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1.
J Org Chem ; 87(1): 644-651, 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34949087

RESUMO

The asymmetric total syntheses of (+)-5-epi-schisansphenin B and the proposed structure of (+)-15-hydroxyacora-4(14),8-diene have been accomplished from 1,3-cyclopentadione (10) in eight synthetic steps. The enantioselective palladium-catalyzed redox-relay Heck alkenylation, the intramolecular Stetter reaction, and the regioselective Tiffeneau-Demjanov-type ring expansion were the pivotal steps in these syntheses.

2.
J Hazard Mater ; 424(Pt A): 127373, 2022 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34879567

RESUMO

To test high cadmium (Cd) concentration may not be high in health risk when considering Cd bioavailability, we assessed variation of Cd relative bioavailability (RBA, relative to CdCl2) using a mouse assay for 14 vegetables of water spinach, amaranth, and pakchoi. Cadmium concentration varied from 0.13 ± 0.01-0.37 ± 0.00 µg g-1 fw. Cadmium-RBA also varied significantly from 22.9 ± 2.12-77.2 ± 4.46%, however, the variation was overall opposite to that of Cd concentration, as indicated by a strong negative correlation between Cd-RBA and Cd concentration (R2 = 0.43). Based on both Cd concentration and bioavailability, the identified high-Cd pakchoi variety resulted in significantly lower Cd intake than the high-Cd varieties of water spinach and amaranth (4.74 ± 0.05 vs. 10.1 ± 0.54 and 8.03 ± 0.04 µg kg-1 bw week-1) due to significantly lower Cd-RBA (22.9 ± 2.12 vs. 77.2 ± 4.46 and 51.3 ± 2.93%). The lower Cd-RBA in pakchoi was due to its significantly higher Ca and lower phytate concentrations, which facilitated the role of Ca in inhibiting intestinal Cd absorption. This was ascertained by observation of decreased Cd-RBA (90.5 ± 12.0% to 63.5 ± 5.53%) for a water spinach when elevating its Ca concentration by 30% with foliar Ca application. Our results suggest that to assess food Cd risk, both total Cd and Cd bioavailability should be considered.

3.
Psychophysiology ; 59(1): e13949, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587299

RESUMO

The incidence of depression is increasing, especially in the young adult population. Impaired cognitive function is one of the characteristics of depression, which may be related to impaired cerebral autoregulation (CA). We investigated the characteristics of CA in young adults with mild depression, as well as its validity for identifying patients with depression. Patients (aged 18-35 years) with Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) scores ranging from 8 to 17 and a first episode of mild depression were enrolled in this study. Healthy volunteers were recruited as controls. Noninvasive continuous arterial blood pressure and bilateral middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity were simultaneously recorded from each subject. Transfer function analysis was applied to derive phase difference, gain, coherence and rate of recovery for the assessment of CA. Forty-three patients and 43 healthy controls were enrolled. Phase difference values were significantly compromised in young adults with mild depression and were negatively correlated with HAMD scores. Rate of recovery values estimated from depressed patients was significantly lower. The validity in identifying patients with depression was favorable for the phase difference. The cutoff phase difference value was 29.66. Our findings suggest that dynamic CA was impaired in young patients with mild depression and negatively correlated with HAMD scores. CA represented by phase difference can be used as an objective auxiliary examination of depression, and has clinical diagnostic value for the early identification of patients with depression.

