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1.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 2934315, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047807

RESUMO

This study aimed to compare the quality of human spermatozoa vitrified by direct plunging into liquid nitrogen vs. liquid air. Spermatozoa were divided into three groups: fresh spermatozoa (Group F) were used as a control. Spermatozoa suspension (20 µl) was vitrified in open granules by direct dropping into liquid nitrogen (Group LN) or clean liquid air (Group LA). After warming at 37°C, the progressive motility rate of Group F was reduced from 65.9 ± 2.5% to 34.0 ± 1.9% (Group LN) and 38.1 ± 2.3% (Group LA), respectively (P1-2,3 < 0.05). The reductions in viability were 65.6 ± 2.2%, 29.0 ± 1.8%, and 36.6 ± 2.6% for Groups F, LN, and LA, respectively (P1-2,3 < 0.05). Comparing spermatozoa vitrified in liquid nitrogen vs. liquid air, no significant differences were detected in motility (34.0 ± 1.9% vs. 38.1 ± 2.3%), viability (29.0 ± 1.8% vs. 36.6 ± 2.6%), early apoptosis (13.8 ± 1.5% vs. 14.3 ± 1.8%), late apoptosis (45.5 ± 1.8% vs. 43.7 ± 2.2%), and necrosis (19.5 ± 2.0% vs. 15.0 ± 1.8%; p > 0.01 for all respective differences). There was a statistical tendency for increasing rates of "progressive motility" and "viability" and decreasing rates of "apoptosis" and "necrosis" when comparing spermatozoa vitrified in liquid air vs. liquid nitrogen. It is concluded that cryoprotectant-free vitrification by the direct dropping of human spermatozoa in a clean cooling agent (liquid air) is a good alternative to the use of nonsterile liquid nitrogen and can be used to cool cells while minimising the risk of microbial contamination.

2.
J Diabetes Res ; 2020: 8278574, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016123

RESUMO

Objective: The genetic variant rs2237895, located in the Potassium Voltage-Gated Channel Subfamily Q Member 1 (KCNQ1) gene, has been replicated to be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) susceptibility, but the relationship with lipids is conflicting. Furthermore, the common genetic predisposition to T2DM and lipids was not fully detected. Methods: In total, 5839 individuals (2220 were T2DM patients) across 2885 families were included. The effect of rs2237895 on T2DM and lipids was estimated using linear regression and logistic regression models after adjustment for multiple covariates. Mediation analysis was then used to test whether KCNQ1 participated in T2DM pathogenesis via lipid-mediated pathways. Results: Per allele-C of rs2237895 was associated with 17% (11-23%, P < 0.001) increased T2DM risk. Moreover, it was correlated with 5% (1-9%, P < 0.001) increased T2DM risk. Moreover, it was correlated with 5% (1-9%, P < 0.001) increased T2DM risk. Moreover, it was correlated with 5% (1-9%, P < 0.001) increased T2DM risk. Moreover, it was correlated with 5% (1-9%, P < 0.001) increased T2DM risk. Moreover, it was correlated with 5% (1-9%, P < 0.001) increased T2DM risk. Moreover, it was correlated with 5% (1-9%. Conclusion: KCNQ1 had pleiotropic effects on lipids and T2DM, and the unexpected genetic effect on association of HDL-C with T2DM was observed, indicating the different pathways to lipids and T2DM. Further research studies are needed to verify potential biological mechanisms.

3.
Int J Neurosci ; : 1-15, 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064985

RESUMO

Oxidative stress has emerged as a key deleterious factor in brain ischemia and reperfusion. Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway has been shown to be functionally implicated in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke. However, the role of JAK2/STAT3 pathway in postischemic oxidative injury remains to be fully elucidated. In this study, we sought to test the hypothesis that oxidative stress injury in ischemic brains and H2O2-treated mouse neuroblastoma Neuro-2a cells (N2a) was related to STAT3 activation. The present results exhibited that 8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) content and STAT3 protein phosphorylation level were significantly increased after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. H2O2 treatment inhibited the cell viability, induced the apoptosis, and further raised pSTAT3 protein level in N2a cells. Moreover, the addition of AG490, the protein inhibitor of JAK2, significantly alleviated cerebral ischemic damage in vivo and H2O2-induced injury in vitro, and JAK2 siRNA also alleviated H2O2-induced injury in N2a cell. These findings suggest that JAK2/STAT3 pathway may play a crucial role in mediating reactive oxidative species (ROS)-induced cell injury in rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model and N2a cells. ROS scavenging and down-regulation of STAT3 activation might be a candidate design of therapeutic strategies against oxidative stress-related neurological diseases.

