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1.
Food Chem ; 335: 127513, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745838

RESUMO

Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar is a famous traditional fermented cooking ingredient in China, with multiple nutritional and medicinal applications. Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar extract (100-400 µg/mL) is rich in polyphenols increased the glucose uptake and glucose consumption in high glucose-induced insulin resistant HepG2 (IR-HepG2) cells. Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar extract enhanced glycogen synthesis and attenuated gluconeogenesis by regulating key enzymes in IR-HepG2 cells. In addition, Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar extract ameliorated high glucose-induced IR by inhibiting phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) expression and activating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway in IR-HepG2 cells. Moreover, Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar extract reduced reactive oxygen species generation and phosphorylated c-Jun NH2 terminal kinase (JNK) expression in IR-HepG2 cells. The attenuation of the high glucose is owned to the PI3K/Akt pathway activation, glycogen synthesis induction and gluconeogenesis suppression in IR-HepG2 cells.

2.
J Hazard Mater ; 401: 123399, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763695

RESUMO

The application of animal manure is generally considered an important transmission pathway for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in soil. Nevertheless, the fate of ARGs in soil where manure from different sources has been repeatedly implemented is not fully understood. Thus, the succession of ARGs and bacterial communities following the repeated application of three types of animal manures (pig, chicken, and cow manure) to agricultural soil were investigated using Illumina sequencing analysis and high-throughput qPCR. Results showed that manure application remarkably increased the abundance of soil ARGs by increasing the enrichment of indigenous ARGs and introducing extrinsic ARGs. There were no prominent differences in the abundance or diversity of ARGs among the three different manured soils. The abundance and diversity of ARGs in manured soils increased over three consecutive years. Additionally, the abundance of mobile gene elements (MGEs) and bacteria were positively correlated with ARGs, while the changes in the ARG profiles were dramatically associated with the MGEs and bacterial communities. These findings imply that repeated manure application may facilitate to the accumulation and persistence of the soil resistome by regulation of the bacterial community and horizontal gene transfer, providing better insights into the temporal dynamics of soil ARGs in agro-ecosystems.

3.
Food Chem ; 338: 127661, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882487

RESUMO

Understanding the effects of processing on the Se content and bioaccessibility in food is critical in guiding the development of Se-enriched products. In this study, Se-enriched Pleurotus eryngii was obtained by applying different Se supplements to the substrate. Selenium content and its bioaccessibility among raw and processed fruit bodies were compared. The application of exogenous Se had no significant effect on the yield of P. eryngii, while amendment Se yeast could slightly promote the growth of P. eryngii. The enrichment ability of P. eryngii among different Se supplements declined in the order of Na2SeO3 > Se yeast > Na2SeO4. However, the processing treatments resulted in 6.6%-45.9% Se loss. The Se bioaccessibility of P. eryngii was 78.4%-89.7%. Frying treatment reduced Se bioaccessibility in samples, whereas boiling treatment enhanced it. Therefore, Se yeast and boiling treatment are recommended as the ideal Se supplement and processing method for Se-enriched P. eryngii.

4.
Food Chem ; 338: 127980, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927201

RESUMO

Quercetin has various biological activities, but its poor water solubility and stability limit its applications. In this study, ß-cyclodextrin was used as the host and quercetin was encapsulated in its cavity to prepare an inclusion compound. Then, a nanofilm was formed using electrospinning. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermogravimetric differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) were used to characterize the properties of the inclusion compound nanofilms. SEM images showed that the nanofilm prepared by optimizing the electrospinning process parameters had a good nanofiber structure. XRD, FTIR and TG/DSC characterization of the nanofilm showed that quercetin was encapsulated in the cavity of ß-cyclodextrin and was present in the nanofilm. The quercetin was slowly released from the nanofilm and still had good bacteriostatic effects on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, indicating that the process of embedding and electrospinning did not affect the antibacterial activity of quercetin.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057710

