866 transcripts and 191, 370 unigenes were constructed in the transcriptome data of V. bonariensis roots. The enrichment analysis of gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway revealed that differentially expressed genes (DEGs) under Cd stress were predominately related to cell structure, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging system, chelating reaction and secondary metabolites, transpiration and photosynthesis. DEGs encoding lignin synthesis, chalcone synthase (CHS) and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) were prominent in V. bonariensis under Cd stress. The expression patterns of 10 DEGs, validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), were in highly accordance with the RNA-Sequence (RNA-Seq) results. The novel strategies brought by our study was not only benefit for further studies on the tolerance of Cd and functional genomics in V. bonariensis, but also for the improvement molecular breeding and phytoremediation.

11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726135

RESUMO

The study aimed to explore the protective effects of Inonotus obliquus polysaccharide (IOP) on adverse pregnancy caused by Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection and discover its potential mechanisms in pregnant mice. Our data showed that IOP significantly reduced the abortion rate, inhibited the decreases of progesterone (P) and estriol (E3) levels and the increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) level, and increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH). In addition, IOP inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-1ß and IL-17A; and promoted the production of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß in T. gondii-infected pregnant mice. Furthermore, IOP effectively up-regulated the expression of forkhead box (Fox)p3, whereas down-regulated the expressions of retinoic acid-related orphan receptor (ROR)γt, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 and toll-like receptor (TLR)4, and inhibited the phosphorylations of nuclear factor-κappaB (NF-κB) p65 and inhibitor kappa(Iκ)Bα in placental tissues with T. gondii-infected mice. These findings demonstrate that IOP exerts protective effects against adverse pregnancy caused by T. gondii infection in mice by promoting the balance of T helper (Th)17/regulatory T (Treg) through regulating TLR4/NF-κB pathway.

12.
Psychol Health Med ; : 1-17, 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752538

RESUMO

We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the quality of life (QoL) of the empty-nest elderly in China. We searched five databases up to 20 November 2018, to identify all studies on the QoL of empty-nest elderly in China. Twenty-nine were included in the final review. Compared with the control group, the physiological function, psychological function, social function and total score of QoL of empty nests were lower than those of non-empty nests. In addition, meta-analysis showed that the empty nesters were lower than the non-empty nesters in General Health, Role Physical, Bodily Pain, Role Emotional and Vitality. The existing evidence showed that the QoL of the empty-nest elderly in China was to some extent lower than that of the non-empty nest elderly.

13.
Biomed Chromatogr ; : e4757, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755125

RESUMO

The Er-zhi-pill is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with many clinical applications and uses as a health product in East Asia. We screened out five active ingredients (salidroside, specnuezhenide, nuezhenoside, luteolin, and oleanolic acid) from Er-zhi-pill to develop an in vitro rapid evaluation method for classification of in-vivo drug absorption behavior by biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS). Ultra-performance liquid chromatography was used for quantitative analysis. Solubility and permeability were assayed by equilibrium solubility and multiple models: everted rat intestinal sac model, cultured Caco-2 cells, octanol-water partition coefficient (Log P) method. The BCS properties of drugs were predicted with software applications and the correlations of measured and predicted values of factors affecting oral drug absorption were calculated. The results were verified by measuring the absolute bioavailability of the active ingredients. Salidroside, specnuezhenide, and nuezhenoside were classified as BCS class III drugs, and luteolin was classified as a BCS class III/I drug because of the difference in LogP and intestinal permeability. Oleanolic acid was classified as a BCS class II/IV drug in acidic media and BCS class I/III in other media. Overall, Er-Zhi-Wan may be classified as a BCS class III drug, and permeability was identified as the primary factor limiting absorption. The results provide a novel method for evaluation of the in-vivo absorption of oral TCMs.

14.
Bioengineered ; 10(1): 548-560, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668126

RESUMO

The episomal vector cannot integrate into the host cell chromosome, which has no potential risk in gene therapy. However, the low level of transgene expression driven by episomal vectors needs to be solved. In this study, we investigated the effects of enhancers, promoters and promoter variants on transgene expression levels driven by episomal vectors in HEK293, Chang liver and primary cells. Results showed that all eight cis-acting elements used could increase transfection efficiency and transient eGFP expression in transfected HEK293 and Chang liver cells. In stably transfected mammalian cells, the elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) promoter and mutant-404 showed high and stable transgene expression. The mechanisms might be related to the type and quantity of transcription factor regulatory elements. Moreover, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that mRNA expression levels were not directly proportional to protein expression levels. Furthermore, the EF-1α promoter conferred high transgene expression levels in primary cells, and the plasmid was also present in the episomal state. Taken together, these results provided valuable information for improving transgene expression with episomal vectors in mammalian cells.