4.
Chemosphere ; 249: 126120, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062209

RESUMO

We examined the main effects of ambient particulate matters, as well as whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), located within ABO gene would modify the relationship. Data were collected from a family-based study conducted in Northern China. A generalized additive model with a Gaussian link and with each family as a stratum was applied to estimate the percentage change in blood lipid levels following a 10 µg/m3 increase in ambient particulate matter concentrations. Interaction analyses were conducted by including a cross-product term of PM2.5 or PM10 by SNP. Results showed that a 10 µg/m3 increase in Particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5) concentrations corresponded to the highest 0.010% (95% CI: 0.002%-0.018%), 0.018% (95% CI: 0.006%-0.029%), 0.019% (95% CI: 0.010%-0.029%) increase in total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), respectively and 0.005% (95% CI: 0.002%-0.008%) decrease in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)-to-LDL-C ratio. As for the PM10, similar results were observed. Furthermore, our finding showed an interaction effect of PM10 and rs505922/rs579459 C allele on TG. Specifically, individuals carrying the rs505922 and rs579459 T allele have higher TG concentrations following PM10 exposure, with a 10 µg/m3 increase in PM10 concentrations corresponding to the highest 0.028% and 0.034% increase in TG, respectively. In conclusion, short-term exposures to ambient particulate matters are associated with a higher blood lipid level, which can be modified by ABO polymorphism. The findings may be useful in identifying vulnerable population according to genetic background.

5.
Mol Plant Pathol ; 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027079

RESUMO

RNA interference is a biological process whereby small RNAs inhibit gene expression through neutralizing targeted mRNA molecules. This process is conserved in eukaryotes. Here, recent work regarding the mechanisms of how small RNAs move within and between organisms is examined. Small RNAs can move locally and systemically in plants through plasmodesmata and phloem, respectively. In fungi, transportation of small RNAs may also be achieved by septal pores and vesicles. Recent evidence also supports bidirectional cross-kingdom communication of small RNAs between host plants and adapted fungal pathogens to affect the outcome of infection. We discuss several mechanisms for small RNA trafficking and describe evidence for transport through naked form, combined with RNA-binding proteins or enclosed by vesicles.