4.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 784211, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34867926

RESUMO

Caffeic acid (CA) is one of the major phenolic acids of coffee with multiple biological activities. Our previous study found that 500 mg/kg of chlorogenic acid (CGA) had the potential capacity of alleviating colonic inflammation. Moreover, CGA can be degraded into caffeic acid (CA) by the gut microbiota in the colon. Therefore, we hypothesize that CA can exert protective effects on colonic inflammation. To test the hypothesis, 251 mg/kg CA was supplemented to DSS-induced colitis mice. The results showed that CA treatment recovered DSS-induced disease activity index (DAI), colon length, and histopathology scores of colon tissue. Additionally, CA treatment significantly decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and increased the level of IL-10, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT) in serum. qPCR results indicated that CA treatment dramatically downregulated mRNA expression of IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α as well as upregulated SOD1, GPX1, GPX2, CAT, and IL-10. In addition, CA supplementation significantly increased mRNA expression of Nrf-2, HO-1, and NQO1, which showed its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities potentially by activating the Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway. Moreover, CA supplementation prevented gut barrier damage by enhancing Occludin gene expression. Furthermore, CA supplementation altered the gut microbiome composition by decreasing the relative abundance of Bacteroides and Turicibacter, and enhancing the relative abundance of Alistipes and Dubosiella. Meanwhile, CA supplementation increases the abundance of Dubosiella and Akkermansia. In conclusion, CA supplementation could effectively alleviate DSS-induced colitis by improving the defense against oxidative stress and inflammatory response.

5.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 763498, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34880839

RESUMO

Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), as a unique natural medicine resource, were used to prevent and treat bacterial diseases in China with a long history. To provide a prediction model of screening antibacterial TCMs for the design and discovery of novel antibacterial agents, the literature about antibacterial TCMs in the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Web of Science database was retrieved. The data were extracted and standardized. A total of 28,786 pieces of data from 904 antibacterial TCMs were collected. The data of plant medicine were the most numerous. The result of association rules mining showed a high correlation between antibacterial activity with cold nature, bitter and sour tastes, hemostatic, and purging fire efficacies. Moreover, TCMs with antibacterial activity showed a specific aggregation in the phylogenetic tree; 92% of them came from Tracheophyta, of which 74% were mainly concentrated in rosids, asterids, Liliopsida, and Ranunculales. The prediction models of anti-Escherichia coli and anti-Staphylococcus aureus activity, with AUC values (the area under the ROC curve) of 77.5 and 80.0%, respectively, were constructed by the Neural Networks (NN) algorithm after Bagged Classification and Regression Tree (Bagged CART) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) selection. The in vitro experimental results showed the prediction accuracy of these two models was 75 and 60%, respectively. Four TCMs (Cirsii Japonici Herba Carbonisata, Changii Radix, Swertiae Herba, Callicarpae Formosanae Folium) were proposed for the first time to show antibacterial activity against E. coli and/or S. aureus. The results implied that the prediction model of antibacterial activity of TCMs based on properties and families showed certain prediction ability, which was of great significance to the screening of antibacterial TCMs and can be used to discover novel antibacterial agents.

6.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 799401, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34950176

RESUMO

Leaf traits play key roles in plant resource acquisition and ecosystem processes; however, whether the effects of environment and phylogeny on leaf traits differ between herbaceous and woody species remains unclear. To address this, in this study, we collected data for five key leaf traits from 1,819 angiosperm species across 530 sites in China. The leaf traits included specific leaf area, leaf dry matter content, leaf area, leaf N concentration, and leaf P concentration, all of which are closely related to trade-offs between resource uptake and leaf construction. We quantified the relative contributions of environment variables and phylogeny to leaf trait variation for all species, as well as for herbaceous and woody species separately. We found that environmental factors explained most of the variation (44.4-65.5%) in leaf traits (compared with 3.9-23.3% for phylogeny). Climate variability and seasonality variables, in particular, mean temperature of the warmest and coldest seasons of a year (MTWM/MTWQ and MTCM/MTCQ) and mean precipitation in the wettest and driest seasons of a year (MPWM/MPWQ and MPDM/MPDQ), were more important drivers of leaf trait variation than mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP). Furthermore, the responses of leaf traits to environment variables and phylogeny differed between herbaceous and woody species. Our study demonstrated the different effects of environment variables and phylogeny on leaf traits among different plant growth forms, which is expected to advance the understanding of plant adaptive strategies and trait evolution under different environmental conditions.