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the dissemination and molecular characteristics of NDM-producing Escherichia coli strains from duck farms in south-east coastal China and their threats to human health. METHODS: A total of 232 NDM-producing E. coli were recovered from 1505 samples collected from 25 duck farms and their surrounding environments in five provinces in China. Resistance genes were confirmed using PCR. Genomic characteristics of the carbapenemase-producing isolates were determined by WGS and bioinformatic analysis. RESULTS: The rate of NDM-positive E. coli detected in samples from the five provinces ranged from 3.7% to 28.5%. There was substantial variation in the prevalence of NDM-positive E. coli from different duck farms in each province studied. Three variants (blaNDM-1, blaNDM-4 and blaNDM-5) were found in 232 NDM-positive E. coli; blaNDM-5 (94.8%, 220/232) was the most prevalent. WGS analysis indicated that ST746, ST48, ST1011 and ST167 E. coli isolates were prevalent in the current study and poultry was likely the primary reservoir for NDM-positive ST746 and ST48 E. coli in China. Phylogenomic analysis showed that NDM-positive E. coli isolates from ducks were closely related to those of human origin. In addition, WGS analysis further revealed that blaNDM co-existed with other antibiotic resistance genes, conferring resistance to nine classes of antimicrobials. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that ducks farm in China are an important reservoir for NDM-positive E. coli and STs of the isolates showed obvious distinctive diversities in geographical distribution. The distribution and spread of NDM-positive E. coli in duck farms poses a threat to public health.

6.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998865

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Autoreactive B cells play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and B cell-depleting therapies using an antibodies, such as rituximab, have been suggested to be effective in RA treatment. However, transient B cell depletion with rituximab is associated with significant safety challenges related to global suppression of the immune system and thus increases the risks of infection and cancer development. To address selective and persistent issues associated with RA therapy, we developed a customised therapeutic strategy employing universal antifluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-T cells) combined with FITC-labelled antigenic peptide epitopes to eliminate autoreactive B cell subsets recognising these antigens in RA. METHODS: For a proof-of-concept study, four citrullinated peptide epitopes derived from citrullinated autoantigens, namely, citrullinated vimentin, citrullinated type II collagen, citrullinated fibrinogen and tenascin-C, and a cyclocitrulline peptide-1 were selected as ligands for targeting autoreactive B cells; Engineered T cells expressing a fixed anti-FITC CAR were constructed and applied as a universal CAR-T cell system to specifically eliminate these protein-specific autoreactive B cells via recognition of the aforementioned FITC-labelled autoantigenic peptide epitopes. RESULTS: We demonstrated that anti-FITC CAR-T cells could be specifically redirected and kill hybridoma cells generated by immunisation with antigenic peptides, and autoreactive B cell subsets from RA patients via recognition of corresponding FITC-labelled citrullinated peptide epitopes. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of the CAR-T cells was dependent on the presence of the peptides and occurred in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS: The approach described here provides a direction for precise, customised approaches to treat RA and can likely be applied to other systemic autoimmune diseases.

7.
Mol Neurobiol ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025508

RESUMO

Nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3)-associated neuroinflammation mediated by activated microglia is involved in the pathogenesis of depression. The role of the pore-forming protein gasdermin D (GSDMD), a newly identified pyroptosis executioner downstream of NLRP3 inflammasome mediating inflammatory programmed cell death, in depression has not been well defined. Here, we provide evidence that paeoniflorin (PF), a monoterpene glycoside compound derived from Paeonia lactiflora, ameliorated reserpine-induced mouse depression-like behaviors, characterized as increased mobility time in tail suspension test and forced swimming test, as well as the abnormal alteration of synaptic plasticity in the depressive hippocampus. The molecular docking simulation predicted that PF would interact with C-terminus of GSDMD. We further demonstrated that PF administration inhibited the enhanced expression of GSDMD which mainly distributed in microglia, along with the proteins involved in pyroptosis signaling transduction including caspase (CASP)-11, CASP-1, NLRP3, and interleukin (IL)-1ß in the hippocampus of mice treated with reserpine. And also, PF prevented lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-induced pyroptosis in murine N9 microglia in vitro, evidenced by inhibiting the expression of CASP-11, NLRP3, CASP-1 cleavage, as well as IL-1ß. Furthermore, VX-765, an effective and selective inhibitor for CASP-1 activation, reduced the expression of inflammasome and pyroptosis-associated proteins in over-activated N9 and also facilitated PF-mediated inhibition of pyroptosis synergistically. Collectively, the data indicated that PF exerted antidepressant effects, alleviating neuroinflammation through inhibiting CASP-11-dependent pyroptosis signaling transduction induced by over-activated microglia in the hippocampus of mice treated with reserpine. Thus, GSDMD-mediated pyroptosis in activated microglia is a previously unrecognized inflammatory mechanism of depression and represents a unique therapeutic opportunity for mitigating depression given PF administration.