6.
Clin J Pain ; 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977369

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to investigate the correlations between the minimum effective volume (MEV) of lidocaine 1.5% for an ultrasound-guided popliteal sciatic nerve block (PSNB) and individual factors including the cross-sectional nerve area, sex, age, body mass index (BMI) and the depth of the sciatic nerve and to evaluate the safety of combined femoral and sciatic nerve blocks by monitoring the plasma concentration of local anesthetics (LAs). METHODS: Forty patients received combined single-shot femoral and continuous sciatic nerve blocks. The femoral nerve block was performed with an in-plane technique and 15▒mL of lidocaine 1.5%. A continuous peripheral nerve block annular tube was positioned between the tibial and peroneal nerves inside the paraneural sheath. Thirty minutes after the femoral nerve block, a loading dose of 5▒mL of lidocaine 1.5% was given to block the sciatic nerve after obtaining the maximum compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitude using nerve conduction studies (NCSs). Additional lidocaine 1.5% was pumped at a rate of 30▒mL/h through the indwelling annular tube if after 8 minutes, the CMAP amplitude was still present. The CMAP amplitude monitored by the NCSs and pinprick tests were recorded every 2 minutes after the administration of lidocaine 1.5%. When the CMAP amplitude decreased to nearly 0▒mV, this MEV was recorded. The influences of the cross-sectional area of the sciatic nerve, sex, age, BMI and the depth of the sciatic nerve on the MEV were analyzed using stepwise multiple linear regression. Blood samples were collected from ten patients to evaluate the safety of combined femoral and sciatic nerve blocks by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Blood was drawn at 0 minutes before femoral nerve injection, 0 minutes before sciatic nerve injection, 8 minutes after sciatic nerve injection and 0, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, and 120 minutes after the pumping of lidocaine 1.5% stopped. RESULTS: A significant correlation was found between the MEV of lidocaine 1.5% and the cross-sectional area of the sciatic nerve (r=0.459), with a regression equation of the MEV (mL)=5.969 + 0.095× (the cross-sectional area of the sciatic nerve). The coefficient of determination was 0.211 (P<0.05). The MEV of lidocaine 1.5% for complete sciatic nerve blocks ranged from 7 to 15▒mL. The maximum concentrations of lidocaine, monoethylglycinexylidide (MEGX) and glycinexylidide (GX) were 1672.9 (227.6), 265.7 (32.7) and 42.2 (22.4) ng/mL, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There is a positive correlation between the cross-sectional area of the sciatic nerve and the MEV. The regression equation can help to predict the MEV of lidocaine 1.5% for PSNBs. The maximum concentrations of lidocaine and its metabolites did not approach toxic threshold limits in this study.

7.
Environ Int ; 136: 105498, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991238

RESUMO

Few large multicity studies have assessed acute effect of tropospheric ozone pollution on pneumonia risk. We aimed to examine the relation between day-to-day changes in ozone concentrations and hospital admissions for pneumonia in China. We conducted a national time-series study in 184 major Chinese cities from 2014 to 2017. City-specific relation between ozone concentrations and pneumonia admissions was evaluated using an over-dispersed generalized additive model. Random-effects meta-analysis was conducted to pool the city-specific estimates. Two-pollutant models were fitted to test the robustness of the relations. We also investigated potential effect modifiers. Overall, we observed increased admissions for pneumonia associated with ozone exposure. The national-average estimates per 10-µg/m3 increase in ozone were 0.14% (95% CI: 0.03%-0.25%) at lag 0 day in the whole year, 0.30% (95% CI: 0.17%-0.43%) at lag 0 day in the warm season, and 0.20% (95% CI: 0.05%-0.34%) at lag 1 day in the cool season. Two-pollutant models indicated that the ozone effects were not confounded by PM2.5, SO2, NO2 or CO. The association between ozone and pneumonia was stronger in the elderly. Ozone levels and gross domestic product per capita reduced the effects of ozone, and smoking enhanced the effects of ozone. In conclusion, we estimated an increase in daily pneumonia admissions associated with ozone exposure in China. As the first national study in China to report acute effect of ozone on pneumonia hospitalizations, our findings are incredibly meaningful in terms of both ozone pollution related policy development and pneumonia prevention.

8.
Int J Biometeorol ; 64(1): 139-144, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754771

RESUMO

Limited evidence was seen as the association between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and physician visits for allergic rhinitis (AR), especially in countries with extreme air pollution exposure. This paper addressed the issues about the association between PM2.5 and daily outpatient visits for AR among individuals residing in Beijing, China. Data on daily outpatient visits for AR obtained from Beijing Medical Claim Data for Employees and daily PM2.5 concentrations available from US embassy reports were linked by date from January 1, 2010, to June 30, 2012. A time-series analysis was conducted with a generalized additive Poisson model to assess the association between PM2.5 and AR, adjusting for daily average temperature, relative humidity, day of the week, calendar time, and public holiday. Totally, 229,685 outpatient visits for AR were included in the analysis. The daily mean (SD) concentration of PM2.5 was 99.5 (75.3) µg/m3 during the study period. We found that a 10-µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 content was associated with a 0.47% (95% CI: 0.39% to 0.55%) increase in the number of outpatient visits on the same day. Furthermore, results from subgroup analyses suggested that the association was consistently significant among the groups of different ages (< 65 years and ≥ 65 years) and gender. However, this study failed to find a statistically significant association in the autumn season but found significant positive associations during the spring and summer seasons (P for interaction < 0.001). This study indicated a possible association between PM2.5 and AR outpatients, which may benefit further researches in studying PM2.5 and its influence on diseases in a real and seriously air-polluted context.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Rinite Alérgica , Pequim , China , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Material Particulado
9.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 149: 111847, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733487

