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1.
Microb Drug Resist ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013730

RESUMO

Background: Septicemia in children in mainland China has recently become a public health concern. Methods: A meta-analysis was performed on studies investigating the prevalence of cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from children with septicemia in mainland China from 2007 to 2017 following a search of relevant databases. Results: A total of 43 articles reporting 11 cephalosporins were included in the review. The results of the meta-analysis revealed that for the first-generation cephalosporins, the pooled summarized prevalence of resistance to cefazolin was 74.96% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 64.79-83.91) and cephalothin resistance was 62.28% (95% CI: 36.45-100). Regarding the second-generation cephalosporins, cefoxitin-resistant E. coli comprised 23.85% (95% CI: 10.60-40.40) and cefuroxime resistance was 60.32% (95% CI: 51.25-68.73). For the third-generation cephalosporins, the pooled summarized prevalence of resistance was 51.34% for cefotaxime (95% CI: 40.08-62.54), 40.43% for ceftazidime (95% CI: 31.07-50.15), 45.51% for cefoperazone (95% CI: 20.41-70.61), 12.10% for cefoperazone/sulbactam (95% CI: 6.55-18.76), 62.99% for ceftriaxone (95% CI: 55.00-70.98), and 0% for cefotetan. Among the fourth-generation cephalosporins, resistance to cefepime was 34.08% (95% CI: 25.91-43.31). Conclusions: Most third-generation cephalosporins (e.g., cefotaxime and ceftriaxone) retained high resistance rates throughout the 11-year study period without significant changes. The new fourth-generation cephalosporin, cefepime, is rapidly gaining resistance. Interestingly, ceftazidime, cefepime, and cefoperazone/sulbactam showed a recent decreasing trend of drug resistance. These situations may present a risk for treating children with septicemia and should be closely monitored and treated.

2.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228388, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Amphenicols have been widely used in the pig industry in China, leading to varying degrees of drug resistance. METHODS: The systematic review was performed according to PRISMA (Preferred Reported Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) recommendations on studies investigating the prevalence of amphenicol-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolated from pig in mainland China from 2000 to 2018, a random-effects model was selected, then followed by meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 103 articles were included in the study. The results of the meta-analysis revealed that the pooled summarized prevalence of resistance to chloramphenicol (CAP) was 72.31% (95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 67.12%-77.23%) and to florfenicol (FF) was 58.64% (95% CI = 52.48%-64.67%). During the past 18 years, the resistance rate to CAP remained high initially but then declined rapidly after 2012, whereas the resistance rate to FF plateaued (54.13%-59.60%) from 2000-2018. In different parts of China, the rate of resistance to amphenicols among E. coli isolates was fairly consistent, with the exception of the north and northwest regions. CONCLUSIONS: In 2002, the veterinary use of CAP was prohibited and its resistance levels in E. coli isolated from pigs was initially maintained at a high level but then showed an obvious downward trend in recent years. Resistance to commonly used FF remained at a high but stable level.

3.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 39(10): 1160-1165, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801715

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of occlusal interference on the afferent pathway of the trigeminal nerve and neuronal excitability in the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (SPVC) of rats by electrical stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion (TG) and extracellular recordings of SPVC activities. METHODS: Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group and model group (n=10). In the model group, occlusal interference for 30 consecutive days was induced using light-cured flowable resin on the right maxillary molars. During occlusal interference, the pain sensitivity was scored with von Frey Fibers in the masseter. Simultaneous recordings of electrical activities from the SPVC, electrocardiogram, body temperature and electromyogram of the breath muscles of the anesthetized rats were performed, and the responses evoked by electrical stimulation of the TG were analyzed. RESULTS: Compared with the control rats, the rats in the model group showed significantly increased pain sensitivity scores (P < 0.05) and increased spontaneous discharge frequency of the SPVC (P < 0.05). The amplitude of the SPVC responses induced by electrical stimulation of the TG showed stimulus intensity-dependent changes (P < 0.05), and the amplitude evoked by 4 mA and 8 mA stimulation was similar between the model group and the control group (P>0.05). Train stimulation (0.2 ms, 1 mA, 30 s, 100 Hz) of the TG significantly increased the discharge frequency of the SPVC only in the rats in the model group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The functional activities of the pain afferent pathway of the trigeminal nerve can be electrophysiologically monitored by electrical stimulation of the TG and extracellular recordings of SPVC activities in rats. Occlusal interference can increase the excitability of the neurons in the SPVC and enhance their sensitivities to TG afferent activation, suggesting the neural plasticity of the pain afferent pathway.