15.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 41(5): 646-657, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699195

RESUMO

Objective To summarize the characteristics of Chinese coccidioidomycosis cases, improve the diagnosis and treatment of this disease and prevent misdiagnosis as well as therapeutic error.Methods Search in databases including Medline,Wanfang,and CNKI using "Coccidioidomycosis" and "China" as index words yielded 23 articles that reported a total of 32 Chinese coccidioidomycosis cases.In addition,one patient with disseminated coccidioidomycos was treated in our center in April 2016.The demographic data,site of infection,clinical manifestations,past medical history,exposure history,imaging and laboratory findings,and pathological features of these 33 patients were analyzed.Results Among these 33 patients,7(21.2%)had visited an epidemic area and 6(18.2%)were immunocompromised.The disease involved the respiratory system,skin,bone,central nervous system,cornea,and stomach in 24,6,3,2,1,and 1 patients,respectively.Eight patients (24.2%) had multiple system involvement,and three of them died.The imaging findings included pulmonary nodules(n=14),mediastinal lymphadenopathy(n=5),solid shadow(n=4),cavity(n=4),pleural effusion(n=3),multiple plaques(n=2)and masses(n=2).Coccidiolys cysts were detected in the affected tissues(n=28)or in pus,exudate or pleural smear(n=3);in addition,coccidioides mycelium and spores were found in the sputum,pus,and tissue cultures in 4 cases,among whom only 2 cases were confirmed by serological examination.The treatments included triazoles(n=20),systemic or local administration of amphotericin B(n=13),surgical resection of the lesion(n=8),and intravenous gamma globulin(n=1).Five patients died,among whom three had underlying diseases that caused immunosuppression and one was an infant.The prognoses were relatively good in the remaining patients.Conclusions Early diagnosis and proper treatment can achieve good prognosis in coccidioidomycosis patients.Multi-system involvement and immunosuppression are risk factors for poor prognosis of coccidioidomycosis.For these patients,adequate and full-course medication may prevent rapid disease progression.


Assuntos
Coccidioidomicose/diagnóstico , Coccidioidomicose/patologia , China , Coccidioides , Coccidioidomicose/terapia , Humanos , Prognóstico
16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2019 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743714

RESUMO

Interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) restrict infection by several viruses, such as influenza A virus, West Nile virus and dengue virus. It has not been determined whether porcine IFITM (pIFITM) inhibits infection by pseudorabies virus (PRV), an enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus, which is the etiological agent of Aujeszky's disease in pigs. Here, we report that PRV infection elicited pIFITM1 expression in PK15 porcine kidney epithelial cells and 3D4/21 alveolar macrophages. pIFITM2 and pIFITM3 expression was only elevated in PK15 cells during PRV infection. Depletion of pIFITM1 using RNA interference, either in PK15 or in 3D4/21 cells, enhanced PRV infection while overexpression of pIFITM1 had the opposite effect. Knockdown of pIFITM2 and pIFITM3 did not influence PRV infection, suggesting that pIFITM2 and pIFITM3 are independent of PRV infection. PRV-induced pIFITM1 expression was dependent on the cGAS/STING/TBK1/IRF3 innate immune pathway and interferon-alpha receptor-1, suggesting that pIFITM1 is up-regulated by the type I interferon signaling pathway. The anti-PRV role of pIFITM1 was inhibited upon PRV entry. Our data demonstrate that pIFITM1 is a host restriction factor that inhibits PRV entry that may shed light on a strategy for prevention of PRV infection.