RESUMO

A promising electrochemical system was explored for DNA methylation detection according to the construction of a signal-on biosensor. Based on the ingenious design of probe DNA and auxiliary DNA, methylated target DNA triggered the exonuclease III (Exo III) digestion of auxiliary DNA from 3'-terminus, resulting in the conformational change of probe DNA with an electroactive methylene blue (MB) tag at 5'-terminus. Consequently, the MB tag in the probe DNA was close to the electrode surface for electron transfer, generating an increased current signal. Because of the target recycling of methylated DNA, significant signal amplification was obtained. Moreover, bisulfite conversion conferred an efficient approach for the universal analysis of any CpG sites without the restriction of specific DNA sequence. As a result, the target DNA with different methylation statuses were clearly recognized, and the fully methylated DNA was quantified in a wide range from 10 fM to 100 pM, with a detection limit of 4 fM. The present work realized the assay of methylated target DNA in serum samples with satisfactory results, illustrating the application performance of the system in complex sample matrix.

10.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 189, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying subjects with a high risk of ischemic stroke is fundamental for prevention of the disease. Both genetic and environmental risk factors contribute to ischemic stroke, but the underlying epigenetic mechanisms which mediate genetic and environmental risk effects are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to explore whether DNA methylation loci located in the ATP-binding cassette G1 (ABCG1) and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genes, both involved in the metabolism of lipids in the body, are related to ischemic stroke, using the Fangshan/Family-based Ischemic Stroke Study in China. We also tested if these CpG sites were associated with early signs of cardiovascular atherosclerosis (carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), ankle-brachial index (ABI), and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV)). RESULTS: DNA methylation at the cg02494239 locus in ABCG1 was correlated with ischemic stroke after adjusting for gender, previous history of diabetes and hypertension, smoking, drinking, body mass index, and blood lipid levels (above vs below mean, OR = 2.416, 95% CI 1.024-5.700, P = 0.044; 75-100% percentile vs 0-25% percentile, OR = 4.461, 95% CI 1.226-16.225, P = 0.023). No statistically significant associations were observed for the cg06500161 site in ABCG1 and the cg14123992 site in APOE with ischemic stroke. The study detected that hypermethylation of the ABCG1 gene was significantly associated with cIMT, hypermethylation of the APOE gene was significantly related to ABI, and methylation of the APOE gene was statistically negatively correlated with baPWV. The above relationships demonstrated gender differences. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that epigenetic modification of ABCG1 and APOE may play a role in the pathway from disturbed blood lipid levels to the development of cardiovascular diseases. Future prospective validation of these findings is warranted.

11.
J Epidemiol ; 2019 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A little evidence was found about the association between diabetes and respiratory diseases mortality among Japanese populations. We aimed to explore the association between diabetes and the risk of respiratory diseases mortality through a nationwide prospective study in Japan. METHODS: 95,056 participants (39,925 men and 55,131 women) were followed up for median 17.1 years. The information about diabetes status, sociodemographic characteristics, and lifestyles was collected at baseline. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of mortality from respiratory diseases associated with baseline diabetes status. RESULTS: We identified 2,838 deaths from total respiratory diseases (1,759 respiratory infection, 432 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and 647 other respiratory diseases). The association between diabetes and total respiratory diseases mortality was statistically significant among women (HR=1.81, 95% CI, 1.39-2.37) but of borderline statistical significance in men (P for interaction<0.01). Besides, there were significant associations between diabetes and mortality from respiratory infection among both men and women (HR=1.39, 95% CI, 1.10-1.76; HR=2.30, 95% CI, 1.71-3.11; P for interaction<0.001). However, we failed to detect any statistically significant association between diabetes and COPD mortality. Moreover, the subgroup analysis revealed that the association between diabetes and total respiratory diseases mortality was stronger in never smokers when compared with ever smokers (P for interaction=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Significant association was observed between diabetes and the risk of total respiratory diseases mortality in particular from respiratory infection. Prevention and control of respiratory diseases, especially respiratory infection should be paid more attention among people with diabetes in clinical and public health practice.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842325