7.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e933833, 2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34924558

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the leading cause of disability around the world. It is generally agreed that the central cholinergic system plays an important role in emotional regulation. Acetylcholine (ACh) is now a new target for antidepressants. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of acupuncture on depressive behaviors, cholinergic tones, and synaptic plasticity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). MATERIAL AND METHODS We randomly divided 36 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats into the Normal group, Stress group, Physostigmine+stress (Phys+stress) group, and Electroacupuncture+physostigmine+stress (EA+Phys+stress) group. Rats underwent CUMS exposure for 42 days. After 28 days of CUMS, rats received physostigmine or EA treatment for 2 weeks. Rats in the Phys+stress and EA+Phys+stress group received an intraperitoneal injection of physostigmine (TOCRIS, UK, 5 mg/kg) daily. Rats in the EA+Phys+stress group also received EA stimulation at GV 20 (Baihui), GV 29 (Yintang), LI 4 (Hegu), and LR 3 (Taichong) daily for 2 weeks. RESULTS We found that EA ameliorated weight loss and the depressive-like behaviors in the sucrose preference test, novelty-suppressed feeding test, and open-field test. There was significantly decreased expression of ACh and increased expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) after EA treatment. Consistent with the behavior tests and cholinergic tones, there were increased spine density and expressions of synaptic proteins, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1), glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2), postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95), and synapsin I in the PFC. CONCLUSIONS The results suggest that EA can reverse the depressive-like behaviors and synaptic deficits induced by hyper-cholinergic tone during chronic stress via the modulation of hyper-cholinergic tone.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34902629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gut microbiota and microbial factors regulate the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with obesity and metabolic abnormalities, but little is known about their roles in nonobese NAFLD. Expansion of Escherichia is associated with NAFLD pathogenesis. We aimed to investigate the pathogenic role of Escherichia fergusonii and its products in the development of nonobese NAFLD. METHODS: We characterized the intestinal microbiome signature in a cohort of NAFLD patients and healthy controls by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing. The role of E fergusonii was estimated in rats after 16 weeks of administration, and features of NAFLD were assessed. E fergusonii-derived microRNA-sized, small RNAs (msRNAs) were analyzed by deep sequencing. RESULTS: We detected an expansion of Escherichia_Shigella in NAFLD patients compared with healthy controls, and its increase was associated with disease severity independent of obesity. E fergusonii, a member of the genus Escherichia, induced the development of nonobese NAFLD characterized by hepatic steatosis and hepatocyte ballooning in rats without obesity. It disturbed host lipid metabolism by inhibiting hepatic lipid ß-oxidation and promoting de novo lipogenesis. We also showed that E fergusonii caused the development of hepatic inflammation and fibrosis in a sizable fraction of animals at an advanced stage of NAFLD. Mechanistically, E fergusonii-derived msRNA 23487 down-regulated host hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α expression, which could contribute to lipid accumulation in the liver. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that E fergusonii promotes the pathogenesis of steatohepatitis and fibrosis in nonobese rats by secreting msRNA 23487, and it might be a potential biomarker for predicting steatohepatitis in nonobese NAFLD.

9.
Nanoscale ; 13(46): 19291-19305, 2021 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787622

RESUMO

New types of rechargeable batteries other than lithium-ions, including sodium/potassium/zinc/magnesium/calcium/aluminum-ion batteries and non-aqueous batteries, are rapidly advancing towards large-scale energy storage applications. A major challenge for these burgeoning batteries is the absence of appropriate electrode materials, which gravely hinders their further development. Expanded graphite (EG)-based electrode materials have been proposed for these emerging batteries due to their low cost, non-toxic, rich-layered structure and adjustable layer spacing. Here, we evaluate and summarize the application of EG-based materials in rechargeable batteries other than Li+ batteries, including alkaline ion (such as Na+, K+) storage and multivalent ion (such as Mg2+, Zn2+, Ca2+ and Al3+) storage batteries. Particularly, this article discusses the composite strategy and performance of EG-based materials, which enables them to function as an electrode in these emerging batteries. Future research areas in EG-based materials, from the fundamental understanding of material design and processing to reaction mechanisms and device performance optimization strategies, are being looked forward to.