Assuntos
Vias Aferentes , Medição da Dor , Limiar da Dor , Dor/fisiopatologia , Nervo Trigêmeo/fisiologia , Animais , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Núcleos do Trigêmeo
4.
Molecules ; 24(23)2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810277

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the effect of applying stimulatory agents to liquid cultured Inonotus obliquus on the simultaneous accumulation of exo-polysaccharides (EPS) and their monosaccharide composition. Different stimulatory agents (VB6, VB1, betulin and birch extract) were investigated for their effects on active exo-polysaccharides by submerged fermentation of I. obliquus. The mycelial biomass, reducing sugar content, EPS yield and α-glucosidase inhibition rate were determined, and the EPS obtained was analyzed for monosaccharide composition. The results showed that the addition of all the four stimulatory agents could significantly increase the inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase of EPS than the control, whereas EPS from 4 µg/mL VB1-containing medium had the best effect with an estimated IC50 value 24.34 µg/mL. Among the four stimulatory agents, VB6 gave maximum production of mycelial biomass and EPS at the concentration of 4 µg/mL with a increase of 50.79% and 114.46%, respectively. In addition, betulin had a significant effect on increasing the EPS yield and activity, and birch extract had a significantly stimulatory effect on the mycelial growth and the polysaccharides activity, only slightly worse than VB6 and VB1. Moreover, the addition of different stimulatory agents changed the monosaccharide composition of polysaccharides, which had a correlation with polysaccharide activity.

5.
Molecules ; 24(15)2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387205

RESUMO

In the early stage, the best conditions for alkali-bound ozone pretreatment were studied. But after treatment, the alkaline black liquor was directly discarded due to the large amount of organic matter, resulting in environmental pollution and waste of resources. In this paper, the alkaline black liquor was recycled under the optimal pretreatment conditions. The results showed that the number of alkaline black liquor cycles had little effect on hemicellulose content, and had a great influence on cellulose content and lignin content. Through structural characterization of corn stover, it was found that the pretreatment caused structural changes of lignin in straw. However, when the alkaline black liquor was recycled for the fourth time, the ether bond in the side chain of lignin and the covalent bond between the components were not sufficiently destroyed, and the damage to the phenolic hydroxyl group was also weakened. It was indicated that when the alkaline black liquor was recycled for the fourth time, the destruction effect of the alkaline black liquor on the straw was significantly inhibited. Therefore, the optimal circulation time of alkaline black liquor was three times, and the cellulolytic conversion rate was 81.53%.


Assuntos
Álcalis/química , Ozônio/química , Zea mays/química , Celulose/química , Hidrólise , Lignina/química , Reciclagem , Análise Espectral , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
EPMA J ; 10(2): 185-193, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31258822

RESUMO

The red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is a simple and inexpensive laboratory parameter that can be linked to oxidative stress, inflammation and microvascular flow resistance. For this research, we performed a large-sample case-control study to describe the relationships between the RDW and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG). A total of 1191 PACG patients (422 males and 769 females), who were divided into mild, moderate and severe PACG groups, and 982 healthy controls (344 males and 638 females) were recruited between January 2008 and June 2018. Detailed eye and physical examinations were performed for each subject. Based on the laboratory results, the mean RDW was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in the PACG group (13.01 ± 0.82%) than in the control group (12.65 ± 0.53%). Moreover, the mean RDW level was lower (p < 0.05) in the mild PACG group than in the moderate and severe PACG groups. The Pearson correlation analyses showed significant positive correlations between the mean deviation and the RDW (r = 0.141, p < 0.001) and the intraocular pressure and the RDW (r = 0.085, p = 0.004). After adjusting for the confounding factors, the logistic regression analyses indicated that the odds ratio for the PACG group was 2.318 (p < 0.001, 95% confidence interval 1.997, 2.690) when compared to the control group. Additionally, an increased RDW was associated with the PACG severity, and this trend was also observed in the gender and age subgroups. In summary, the results of our study showed that an elevated RDW was associated with PACG and its severity. If future studies confirm this relationship, the use of an RDW assessment may help to predict the PACG severity in each patient in order to better customise effective prevention treatments.