8.
Zootaxa ; 4809(3): zootaxa.4809.3.11, 2020 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055931

RESUMO

Three new species of the genus Ammatho Walker, 1855 are described from mainland China and Indochina: Ammatho (Striatella) inexpecta Huang Volynkin sp. nov. from Guangdong, Southern China and Tam Dao, Northern Vietnam; Ammatho (Ammathella) gesar Huang Volynkin sp. nov. from Xizang, Southwestern China and Ammatho (Ammathella) shingwa Volynkin Huang sp. nov. from Kachin, Northeastern Myanmar. Adults and genitalia of related species are illustrated.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Animais , China , Indochina
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085742

RESUMO

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common cancer in southern China and Southeast Asia. Nowadays, radiotherapy is the therapy of choice for NPC patients, and chemotherapy has been found as an alternative treatment for advanced NPC patients. However, finding novel drugs and pharmacologically therapeutic targets for NPC patients is still urgent and beneficial. Our study showed that BIX-01294 (BIX) can induce autophagic vacuoles formation and conversion of LC3B-I to LC3B-II in NPC cells in both dose- and time-dependent manners. Notably, the combination of BIX and chemotherapeutic drugs significantly decreased the cell viability and increased the lactate dehydrogenase release. Meanwhile, BIX plus cis-platinum (Cis) treatment induced pyroptosis in NPC cells as featured by cell swelling and bubble blowing from the plasma membrane, the increased frequency of annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) double-positive cells, as well as the cleavage of gasdermin E (GSDME) and caspase-3. Moreover, the deficiency of GSDME completely shifted pyroptosis to apoptosis. Furthermore, the inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine and the knockout of ATG5 gene significantly blocked the BIX-induced autophagy as well as pyroptosis in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Our data demonstrated that BIX-combined chemotherapeutic drugs could induce the Bax/caspase-3/GSDME-mediated pyroptosis through the activation of autophagy to enhance the chemosensitivity in NPC.

10.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 98: 169-178, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097149

RESUMO

Diclofenac (DCF), a widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory, reacted readily with birnessite under mild conditions, and the pseudo first order kinetic constants achieved 8.84 × 10-2 hr-1. Five products of DCF including an iminoquinone product (2,5-iminoquinone-diclofenac) and four dimer products were observed and identified by tandem mass spectrometry during the reaction. Meanwhile, 2,5-iminoquinone-diclofenac was identified to be the major product, accounting for 83.09% of the transformed DCF. According to the results of spectroscopic Mn(III) trapping experiments and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Mn(IV) contained in birnessite solid was consumed and mainly converted into Mn(III) during reaction process, which proved that the removal of DCF by birnessite was through oxidation. Based on the identified products of DCF and the changes of Mn valence state in birnessite solid, a tentative transformation pathway of DCF was proposed.

11.
J BUON ; 25(4): 1753-1760, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099910

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Reliable measures to prevent chylothorax following lobectomy are lacking. Herein a case-control study was conducted to investigate the effect of prophylactic fat-free diet on the incidence of chylothorax after thoracoscopic lobectomy and systemic lymph node dissection (SLND) for lung cancer. METHODS: Between January 2015 and December 2017, the patients with primary non-small cell lung cancer who underwent lobectomy and SLND were retrospectively reviewed. Patients in the prophylactic group started fat-free diet one week before the surgery until removal of the chest tubes after the operation; while those in the control group took normal diet unless the onset of chylothorax. Logistic regression analysis was utilized to identify the predictive factors of chylothorax following lobectomy. RESULTS: The data of 110 patients in the control group and 115 cases in the prophylactic group were collected. The patients in prophylactic group showed less intraoperative blood loss [(79.9±48.7) mL vs. (100.9±55.6) mL, p=0.003], reduced postoperative drainage volume [(504.3±268.0) mL vs. (714.1±618.5) mL, p=0.001], and shorter chest tube duration [(3.6±1.7) days vs. (4.2±2.6) days, p=0.014]; however, a similar incidence of chylothorax [3 (2.6%) vs. 7 (6.4%), p=0.207] was recorded. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that neoadjuvant therapy was an independent positive factor of chylothorax (odd ratio [OR] = 9.257; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.434-59.773, p=0.019); whereas high-volume experience of the surgeon was an independent negative factor of this complication (OR = 0.129; 95% CI 0.017-0.982, p=0.048). CONCLUSION: Prophylactic fat-free diet does not decrease the incidence of chylothorax after lobectomy. Further well-designed trials are warranted to verify this occasional finding.