10.
Anal Chem ; 93(46): 15468-15473, 2021 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766749

RESUMO

A laser frequency-locked hollow waveguide (HWG) gas sensor is demonstrated for simultaneous measurements of three isotopologues (12CO2, 13CO2, and 18OC16O) using wavelength modulation spectroscopy with a 2.73 µm distributed feedback laser. The first harmonic (1f) signal at the sampling point where the peak of the second harmonic (2f) signal was located was employed as the locking point to lock the laser frequency to the transition center of 13CO2, while the absorption lines of 12CO2 and 18OC16O were being scanned. Continuous measurements of the three isotopologues of 4.7% CO2 samples over 103 min under free running and frequency locking conditions were performed. The measurement accuracy and precision of the three isotopologues achieved under the frequency locking condition were at least 3 times and 1.3 times better than those obtained under the free running condition, respectively. The Allan variance plot of the developed laser-locked HWG gas sensor shows a detection limit of 0.72‰ for both δ13C and δ18O under the frequency locking condition with a long stability time of 766 s. This study demonstrated the high potential of a novel human breath diagnostic sensor for medical diagnostic with high accuracy, precision, and sensitivity and without frequently repeated calibration.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Lasers , Humanos , Análise Espectral
11.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 557, 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arabidopsis protein disulfide isomerase 1 (AtPDI1) has been demonstrated to have disulfide isomerase activity and to be involved in the stress response. However, whether the anti-stress function is directly related to the activities of thiol-disulfide exchange remains to be elucidated. RESULTS: In the present study, encoding sequences of AtPDI1 of wild-type (WT) and double-cysteine-mutants were transformed into an AtPDI1 knockdown Arabidopsis line (pdi), and homozygous transgenic plants named pdi-AtPDI1, pdi-AtPDI1m1 and pdi-AtPDI1m2 were obtained. Compared with the WT and pdi-AtPDI1, the respective germination ratios of pdi-AtPDI1m1 and pdi-AtPDI1m2 were significantly lower under abiotic stresses and exogenous ABA treatment, whereas the highest germination rate was obtained with AtPDI1 overexpression in the WT (WT- AtPDI1). The root length among different lines was consistent with the germination rate; a higher germination rate was observed with a longer root length. When seedlings were treated with salt, drought, cold and high temperature stresses, pdi-AtPDI1m1, pdi-AtPDI1m2 and pdi displayed lower survival rates than WT and AtPDI1 overexpression plants. The transcriptional levels of ABA-responsive genes and genes encoding ROS-quenching enzymes were lower in pdi-AtPDI1m1 and pdi-AtPDI1m2 than in pdi-AtPDI1. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these results clearly suggest that the anti-stress function of AtPDI1 is directly related to the activity of disulfide isomerase.

12.
Liver Int ; 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite substantial attention paid to the epidemic of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in adults, data on the burden and sexual dimorphism of NAFLD in Asian children have not yet been synthesized. METHODS: We conducted a literature search of 735 references up to April 2021. Pooled analyses, stratified analyses and meta-regression were all performed. RESULTS: Thirty-three study populations were finally included. Nine of them comprising 20 595 children showed an overall NAFLD prevalence of 5.53% (95% CI 3.46%-8.72%), in which, 36.64% (95% CI, 27.99%-46.26%) NAFLD subjects had elevated levels of ALT. The prevalence rate of NAFLD increased about 1.6-fold from 2004 to 2010 to the last decade. Male predominant trends were observed in paediatric NAFLD (boys: 8.18%, 95% CI 4.93%-13.26%; girls: 3.60%, 95% CI 1.60%-7.87%). Moreover, meta-analysis showed that after 10 years of age, boys were more prone to have NAFLD than girls (OR = 1.75; P = .0012). In addition, the pooled prevalence of NAFLD increased sequentially in normal-weight (1.49%, 95% CI 0.88%-2.51%, n = 2610), overweight (16.72%, 95% CI 7.07%-34.65%, n = 1265) and obese children (50.13%, 95% CI 41.99%-58.27%, n = 6434 individuals). After full covariate adjustment, the multivariate meta-regression also showed that boy percentage (P = .0396) and body mass index (P < .0001) were positively correlated with prevalent NAFLD. CONCLUSIONS: In Asia, paediatric NAFLD is becoming prevalent over the recent decades, particularly among obese children and boys after 10 years old. The hormonal and chromosomal origins of paediatric NAFLD dimorphism need further investigation.