8.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 19(5): 1309-1321, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077549

RESUMO

The black rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii) is a teleost in which eggs are fertilized internally and retained in the maternal reproductive system, where they undergo development until live birth (viviparity). In the present study, we report a chromosome-level black rockfish genome assembly. High-throughput transcriptome analysis (RNA-seq and ATAC-seq) coupled with in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunofluorescence reveal several candidate genes for maternal preparation, sperm storage and release, and hatching. We propose that zona pellucida (ZP) proteins retain sperm at the oocyte envelope, while genes in two distinct astacin metalloproteinase subfamilies serve to release sperm from the ZP and free the embryo from chorion at prehatching stage. We present a model of black rockfish reproduction, and propose that the rockfish ovarian wall has a similar function to the uterus of mammals. Together, these genomic data reveal unprecedented insights into the evolution of an unusual teleost life history strategy, and provide a sound foundation for studying viviparity in nonmammalian vertebrates and an invaluable resource for rockfish ecological and evolutionary research.


Assuntos
Cromossomos , Evolução Molecular , Nascimento Vivo , Perciformes/genética , Perciformes/fisiologia , Animais , Biologia Computacional , Genômica/métodos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular
9.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 71(2): 261-270, 2019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31008485

RESUMO

It was reported that α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) knockout (α7 KO) mice showed few functional phenotypes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of α7 KO on the electrophysiological characteristics of hippocampus in mice. The effect of α7 KO on hippocampal CA3-CA1 synaptic transmission in mice was evaluated by standard extracellular field potential recordings. The electrophysiological phenotype of γ-aminobutyrate A receptors (GABAA-Rs) of single hippocampal neuron was detected by perforated patch-clamp recordings. The results showed that, the slope of field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) and carbachol-induced theta oscillation were significantly decreased in the hippocampal CA1 neurons of α7 KO mice, compared with those of wild type mice. Under the treatment of GABAA-R agonist muscimol, the I-V curves of both the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 neurons of α7 KO mice shifted towards depolarizing direction obviously, compared with those of wild type mice. These results suggest that the hippocampal CA3-CA1 synaptic transmission in α7 KO mice was significantly impaired and GABAA-R maturation was significantly delayed, indicating that the deletion of α7-nAChR gene could significantly change the electrophysiological function of the hippocampus. The results may provide a new understanding of the role of α7-nAChR in hippocampal function and associated diseases.


Assuntos
Hipocampo/citologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Transmissão Sináptica , Receptor Nicotínico de Acetilcolina alfa7/fisiologia , Animais , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Fenótipo
10.
Handb Exp Pharmacol ; 255: 85-107, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30689086

RESUMO

With the approval of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and CGRP receptor monoclonal antibodies by the Federal Drug Administration, a new era in the treatment of migraine patients is beginning. However, there are still many unknowns in terms of CGRP mechanisms of action that need to be elucidated to allow new advances in migraine therapies. CGRP has been studied both clinically and preclinically since its discovery. Here we review some of the preclinical data regarding CGRP in animal models of migraine.


Assuntos
Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Animais , Calcitonina , Humanos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Animais , Receptores de Peptídeo Relacionado com o Gene de Calcitonina/metabolismo
11.
J Environ Manage ; 232: 364-371, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30496966

RESUMO

In this study, tire tread (TT) and side wall (SW) of waste tire were separately used as feedstocks for pyrolysis treatment, and the resulting chars were thoroughly characterized to exploit the potential applications. Analytic results show that the SW contained higher fixed carbon (27.55%) and carbon content (82.30%) than those of TT (15.21% and 56.56% respectively). TGA results indicated that 400-600 °C is the main decomposition temperature range for both feeds. The char yields showed a declining trend and stabilized at 500 °C, and higher char yield of TT was achieved than that of SW. Meanwhile, the chars from TT showed a high surface area (121.47 m2/g) than that of SW (44.72 m2/g), which could be a good adsorbent or an activated carbon precursor. FT-IR results showed that leading surface functional group of TT-500 was C-O/C-O-C from alcohols, ketones or ether, whereas SW-500 from phenols, alcohols and carboxylic acids. When compared with commercial products, SW-500 showed better properties than those of a carbon black (N660, 10 µm) in terms of carbon quality and ash content. This study suggested that by pyrolyzing the distinct sections of the waste tire is a promising approach to produce chars for more specific applications.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Pirólise , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
12.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2019: 3042-3045, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31946529