12.
J Mol Neurosci ; 2020 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098544

RESUMO

Microbes like viruses, bacteria, and fungi have all been reported in the brain of Alzheimer's postmortem patients and/or AD mouse model; however, the relationship between brain microbes and Aß plaque deposition remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we first analyzed bacteria populations in the brain of 4-, 5-, and 6-month-old APP/PS1 mice and then examined the Aß-positive loads of APP/PS1 mouse at 9 months old to identify bacteria in the brain by 16S rDNA sequencing. Finally, blood-brain barrier permeability was measured by injecting dextrans through the tail vein. Surprisingly, the diversity of microbial community gradually decreased in APP/PS1 mouse while wild-type mouse showed no obvious regularity. Moreover, Aß-positive deposits in the brain showed a significantly higher relative abundance of microbiota than Aß-negative tissues and age-matched wild-type mouse brain tissues. In addition, an increase in blood-brain barrier permeability was also observed in APP/PS1 mouse. The present study revealed the exact location of microbes within the Aß plaques in the brain and suggested the potential antimicrobial effect of the Aß peptide. We strongly recommend that future research on microbiota-related AD pathology should focus on the migration route of microbiota into the brain and how the microbiota enhance AD progression.

13.
Appl Radiat Isot ; 167: 109471, 2020 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068986

RESUMO

The CR-(RC)n filter is used for Semi-Gaussian pulse shaping in analog spectroscopy. A new digital CR-(RC)n filter is presented based on the recursive models of the CR filter and RC filter. The spectroscopic signal reconstruction technique is proposed. This technique is applied to digital exponential decay signals obtained by the digitization of analog signals that represent the combined response of a FAST-SDD detector and the associated front-end circuit. Compared with the direct application of the digital CR-(RC)n filter, the technique eliminates the undershoot of the Semi-Gaussian pulse which is the primary cause of the low-energy peak tailing. And, the digital pole-zero cancellation filter follows digital CR-(RC)n filter to reduce the long tail of the shaped Semi-Gaussian pulse which leads to the high-energy peak tailing. Experimental results based on XRF signals of manganese sample show that the proposed techniques can cancel peak tailing due to the shaped Semi-Gaussian pulse improving FWTM/FWHM ratio and throughput capability.

14.
Transl Oncol ; 14(1): 100897, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069101

RESUMO

Zinc(II)-dipicolylamine (Zn-DPA) has been shown to specifically identify and bind to phosphatidylserine (PS), which exists in bulk in the tumor microenvironment. BPRDP056, a Zn-DPA-SN38 conjugate was designed to provide PS-targeted drug delivery of a cytotoxic SN38 to the tumor microenvironment, thereby allowing a lower dosage of SN38 that induces apoptosis in cancer cells. Micro-Western assay showed that BPRDP056 exhibited apoptotic signal levels similar to those of CPT-11 in the treated tumors growing in mice. Pharmacokinetic study showed that BPRDP056 has excellent systemic stability in circulation in mice and rats. BPRDP056 is accumulated in tumors and thus increases the cytotoxic effects of SN38. The in vivo antitumor activities of BPRDP056 have been shown to be significant in subcutaneous pancreas, prostate, colon, liver, breast, and glioblastoma tumors, included an orthotopic pancreatic tumor, in mice. BPRDP056 shrunk tumors at a lower (~20% only) dosing intensity of SN38 compared to that of SN38 conjugated in CPT-11 in all tumor models tested. A wide spectrum of antitumor activities is expected to treat all cancer types of PS-rich tumor microenvironments. BPRDP056 is a first-in-class small molecule drug conjugate for cancer therapy.