13.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(10): 1140-4, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628748

RESUMO

The paper summarizes the ideas and characteristics of acupoint selection in treatment of mental disorder with acupuncture and moxibustion by professor FU Wen-bin. Professor FU believes that mental disorder is manifested as the simultaneous illness of "heart" and "body". On the base of "holism" for the unity of body and mind, professor FU proposes the treating idea as "soothing the liver, regulating the mind and focusing on the heart and the gallbladder in treatment". In clinical practice, the acupoint prescription on specifically regulating and harmonizing yin and yang is composed to calm down the mind. The eight confluent points and back-shu points of five zang organs are selected to regulate zangfu functions. The "ghost" points, the points on the second line of bladder meridian and the acupoints with specific effect are used to tranquilize the mind, open the orifices and consolidate therapeutic effect. Meanwhile, the complicated symptoms are also considered in treatment. The integrative and holistic pattern of acupuncture and moxibustion therapy as "acupuncture at the top priority, followed by moxibustion, and consolidation at the end" achieves the co-regulation of qi and blood and tranquilization for both the mental and the physical.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Transtornos Mentais , Meridianos , Moxibustão , Pontos de Acupuntura , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia
14.
J Chromatogr A ; 1658: 462606, 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656840

RESUMO

Milk lipids are one of the most complex materials in nature and are associated with many physiological functions, hence it is important to comprehensively characterize lipids profiles to evaluate the nutritional value of milk. A quick method was developed by ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPSFC-ESI-QTOF-MS) to analyze the non-polar and polar lipids profiles of cow, goat, buffalo, human milk, and infant formulas in 7 min. All chromatographic conditions were carefully optimized and their effect on the chromatographic behavior of lipid classes and species was discussed. Under optimized conditions, 12 lipid classes (triacylglycerols, diacylglycerols, monoglyceride, fatty acids, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylglycerol, sphingomyelin, lyso-phosphatidylcholine, and lyso-phosphatidylethanolamine) were separated and each class was further separated in single analysis to facilitate the identification. 250 lipid species in real samples were characterized and quantified. This result demonstrates the applicability of the UHPSFC-ESI-QTOF-MS method in the high-throughput and comprehensive lipid analysis of milk, and will hopefully help to provide nutritionists with the lipid distribution in different types of milk, as well as help in the design of more suitable infant formula for babies.


Assuntos
Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico , Animais , Bovinos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Feminino , Leite Humano , Fosfatidilcolinas , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
15.
ACS Omega ; 6(41): 27170-27182, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34693137

RESUMO

In order to cope with the global climate crisis, carbon capture, utilization, and storage are the key technologies to achieve carbon neutrality, and it is an elegant geological utilization method for the oil and gas industry to improve the recovery rate of crude oil by using CO2. However, in practical applications, the problem of low miscibility of CO2 and crude oil, resulting in low oil displacement efficiency, cannot be avoided. Thus, finding an appropriate method to increase the utilization rate of CO2 is a worth in-depth study. In light of this, this paper carries out the study on improving the CO2 flooding efficiency by using oil and gas amphiphilic surfactants. First of all, according to the molecular structure theory and the solubility experiment of surfactants in CO2, five kinds of surfactants and two kinds of additives with good performance of oil and gas were selected. Then, three experiments were conducted to explore the mechanism of the selected surfactants. The main mechanism of promoting the miscibility of CO2-crude oil is to reduce the interfacial tension of the oil and gas phases, followed by increasing the volume expansion of crude oil and reducing the viscosity of crude oil. Finally, through the slim tube displacement experiment, the oil displacement efficiency effect of adding the compound systems of SPO5/n-pentanol was simulated. The results show that the oil displacement efficiency is significantly higher than that of pure CO2 flooding, and the pressure of miscibility reduces at the same time. The selected reagents have a good effect of promoting miscibility. Therefore, this is an effective method to improve the geological utilization of CO2.