RESUMO

Neuroplasticity plays an important role in the recovery of injured nervous system. Both motor imagery (MI) and functional electrical stimulation (FES) can promote plasticity by activating the sensorimotor cortex. Specifically, MI as control strategy to activate FES in a brain computer interface (BCI) is a promising approach for motor functions recovery. This study demonstrated the efficiency of somatosensory input provided by electrical stimulation (ES) on cortical activation during MI. And the performance of classifiers with time-varying electroencephalography (EEG) features also be probed. We inspected the cortical activation by EEG for three experiment conditions, i.e. ES during MI, MI and ES. And the classification accuracy of three conditions were discussed respectively. Results showed that the ES during MI could induce stronger cortical activation than the other two conditions, and the classifier with time-varying EEG features had a higher classification accuracy. The results demonstrated that MI-based BCI combined MI and ES which fulfills two properties of somatosensory input and time-varying features is an available approach for motor neural rehabilitation.

13.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2019: 6762-6765, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31947393

RESUMO

Motor imagery based brain-computer interface (MI-BCI) is one of the most common paradigms utilized in neurofeedback training (NFT) for rehabilitation engineering. Specifically, finding an appropriate feedback protocol is significantly important to improve the effectiveness of the motor training system. To this end, we investigated the electroencephalography(EEG) oscillatory patterns measured by event-related desynchronization (ERD) when sixteen participants accepted the visual and proprioceptive stimulation achieving the kinematic hand grasping movements at three different speeds (i.e. 1/3 Hz, 2/3 Hz and 1 Hz). The EEG results indicated that the ERD patterns showed no significant difference in sensorimotor cortex (i.e. C3 and FC3 channels) by comparing the three conditions. Nevertheless, the 2/3 Hz stimulation speed could achieve a significantly better classification performance than the other two conditions across all participants. Therefore, the visual and proprioceptive electrical stimulation achieving the kinematic hand grasping at 2/3 Hz speed might provide an available approach for the online MI-BCI system based NFT system in the future.

14.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 38(9): 1045-1051, 2018 Aug 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30377105

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of ß2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (ß2-nAChR) in the development of γ- aminobutyric acid A type receptors (GABAA-Rs) in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons of mice. METHODS: The hippocampal CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons were acutely isolated from ß2-nAChR gene knockout (ß2-KO group) mice. GABA currents in CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons were induced with the selective GABAA-R agonist muscimol and recorded using perforated patch-clamp recording technique. The GABA currents of CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons were tested for their equilibrium potentials (EMuss) and kinetic parameters and were compared with the measurements in wild-type mice (WT group). RESULTS: The mean EMus of CA1 neurons (n=7) of ß2-KO mice (n=4) was -31.7±3.5 mV, showing an obvious depolarizing shift compared with the WT mice (P < 0.05); the mean EMus of CA3 neurons (n=4) was -16.1±4.6 mV, also showing a depolarizing shift (P < 0.01). The difference in the EMuss between CA3 and CA1 neurons in ß2-KO mice, but not in WT mice, was significant (P < 0.05). The GABAA-R desensitization was significantly slowed down in both CA1 and CA3 neurons of ß2-KO mice, with decay time of 2.2±0.2 s and 3.2±0.1 s, respectively, significantly longer than those in WT mice (1.6±0.1 s and 2.3±0.1 s, respectively; P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: ß2-containing nAChRs may promote the functional maturation of GABAA-R in CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cells in mouse hippocampus.


Assuntos
Região CA1 Hipocampal/fisiologia , Região CA3 Hipocampal/fisiologia , Hipocampo/citologia , Células Piramidais/fisiologia , Receptores de GABA-A/fisiologia , Receptores Nicotínicos/fisiologia , Animais , Região CA1 Hipocampal/efeitos dos fármacos , Região CA3 Hipocampal/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciais Evocados , Agonistas de Receptores de GABA-A/farmacologia , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Camundongos , Muscimol/farmacologia , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Células Piramidais/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Nicotínicos/genética
15.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 102(19): 8511-8524, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30088019