RESUMO

With the development of the economy in China, the tourism industry has become a form of daily entertainment for citizens. Commercial pedestrianized blocks have been designed as recreational centers for tourists, serving as outdoor public space and scenic spots. The use of these regions is directly determined by the outdoor thermal environment. So far, few studies have been conducted on tourists' thermal experience in commercial pedestrianized blocks, especially in the hot and humid region of southern China. Using field measurement and numerical simulation of a commercial pedestrianized block in Fo Shan, China, to research tourists' thermal experience under different conditions, the final results of this study could help to select the most suitable time for tourist travel and help local managers to improve the thermal environment.

13.
Small ; 15(52): e1905903, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769588

RESUMO

Metal anodes, such as zinc and bismuth have been regarded as ideal materials for aqueous batteries due to high gravimetrical capacity, high abundance, low toxicity, and intrinsic safety. However, their translation into practical applications are hindered by the low mass loading (≈1 mg cm-2 ) of active materials. Here, the multiscale integrated structural engineering of 3D scaffold and active material, i.e., bismuth is in situ intercalated in reduced graphene oxide (rGO) wall of network, are reported. Tailoring the rapid charge transport on rGO 3D network and facile access to nano- and microscale bismuth, the rGO/Bi hybrid anode shows high utilization efficiency of 91.4% at effective high load density of ≈40 mg cm-2 , high areal capacity of 3.51 mAh cm-2 at the current density of 2 mA cm-2 and high reversibility of >10 000 cycles. The resulting Ni-Bi full battery exhibits high areal capacity of 3.13 mAh cm-2 at the current density of 2 mA cm-2 , far outperforming the other counterpart batteries. It represents a general and efficient strategy in enhancing the battery performance by designing hierarchically networked structure.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758513

RESUMO

PURPOSE: High progesterone is associated with low implantation rate. Our previous study demonstrated that DNA methylation in endometrium was increased in women with high progesterone in IVF cycles. However, the DNA methylation status is still not yet confirmed, and how it affects endometrial receptivity in high progesterone is still unknown. Current study investigated the effects of high progesterone on DNA methylation and gene expression of adhesion molecules on endometrium during implantation window. METHODS: A cohort study included 20 women with high progesterone (HP) and 20 with normal progesterone (NP) on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration after controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in IVF cycle. Endometrial tissues were collected on the 7th day after hCG administration. Immunohistochemical staining of DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1 and DNMT3B) and adhesion molecules (MUC1, CDH1 and CTNNB1) were performed. Methylation of MUC1, CDH1, and CTNNB1 promoter regions was detected by Sequenom MassARRAY or bisulfite sequencing PCR. RT-qPCR was used to quantify mRNA expression levels, and correlation of methylation and gene expression level of the adhesion molecules were determined. RESULTS: DNMT3B, but not DNMT1, in nucleus of luminal and glandular epithelial cells in HP group was significantly higher than that in NP group. Promoter regions of CDH1 and CTNNB1, but not MUC1, in endometrium of HP group were hypermethylated. Protein and mRNA expression of MUC1, CDH1, and CTNNB1 in endometrium of HP group was significantly lower than that in NP group. Level of DNA methylation was negatively correlated with the gene expression of CDH1 and CTNNB1, but not MUC1. CONCLUSIONS: DNA hypermethylation and low expression of adhesion molecules on endometrium were associated with high progesterone during implantation window, which may contribute to the underlying epigenetic mechanism in the failure of IVF treatment.