16.
Food Funct ; 12(22): 11420-11434, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673859

RESUMO

The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of dietary dihydroquercetin (DHQ) supplementation on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. Mice were given DHQ supplementation (3 g kg-1) throughout the study, starting 14 days prior to DSS treatment for 1 week followed by 2 days without DSS. The results showed that dietary DHQ supplementation restored DSS-induced disease activity index (DAI), colon length and histopathology scores of the colon tissue. Additionally, supplementation with DHQ reduced the pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, and enhanced the level of IL-10 in the serum. qPCR results indicated that DHQ supplementation significantly downregulated IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α, and upregulated IL-10 gene mRNA expression. Western blot results proved that DHQ supplementation upregulated ZO-1 and occludin levels. Using amplicon sequencing technology, 16S rRNA sequencing results showed that DHQ supplementation increased the fecal Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and the relative abundance of Lactobacillus and Dubosiella, and decreased the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes. Additionally, DHQ supplementation restored the decreased fecal acetic acid and butyric acid concentrations in DSS-induced colitis mice. Besides, Spearman's correlation analysis showed that Dubosiella was positively correlated with the butyric acid level and Bacteroidetes was positively correlated with the mRNA expression of IL-1ß and IL-6. Both Lactobacillus and Dubosiella showed a negative correlation with the mRNA expression of IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α, and Dubosiella was positively correlated with IL-10. In summary, it was found that DHQ supplementation alleviated DSS-induced colitis which may be potentially associated with altered fecal microbiota communities in mice.

17.
Bioresour Technol ; 342: 125931, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560436

RESUMO

Three anoxic/oxic membrane bioreactors (AO-MBRs) coupled with the anaerobic side-stream reactor (ASSR) with different influent flow distribution ratios (IFDRs) were assessed to elucidate how IFDR in the ASSR affected pollutants removal, sludge reduction, membrane fouling, and potential co-occurrence network of microorganisms. When the IFDR in the ASSR was increased from 0% (ASSR0-MBR), to 25% (ASSR25-MBR) and 75% (ASSR75-MBR), chemical oxygen demand removal was enhanced and nutrient removal was comparable. Compared to ASSR0-MBR, ASSR25- and ASSR75-MBR further improved the sludge reduction by 7.6% and 10.9%, respectively. ASSR25-MBR followed cake-complete model due to the weak membrane surface scouring and high concentration of extracellular polymeric substances, while ASSR0- and ASSR75-MBR fitted cake-standard model. The increased IFDR in the ASSR boosted the relative abundance of hydrolytic and slow-growing bacteria. The co-occurrence networks of sludge reduction, nutrient removal and membrane fouling propensity indicated that the symbiotic relationships were dominant.