RESUMO

Persisters represent a small bacterial population that is dormant and that survives under antibiotic treatment without experiencing genetic adaptation. Persisters are also considered one of the major reasons for recalcitrant chronic bacterial infections. Although several mechanisms of persister formation have been proposed, it is not clear how cells enter the dormant state in the presence of antibiotics or how persister cell formation can be effectively controlled. A fatty acid compound, cis-2-decenoic acid, was reported to decrease persister formation as well as revert the dormant cells to a metabolically active state. We reasoned that some fatty acid compounds may be effective in controlling bacterial persistence because they are known to benefit host immune systems. This study investigated persister cell formation by pathogens that were exposed to nine fatty acid compounds during antibiotic treatment. We found that three medium chain unsaturated fatty acid ethyl esters (ethyl trans-2-decenoate, ethyl trans-2-octenoate, and ethyl cis-4-decenoate) decreased the level of Escherichia coli persister formation up to 110-fold when cells were exposed to ciprofloxacin or ampicillin antibiotics. RNA sequencing analysis and gene deletion persister studies elucidated that these fatty acids inhibit bacterial persistence by regulating antitoxin HipB. A similar persister cell reduction was observed for pathogenic E. coli EDL933, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, and Serratia marcescens ICU2-4 strains. This study demonstrates that fatty acid ethyl esters can be used to disrupt bacterial dormancy to combat persistent infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Antitoxinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Ésteres/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/metabolismo , Ciprofloxacino/farmacologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolismo , Serratia marcescens/efeitos dos fármacos , Serratia marcescens/metabolismo
16.
Chem Biol Interact ; 293: 61-69, 2018 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30055129

RESUMO

A facile method of assembling oxindole and phthalide units through a Lewis based catalyzed allylic alkylation reaction of Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonates of isatins and 3-cyanophthalides was recently developed. The method efficiently delivers a hybrid of 3,3'-disubstituted oxindole with a valuable phthalide pharmacophore. In the present study, we proved the deleterious effects of 5h2c, a screened synthesis compound, against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in both in vitro and in vivo models. 5h2c strongly decreased cell viability, caused over-release of lactate dehydrogenase, inhibited cell migration, and enhanced the apoptosis rate in HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells. 5h2c led to an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species levels and a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. In HepG2-and PLC/PRF/5-xenograft tumor mouse models, treatment with 5h2c inhibited tumor growth without affecting the animals' bodyweight or organ functions. Proteome profiling of tumor tissues after 24-h exposure to 5h2c showed significantly enhanced expression levels of Bcl-2 associated X protein, cleaved caspase -3, -8, and -9, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), heme oxygenase-2, paraoxonase 2, catalase, and factor associated suicide ligand, and reduced the expression levels of B-cell lymphoma-2, B-cell lymphoma-extra large, heat shock protein 27, heat shock protein 60, and heat shock protein 70 in HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells. All of our data confirmed that oxidative stress-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis (especially the Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway) is responsible for 5h2c-induced HCC damage.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Chalconas/farmacologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Caspases/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Chalconas/química , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
17.
Biotechnol Lett ; 40(9-10): 1271-1287, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29968134

RESUMO

Gram-negative bacilli such as Pseudomonas spp., Pseudoalteromonas sp., Angiococcus sp., Archangium sp., Burkholderia spp., Chromobacterium sp., Chondromyces sp., Cystobacter sp., Jahnella sp., Janthinobacterium sp., Lysobacter spp., Paraliomyxa sp., Photobacterium spp., Photorhabdus sp., Pontibacter sp., Ruegeria sp., Serratia sp., Sorangium sp., Sphingomonas sp., and Xenorhabdus spp. produce an enormous array of short peptides of 30 residues or fewer that are potential pharmaceutical drugs and/or biocontrol agents. The need for novel lead antibiotic compounds is urgent due to increasing drug resistance, and this review summarises 150 Gram-negative bacilli-derived compounds reported since 2000, including 40 cyclic lipopeptides from Pseudomonas spp.; nine aromatic peptides; eight glycopeptides; 45 different cyclic lipopeptides; 24 linear lipopeptides; eight thiopeptides; one lasso peptide; ten typical cyclic peptides; and five standard linear peptides. The current and potential therapeutic applications of these peptides, including structures and antituberculotic, anti-cyanobacterial, antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, insecticidal, and antiprotozoal activities are discussed.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/química , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/biossíntese , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/metabolismo , Lipopeptídeos/química , Lipopeptídeos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos Cíclicos/química , Peptídeos Cíclicos/farmacologia
18.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 70(2): 99-105, 2018 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29691573