15.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 38(1): 427, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A promising strategy to overcome the chemoresistance is the tumor blood vessel normalization, which restores the physiological perfusion and oxygenation of tumor vasculature. Thalidomide (Thal) has been shown to increase the anti-tumor effect of chemotherapy agents in solid tumors. However, it is not yet known whether the synergistic effect of Thal combined with other cytotoxic drugs is attributable to tumor vascular normalization. METHODS: We used two homograft mice models (4 T1 breast tumor model and CT26 colorectal tumor model) to investigate the effect of Thal on tumor growth, microvessel density, vascular physiology, vascular maturity and function, drug delivery and chemosensitivity. Immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry and scanning electron microscopy were performed to determine the vessel changes. Protein array assay, qPCR and western blotting were used to detect the molecular mechanism by which Thal regulates tumor vascular. RESULTS: Here we report that Thal potently suppressed tumor growth, angiogenesis, hypoxia, and vascular permeability in animal models. Thal also induced a regular monolayer of endothelial cells in tumor vessels, inhibiting vascular instability, and normalized tumor vessels by increasing vascular maturity, pericyte coverage and endothelial junctions. The tumor vessel stabilization effect of Thal resulted in a decrease in tumor vessel tortuosity and leakage, and increased vessel thickness and tumor perfusion. Eventually, the delivery of cisplatin was highly enhanced through the normalized tumor vasculature, thus resulting in profound anti-tumor and anti-metastatic effects. Mechanistically, the effects of Thal on tumor vessels were caused in part by its capability to correct the imbalance between pro-angiogenic factors and anti-angiogenic factors. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide direct evidence that Thal remodels the abnormal tumor vessel system into a normalized vasculature. Our results may lay solid foundation for the development of Thal as a novel candidate agent to maximize the therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs for solid tumors.

16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(40): e17411, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577753

RESUMO

Evidence on the prescription patterns of antihypertensive drug use in children and adolescents in China is scarce. A descriptive analysis of the Beijing Medical Claim Data, which covered over 95% of the urban residents, was conducted to investigate antihypertensive prescribing patterns and trends in children and adolescents aged under 18 from 2009 to 2014 in Beijing, China. An additional meta-analysis of trends in hypertension prevalence was conducted to compare trends with antihypertensive medications.A total of 11,882 patients received at least 1 prescription for antihypertensive drugs from 2009 to 2014. The number of annual antihypertensive users increased from 2009 to 2012, then declined steadily until 2014, which was consistent with the trend of the hypertension prevalence estimated from the meta-analysis. ß-receptor blockers, thiazide diuretics, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors were the 3 most commonly prescribed antihypertensive drugs. More boys took the antihypertensive drugs than girls. For users aged under 3 years, thiazide diuretics, α-receptor blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors were the most prescribed drugs, while ß-receptor blockers, thiazide diuretics were the most used drugs for users above 3 years.In conclusion, antihypertensive drug prescribing for children and adolescents increased from 2009 to 2014, with different characteristics in different subgroups.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/classificação , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Pequim , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Lactente , Masculino , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
ACS Sens ; 4(10): 2615-2622, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507174

RESUMO

A highly sensitive and selective biosensing system was designed to analyze DNA methylation using a dual-signal readout technique in combination with the signal amplification of supersandwich DNA structure. Through the ingenious design of target-triggered cascade of hybridization chain reaction, one target DNA could initiate the formation of supersandwich structure with multiple signal probes. As a result, one-to-multiple amplification effect was achieved, which conferred high sensitivity to target molecular recognition. Based on probe 1 labeled with ferrocene and probe 2 modified with methylene blue, the target DNA was clearly recognized by two electrochemical signals at independent potentials, which was helpful for the acquisition of more accurate detection results. Taking advantage of bisulfite conversion, the methylation status of cytosine (C) was changed to nucleic acid sequence status, which facilitated the hybridization-based detection without enzymatic reaction. Consequently, the methylated DNA was detected at the femtomolar level with satisfactory analytical parameters. The proposed system was effectively used to assess methylated DNA in human blood serum samples, illuminating the possibility of the sensing platform for applications in disease diagnosis and biochemistry research.