18.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 202, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (cpRNFLT) as assessed by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is a new technique used for the detection and evaluation of glaucoma and other optic neuropathies. Before translating cpRNFLT into clinics, it is crucially important to investigate anthropometric, biochemical, and clinical parameters potentially affecting cpRNFLT in a large population-based dataset. METHODS: The population-based LIFE-Adult Study randomly selected 10,000 participants from the population registry of Leipzig, Germany. All participants underwent standardized systemic assessment of various cardiometabolic risk markers and ocular imaging, including cpRNFLT measurement using SD-OCT (Spectralis, Heidelberg Engineering). After employing strict SD-OCT quality criteria, 8952 individuals were analyzed. Multivariable linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the independent associations of various cardiometabolic risk markers with sector-specific cpRNFLT. For significant markers, the relative strength of the observed associations was compared to each other to identify the most relevant factors influencing cpRNFLT. In all analyses, the false discovery rate method for multiple comparisons was applied. RESULTS: In the entire cohort, female subjects had significantly thicker global and also sectoral cpRNFLT compared to male subjects (p < 0.05). Multivariable linear regression analyses revealed a significant and independent association between global and sectoral cpRNFLT with biomarkers of renal function and lipid profile. Thus, thinner cpRNFLT was associated with worse renal function as assessed by cystatin C and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Furthermore, an adverse lipid profile (i.e., low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, as well as high total, high non-HDL, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high apolipoprotein B) was independently and statistically significantly related to thicker cpRNFLT. In contrast, we do not observe a significant association between cpRNFLT and markers of inflammation, glucose homeostasis, liver function, blood pressure, or obesity in our sector-specific analysis and globally. CONCLUSIONS: Markers of renal function and lipid metabolism are predictors of sectoral cpRNFLT in a large and deeply phenotyped population-based study independently of previously established covariates. Future studies on cpRNFLT should include these biomarkers and need to investigate whether incorporation will improve the diagnosis of early eye diseases based on cpRNFLT.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Disco Óptico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Rim/fisiologia , Masculino , Fibras Nervosas , Células Ganglionares da Retina
19.
Cancer Med ; 10(19): 6823-6834, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414684

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop new and effective biomarkers for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The serum expression of ITGB4 (49 CRC and 367 HC) was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and its diagnostic value was analyzed using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The sensitivity and specificity of ITGB4 in CRC diagnosis were calculated through statistical analysis. The optimal clinical cutoff value was calculated using the Youden index, and diagnostic efficacy was analyzed in a larger serum sample (98 CRC and 1631 non-CRC). The expression of ITGB4 was measured by CyTOF (cell experimental technology) at the single-cell level, and characteristics were analyzed using viSNE and SPADE TREE. RESULTS: Serum ITGB4 and CEA levels were significantly higher in CRC patients than in HC and non-CRC patients. The use of serum ITGB4 levels for the diagnosis of CRC has a high sensitivity (79%) but not high specificity when the clinical cutoff value was 0.70 ng/mL. However, the optimal cutoff value was 1.6 ng/mL with 86.2% specificity and 52.0% sensitivity, and the diagnostic efficacy was greatly improved with high specificity (82.0%) and sensitivity (71.4%) when combined with CEA. ITGB4 expression characteristics were measured and related to the expression of EpCAM, Ck8/18, and perforin at the single-cell level. Single-cell analysis showed that cell clusters with low expression of CK8/18 and ITGB4 were more sensitive to 5FU and radiotherapy (RT). CONCLUSIONS: ITGB4 is an effective diagnostic serum biomarker and a potential therapeutic target for CRC.

20.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-18, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404276

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common chronic liver disorders in humans, partly because it is closely related to metabolic disorders of the liver with increasing prevalence. NAFLD begins with hepatic lipid accumulation, which may cause inflammation and eventually lead to fibrosis in the liver. Numerous studies have demonstrated the close relationship between gut dysfunction (especially the gut microbiota and its metabolites) and the occurrence and progression of NAFLD. The bidirectional communication between the gut and liver, named the gut-liver axis, is mainly mediated by the metabolites derived from both the liver and gut through the biliary tract, portal vein, and systemic circulation. Herein, we review the effects of the gut-liver axis on the pathogenesis of NAFLD. We also comprehensively describe the potential molecular mechanisms from the perspective of the role of liver-derived metabolites and gut-related components in hepatic metabolism and inflammation and gut health, respectively. The study provides insights into the mechanisms underlying current summarizations that support the intricate interactions between a disordered gut and NAFLD and can provide novel strategies to lessen the prevalence and consequence of NAFLD.

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