17.
Brain Res Bull ; 2019 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743748

RESUMO

Curtailment of sleep in modern society leads to a spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of sleep deprivation (SD) remain elusive and currently there is no effective therapy to alleviate these effects. Here, we aimed to examine SD-induced cellular and molecular alterations in mouse prefrontal cortex (PFC) and whether subchronic citalopram (CTM) treatment can negate these alterations. Three-month-old C57BL/6 J mice were divided into control (Ctrl), SD, CTM alone and CTM + SD groups. CTM and CTM + SD group mice were treated with CTM for five consecutive days at a dose of 10 mg/kg per day before the experimental procedure. SD and CTM + SD group mice were sleep-deprived for 24 h using an automated treadmill method. We found that 24 h SD causes a marked reduction in the levels of phosphorylated calcium/calmodulin kinase II (pCaMKII), phosphorylated cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (pCREB) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in mouse PFC. Patch clamp recording of pyramidal neurons from acute PFC slices revealed that SD decreases the amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs), suggesting a SD-induced postsynaptic alteration. Interestingly, subchronic CTM treatment prevents such SD-induced reductions in pCaMKII, pCREB and BDNF levels, and in mEPSC amplitude. These data suggest that CTM offers neuroprotection against SD-induced molecular and electrophysiological alterations.

18.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712257

RESUMO

The relationship of genotypes to phenotypes can be modified by environmental inputs. Such crucial environmental inputs include metabolic cues derived from microbes living together with animals. Thus, the analysis of genetic effects on animals' physiology can be confounded by variations in the metabolic profile of microbes. Caenorhabditis elegans exposed to distinct bacterial strains and species exhibit phenotypes different at cellular, developmental, and behavioral levels. Here we reported metabolomic profiles of three Escherichia coli strains, B strain OP50, K-12 strain MG1655, and B-K-12 hybrid strain HB101, as well as different mitochondrial and fat storage phenotypes of C. elegans exposed to MG1655 and HB101 versus OP50. We found that these metabolic phenotypes of C. elegans are not correlated with overall metabolic patterning of bacterial strains, but their specific metabolites. In particular, the fat storage phenotype is traced to the betaine level in different bacterial strains. HT115 is another K-12 E. coli strain that is commonly utilized to elicit an RNA interference response, and we showed that C. elegans exposed to OP50 and HT115 exhibit differences in mitochondrial morphology and fat storage levels. We thus generated an RNA interference competent OP50 (iOP50) strain that can robustly and consistently knockdown endogenous C. elegans genes in different tissues. Together, these studies suggest the importance of specific bacterial metabolites in regulating the host's physiology and provide a tool to prevent confounding effects when analyzing genotype-phenotype interactions under different bacterial backgrounds.

19.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 311: 108333, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669927

RESUMO

Large amounts of tomato fruits and derived products are produced in China and may be contaminated by Alternaria mycotoxins, which may have the potential risks for human health. There is thus an increasing interest in reducing the mycotoxins. In the present study, 26 Alternaria strains isolated from tomato black rots were identified according to morphological and molecular grounds, and their mycotoxigenic abilities for alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl-ether (AME) and tenuazonic acid (TeA) were also investigated. The results showed that A. alternate was the predominant species with incidence values of 65.4% (17/26), followed by A. brassicae (7/26) and A. tenuissima (2/26). A. alternate isolates showed the highest capacity for AOH, AME and TeA production among the studied isolates either in vitro or in vivo, suggested that A. alternata may be the most important mycotoxin-producing species in tomato fruits. Thus, UV-C irradiation was used to reduce the mycotoxin produced by A. alternata in our study. The results showed that low dose of UV-C irradiation (0.25 kJ/m2) could effectively inhibit mycotoxins production and penetration in tomatoes. Upon treatment with UV-C, there was 79.6, 76.4 and 51.4% of reduction in AOH, AME and TeA penetration when compared to untreated fruits. This may be associated with the enhanced phenolics by UV-C irradiation. In fact, the induced phenolics were including p-coumaric, ferulic and pyrocatechuic acids, of which p-coumaric acid (1.0 mM) displayed the highest reduction of TeA with 60.2%, whereas ferulic acid (1.0 mM) showed strong inhibitory effects on the AOH and AME production by 59.4 and 79.1%, respectively. Therefore, the application of UV-C irradiation seems to be a promising method for reducing the potential risk of Alternaria mycotoxins in fruits and also for enhancing phenolics of processing products.

20.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-8, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680553

RESUMO

Two new norsesquiterpenoids, dioscopposin A (1) and dioscopposin B (2), as well as 21 known compounds (3-23) were isolated from the stems and leaves of Dioscorea oppositifolia L. Their structures were elucidated by detailed analysis of comprehensive spectroscopic data. The absolute configurations were deduced by the comparison of experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism spectra. Estrogenic activity of all the isolated compounds were evaluated using MCF-7 cells proliferation assay and compounds 2, 3, 7, 13, 15, 16, 18 and 21 exhibited proliferation activity.

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