15.
J Periodontol ; 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33094479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Occlusal trauma can aggravate periodontitis, but the mechanism remains unclear. Yes-associated protein (YAP), a mechanical stressor protein, may play an important role in this process. METHODS: Western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were applied to detect the expression of YAP and inflammatory factors in patients with periodontitis accompanied with or without occlusal trauma. Through local administration of Porphyromonas gingivalis and composite resin bonding on maxillary molars in mice, we established periodontitis and occlusal trauma models. Treatment with or without XAV939, to inhibit YAP activation, was performed in these models. Micro-computed tomography, immunofluorescence (IF), and qRT-PCR were used to explore the YAP pathway in periodontitis with occlusal trauma. Cyclic stress and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimuli were applied to the L929 mouse fibroblast cell line with or without XAV939. Western blot, IF, and qRT-PCR were used to verify the in vivo results. RESULTS: Activated dephosphorylated YAP and increased expression of inflammatory factors were observed in patients with periodontitis accompanied with occlusal trauma. In the mouse model of periodontitis with occlusal trauma, YAP transferred into the nucleus, resulting in Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) related pro-inflammatory pathway up-regulation. L929 cell cyclic stress and LPS stimulation results confirmed the in vivo results. Application of XAV939 inhibited YAP protein dephosphorylation and reduced JNK pro-inflammatory pathway factor expression in vivo and in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Occlusal trauma can activate YAP nuclear transfer, resulting in the up-regulation of the JNK pro-inflammatory pathway. This can be inhibited by the XAV939 YAP inhibitor. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

16.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 11: 560103, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33101197

RESUMO

Objective: To demonstrate the association between pre-pregnancy maternal overweight, obesity, and perinatal outcomes of singletons conceived by assisted reproductive technology (ART). Design: Retrospective cohort study from 2006 to 2015 data from a single ART center. Setting: Assisted Reproduction Center, Northwest Women's and Children's Hospital, Xi'an, Northwestern China. Patients: We included 7,818 women undergoing ART and their singleton infants. Interventions: None. Main Outcome Measure: The primary outcome measures were preterm birth (PTB), macrosomia, low birth weight, small for gestational age, and large for gestational age (LGA). Results: We experienced an increase in the risk of PTB, macrosomia, and LGA in overweight and obese groups compared with that in normal-weight groups [PTB: overweight vs. normal weight: odds ratio [OR] = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.18-1.75; obesity vs. normal weight: OR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.04-2.25; macrosomia: overweight vs. normal weight: OR = 1.78, 95% CI: 1.48-2.14; obesity vs. normal weight: OR = 2.16, 95% CI: 1.52-3.06; LGA: overweight vs. normal weight: OR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.39-1.90; obesity vs. normal weight: OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.57-2.83]. We observed a significant interaction between maternal BMI and fresh/frozen embryo transfer on PTB and LGA (P = 0.030; P = 0.030). Fresh embryo transfer significantly increased the effect of maternal BMI on LGA (fresh: OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.10-1.18; frozen: OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04-1.13), and frozen embryo transfer increased the effect of maternal BMI on PTB (fresh: OR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.99-1.08; frozen: OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04-1.15). Conclusions: Pre-pregnancy maternal overweight and obesity were associated with higher risks of PTB, macrosomia, and LGA in ART-conceived singletons. These associations were affected by the timing of embryo transfer (fresh/frozen embryo transfer). Therefore, we recommend women before ART to maintain a normal BMI for the prevention of adverse perinatal outcomes.

17.
Dis Markers ; 2020: 6053154, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33101542

RESUMO

Background: Identification of new biomarkers can facilitate the development of effective therapeutic strategies in breast cancer (BC). Data from previous studies have revealed that differentiated embryonic chondrocyte gene (DEC) 1 and DEC2 might involve in the progression of various cancer types. We explored the expression profiles and function of DEC1/2 in BC patients in this study. Methods: The mRNA expression of DEC1/2 in BC patients and cell lines were taken from the Oncomine and Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia database. The prognostic impacts of DEC1/2 were mined from the bc-GenExMiner and Kaplan-Meier plotter database. The impact of DEC1/2 genomic alterations on patient survival was calculated by cBioPortal. DEC2 protein expressions were confirmed by Western blotting (WB) in 10 pairs of BC samples. In addition, DEC2 sgRNA was constructed to confirm its affection on cell viability, invasion, and colony formation. Results: The DEC1 and DEC2 mRNA levels are both lower in BC tissues than normal tissues. DEC1/2 expression was high in progesterone receptor (PR) positive BC patients (P = 0.0023), but low in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive patients (P < 0.0001). Lower DEC2 mRNA level has significant association with more aggressive pathogenic grade (P < 0.0001) and worse overall survival (OS) of BC patients (P = 5.2 × 10-6). Subgroup analysis showed that low DEC2 level was correlated with worse OS in estrogen receptor (ER) positive BC (P = 0.008). DEC2 (P = 0.00029) alteration was significantly correlated with worse OS in BC patients. WB results also confirmed the lower DEC2 protein levels in BC samples than their paired normal tissues. And, DEC2 silencing by sgRNA resulted in a significant increasing in cell viability, invasion, and colony formation. Conclusion: DEC2 might serve as a tumor suppressor, and its disfunction may involve in the tumorigenesis and indicate bad clinical outcomes in BC patients.