18.
Glycoconj J ; 36(6): 451-459, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478096

RESUMO

Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) is an endemic degenerative osteoarthropathy of uncertain etiology. Our study sought to identify a correlation between small proteoglycans decorin and biglycan expression and Kashin-Beck Disease. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess the decorin and biglycan levels in cartilage specimens from both child KBD patients, and rats fed with T-2 toxin under a selenium-deficient condition. Real-time PCR and Western blot were used to assess mRNA and protein levels of decorin and biglycan in rat cartilages, as well as in C28/I2 chondrocytes stimulated by T-2 toxin and selenium in vitro. The result showed that decorin was reduced in all zones of KBD articular cartilage, while the expression of biglycan was prominently increased in KBD cartilage samples. Increased expression of biglycan and reduced expression of decorin were observed at mRNA and protein levels in the cartilage of rats fed with T-2 toxin and selenium- deficiency plus T-2 toxin diet, when compared with the normal diet group. Moreover, In vitro stimulation of C28/I2 cells with T-2 toxin resulted in an upregulation of biglycan and downregulation of decorin, T-2 toxin induction of biglycan and decorin levels were partly rescued by selenium supplement. This study highlights the focal nature of the degenerative changes that occur in KBD cartilage and may suggest that the altered expression pattern of decorin and biglycan have an important role in the onset and pathogenesis of KBD.

19.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(10): e00872, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) is a common birth defect with complex etiology. One strategy for studying the genetic risk factors of NSCL/P is to consider gene-gene interaction (G × G) among gene pathways having a role in craniofacial development. The present study aimed to investigate the G × G among cell adhesion gene pathway. METHODS: We carried out an interaction analysis of eight genes involved in cell adherens junctions among 806 NSCL/P Chinese case-parent trios originally recruited for a genome-wide association study (GWAS). Regression-based approach was used to test for two-way G × G interaction, while machine learning algorithm was run for exploring both two-way and multi-way interaction that may affect the risk of NSCL/P. RESULTS: A two-way ACTN1 × CTNNB1 interaction reached the adjusted significance level. The single nucleotide polymorphisms pair composed of rs17252114 (CTNNB1) and rs1274944 (ACTN1) yielded a p value of .0002, and this interaction was also supported by the logic regression algorithm. Higher order interactions involving ACTN1, CTNNB1, and CDH1 were picked out by logic regression, suggesting a potential role in NSCL/P risk. CONCLUSION: This study suggests for the first time evidence of both two-way and multi-way G × G interactions among cell adhesion genes contributing to the NSCL/P risk.

20.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(8): 561, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332165

RESUMO

The elevated level of the amino acid metabolite homocysteine (Hcy) is known as a risk factor for ischemic stroke. The molecular mechanisms responsible for neurotoxicity of Hcy remain largely unknown in ischemic brains. The previous studies have shown that Hcy decreases the proliferation and viability of neural stem cells (NSCs) in vivo and in vitro. Autophagy is required for the maintenance of NSCs homeostasis. In the current study, we hypothesized that the toxic effect of Hcy on NSCs may involve the changes in autophagy level following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. The results showed that Hcy reduced cell viability, increased LDH release, and induced nonapoptotic cell death in primary NSCs exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation)/reoxygenation (OGD/R). Treatment with autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3MA) partly reversed the decrease in the viability and prevented LDH release triggered by Hcy combined with OGD/R. Increased punctate LC3 dots co-localizing with Nestin-stained NSCs were also observed in the subventricular zone of Hcy-treated MCAO animals, which were partially blocked by 3MA. In vitro studies further revealed that Hcy induced the formation of autophagosomes, markedly increased the expression of the autophagic markers and decreased p-ERK, p-PI3K, p-AKT, and p-mTOR levels. In addition, MHY1485, an activator of mTOR, reduced Hcy-induced increase in LC3 and Beclin 1 protein levels, meanwhile ERK and PI3K activators (TPA, curcumin for ERK and IGF-1 for PI3K, respectively) enhanced Hcy-triggered mTOR inhibition in OGD/R NSCs. Our findings suggest that Hcy may cause excessive autophagy by downregulation of both PI3K-AKT- and ERK- dependent mTOR signaling, thereby facilitates the toxicity of Hcy on NSCs in ischemic brains.

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