RESUMO

Apelin is a novel endogenous active peptide. The aim of this study is to investigate whether apelin in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) can improve the cardiac function in rats subjected to thoracic surgery trauma, and whether it is involved in the protective effect of electro-acupuncture (EA). Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into non-stressed group (control), thoracic surgical trauma stressed group (trauma) and bilateral Neiguan EA applied on thoracic surgical trauma stressed group (trauma + EA-PC 6). The mRNA expressions of apelin receptor (APJR) and apelin in the PVN were detected by real time-PCR. The exogenous apelin-13 (6 mmol/L, 0.1 µL) was microinjected into the rat PVN in the thoracic trauma group, and the effects of apelin-13 on the blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and the discharge of rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) neurons were observed through the simultaneous recording technology by polygraph. The results showed that the APJR mRNA expression was significantly decreased in the rats of trauma group as compared with that in the control group (P < 0.05), and a decline trend of apelin mRNA expression was also observed. EA application at bilateral Neiguan acupoints partially recovered the decline of APJR and apelin mRNA expression by the treatment of thoracic trauma. Both mean arterial pressure and HR in the thoracic surgical trauma group were significantly increased by the microinjection of exogenous apelin-13 into the PVN (P < 0.05), and the single-unit discharge rate of RVLM neurons also had an increasing trend. These results suggest that apelin in the PVN can improve the cardiac function of thoracic surgical trauma rats, and may be involved in the protective effects of EA.


Assuntos
Apelina/fisiologia , Eletroacupuntura , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular/fisiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Torácicos , Animais , Receptores de Apelina/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Frequência Cardíaca , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/administração & dosagem , Bulbo/fisiologia , Neurônios , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
19.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 70(1): 9-16, 2018 Feb 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29492509

RESUMO

To observe the plasticity changes of trigeminal motor nucleus (Mo5) and masseter H-reflex in unilateral mastication model rats and explore the possible mechanism of functional plasticity in motor center involved in unilateral mastication, 54 adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 1-month (n = 10), 3-month (n = 10), and 16-month (n = 7) model groups and their corresponding control groups, respectively. Unilateral mastication model rats were prepared by intermittent removal of clinical crowns of left teeth (model side). Rats were anesthetized (20% urethane, i.p.), and bilateral Mo5 were chosen to conduct extracellular recordings, while bilateral electromyography (EMG) of masseter muscle and its H-reflex were simultaneously recorded by a polygraph. It was observed that the firing rate of Mo5 neurons in model sides was significantly lower than that of right sides in 3 model groups, and that of left sides in their control groups. The response latency of Mo5, which was evoked by electrical stimulation of masseter nerve in model sides of 1-month and 3-month model groups, was significantly longer than that of left sides in their control groups. Moreover, the amplitude of H-wave in model sides of 3-month and 16-month model groups was lower than that of left sides in their control groups when H-reflex was evoked by electrical stimulation of left masseter nerve. These results suggest that unilateral mastication in model rats decreases the Mo5 neuron excitability, and this may be one of the functional plasticity mechanisms in motor center involved in unilateral mastication.


Assuntos
Músculo Masseter/fisiologia , Mastigação , Plasticidade Neuronal , Núcleo Motor do Nervo Trigêmeo/fisiologia , Animais , Estimulação Elétrica , Eletromiografia , Masculino , Neurônios Motores , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
20.
Exp Ther Med ; 15(4): 3633-3638, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29545893

RESUMO

Gloeostereum incarnatum, a precious edible mushroom, displays anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities; however, its immunomodulatory effect has not been studied yet. The present study aimed to investigate whether polysaccharide compositions of G. incarnatum polysaccharides (GIPS) possess immunomodulatory and immuno-enhancing effects in a Cyclophosphamide monohydrate (CTX)-induced BALB/c mice model. The 28-day GIPS administration at doses of 0.1, 0.3 and 0.9 g/kg remarkably reversed the bodyweight loss, increased the thymic index and promoted T lymphocyte proliferation in CTX-induced immunosuppressed mice. GIPS significantly raised the serum levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)A and IgG, promoted the production of interleukins (ILs), including IL-2, IL-3 and IL-6, interferons, including interferon (IFN)-α and IFN-γ, and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 in the spleen, which resulted in accelerating recovery of immunosuppression. Finally, GIPS showed anti-oxidative effects indicated by the increased superoxide dismutase levels in the serum and spleen, and the reduced level of reactive oxygen species in the spleen. The results of the current study demonstrated that GIPS positively adjusts the immune system, which may serve as a potential immunostimulatory agent.

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