18.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 10: 583341, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33102258

RESUMO

The emergence and spread of the novel mobile Tet(X) tetracycline destructases confer high-level tigecycline and eravacycline resistance in Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter spp. and pose serious threats to human and animal health. Therefore, a rapid and robust Tet(X) detection assay was urgently needed to monitor the dissemination of tigecycline resistance. We developed a rapid and simple assay to detect Tet(X) producers in Gram-negative bacteria based on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). This MALDITet(X) test was based on the inactivation of tigecycline by a Tet(X)-producing strain after a 3-h incubation of bacterial cultures with tigecycline. Culture supernatants were analyzed using MALDI-TOF MS to identify peaks corresponding to tigecycline (586 ± 0.2 m/z) and a tigecycline metabolite (602 ± 0.2 m/z). The results were calculated using the MS ratio [metabolite/(metabolite + tigecycline)]. The sensitivity of the MALDITet(X) test with all 216 test strains was 99.19%, and specificity was 100%. The test can be completed within 3 h. Overall, the MALDITet(X) test is an accurate, rapid, cost-effective method for the detection of Tet(X)-producing E. coli and Acinetobacter spp. by determining the unique peak of an oxygen-modified derivative of tigecycline.

19.
J Behav Addict ; 9(3): 642-653, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031057

RESUMO

Background: Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is included in the DSM-5 as a provisional diagnosis. Whether IGD should be regarded as a disorder and, if so, how it should be defined and thresholded have generated considerable debate. Methods: In the current study, machine learning was used, based on regional and interregional brain features. Resting-state data from 374 subjects (including 148 IGD subjects with DSM-5 scores ≥5 and 93 IGD subjects with DSM-5 scores ≥6) were collected, and multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) was employed to classify IGD from recreational game use (RGU) subjects based on regional brain features (ReHo) and communication between brain regions (functional connectivity; FC). Permutation tests were used to assess classifier performance. Results: The results demonstrated that when using DSM-5 scores ≥5 as the inclusion criteria for IGD subjects, MVPA could not differentiate IGD subjects from RGU, whether based on ReHo or FC features or by using different templates. MVPA could differentiate IGD subjects from RGU better than expected by chance when using DSM-5 scores ≥6 with both ReHo and FC features. The brain regions involved in the default mode network and executive control network and the cerebellum exhibited high discriminative power during classification. Discussion: The current findings challenge the current IGD diagnostic criteria thresholding proposed in the DSM-5, suggesting that more stringent criteria may be needed for diagnosing IGD. The findings suggest that brain regions involved in the default mode network and executive control network relate importantly to the core criteria for IGD.

20.
ChemSusChem ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107175

RESUMO

Electrochemical conversion of CO2 into liquid fuels by efficient and earth-abundant catalysts is of broad interests but remains a great challenge in renewable energy production and environmental remediation. Herein, we have successfully developed a Sn particle-decorated polymeric carbon nitride (CN) electrocatalyst for efficient, durable and highly selective CO2 reduction to formic acid. The high-resolution XPS spectra confirmed that the metallic Sn particles and CN matrix are bound by strong chemical interaction, rendering the composite catalyst a stable structure. More notably, the electronic structure of Sn has been well tuned to be highly electron-rich due to the electron transfer from N atoms of CN to Sn atoms via metal-support interactions, which favors the adsorption and activation of CO2 molecules, promotes charge transport, and thus enhances the electrochemical conversion of CO2 . The composite electrocatalyst demonstrates an excellent Faradaic efficiency of formic acid (FEHCOOH ) up to 96% ± 2% at the potential of -0.9 V versus RHE, which remains at above 92% during the electrochemical reaction of 10 h, indicating that the present Sn particle-decorated polymeric carbon nitride (CN) electrocatalyst is among the best in comparison with the reported Sn based electrocatalysts.

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