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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(2): 265-269, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989943

RESUMO

This study is based on the data analysis of medicinal plant resources and diversity collected from the fourth Chinese traditional medicine resource survey( pilot). Through the analysis of relevant data from 33 census pioneer plots in Guizhou province( area),a total of 265 families,1 432 genera and 5 296 species of medicinal resources were reported,including algae,fungi,lichens,mosses,a total of 43 genera and 35 families,57,48 families,120 genera and 453 species of ferns,gymnosperms 11 families,22 genera and 61 species,167 families,1 243 genera and 4 721 species of angiosperms,4 genera and 4 families four medicinal animals.Compared with the data related to the third survey of traditional Chinese medicine resources,the number of ferns,gymnosperms and angiosperms in the fourth survey has increased far more than that of the third survey. From the regional distribution of medicinal resources,the composition of the genus,the type of life,and the location of the medicine,the richness of the medicinal plant resources in Guizhou province is not only reflected in many types,but also in the variety of medicinal resources. These studies provide a scientific basis for vigorously developing the Chinese herbal medicine industry and the sustainably using medicinal plant resources in Guizhou province.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Plantas Medicinais/classificação , China , Cycadopsida , Gleiquênias , Magnoliopsida
2.
J Thorac Oncol ; 10(2): 286-301, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25299231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Differential expression and secretion of alpha-actinin 4 (ACTN4) in the lung cancer cell lines CL1-0 and CL1-5 have been reported in previous proteomic studies. The aim of this study is to investigate the functional properties of the ACTN4 protein in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and evaluate its clinical importance. METHODS: We used RNA interference to knock down and overexpress ACTN4 protein to evaluate the effects of this intervention on cancer cell invasion and migration, as well as on microscopic cellular morphology. Furthermore, we examined by immunohistochemistry the expression of ACTN4 protein in tissue samples at different stages of lung cancer and compared the protein levels of ACTN4 in blood plasma samples from patients with histologically confirmed lung cancer and healthy controls. RESULTS: CL1-5 cell motility was significantly suppressed by the knockdown of ACTN4 protein. The morphology of CL1-5 cells changed from a predominantly mesenchymal-like shape into a globular shape in response to ACTN4 protein knockdown. A quantitative immunohistochemical assessment of lung cancer tissues revealed that ACTN4 protein level was considerably higher in cancerous tissues than in the adjacent normal ones, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.736 (p < 0.001). According to an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the plasma levels of ACTN4 protein were significantly different between cancer patients and healthy controls, and the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves were 0.828 and 0.909, respectively, for two independent cohorts (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that the knockdown of ACTN4 protein inhibited cell invasion and migration. These results suggest that ACTN4 is associated with lung cancer cell motility. Thus, the level of ACTN4 in cancerous tissue and plasma is related to the presence of lung cancer.


Assuntos
Actinina/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Actinina/biossíntese , Actinina/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Processos de Crescimento Celular/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/administração & dosagem , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Transfecção
3.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 407(5): 1343-56, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25486920

RESUMO

Tyrosine phosphorylation is an important regulator of signaling in cellular pathways, and dysregulated tyrosine phosphorylation causes several diseases. Mass spectrometry has revealed the importance of global phosphoproteomic characterization. Analysis of tyrosine phosphorylation by studying the mass-spectrometry (MS)-determined phosphoproteome remains difficult because of the relatively low abundance of tyrosine phosphoproteins. To effectively evaluate tyrosine-phosphopeptide enrichment and reduce ion suppression from non-phosphorylated peptides in MS analysis, three trypsin-digested BSA peptides and 14 standard phosphopeptides, including six tyrosine phosphopeptides, four serine phosphopeptides, and four threonine phosphopeptides, were subjected to titanium dioxide immunoaffinity-based enrichment and also to combined enrichment using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analyses. The enrichment factors were evaluated to determine the efficiency of each enrichment procedure. Comparison of five optimized enrichment methods, including TiO2-based immunoaffinity purification in Tris and MOPS buffer systems, TiO2-immunoaffinity enrichment, and immunoaffinity-TiO2 enrichment for total tyrosine, serine and threonine phosphopeptides, revealed that the order of the enrichment factors for total tyrosine phosphopeptides is: (i) immunoaffinity-TiO2 (enrichment factor = 38,244), (ii) TiO2-immunoaffinity (enrichment factor = 24,987), (iii) TiO2 micro-column (enrichment factor = 10,305), (iv) immunoaffinity in Tris buffer system (enrichment factor = 1450), and (v) immunoaffinity in the MOPS buffer system (enrichment factor = 32). These results reveal that an alternative enrichment scheme before use of a TiO2 micro-column, using immunoaffinity 4G10 and PY99 antibody enrichment under optimized conditions, can provide greater selectivity for tyrosine-phosphopeptide enrichment.


Assuntos
Cromatografia de Afinidade/métodos , Fosfopeptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia de Afinidade/instrumentação , Fosfopeptídeos/química , Fosforilação , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Titânio/química , Tirosina/química
4.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 18(1): 79-83, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21169698

RESUMO

The low-resolution structure of α-crustacyanin has been determined to 30 Å resolution using negative-stain electron microscopy (EM) with single-particle averaging. The protein, which is an assembly of eight ß-crustacyanin dimers, appears asymmetrical and rather open in layout. A model was built to the EM map using the X-ray crystallographic structure of ß-crustacyanin guided by PISA interface analyses. The model has a theoretical sedimentation coefficient that matches well with the experimentally derived value from sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation. Additionally, the EM model has similarities to models calculated independently by rigid-body modelling to small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data and extracted in silico from the ß-crustacyanin crystal lattice. Theoretical X-ray scattering from each of these models is in reasonable agreement with the experimental SAXS data and together suggest an overall design for the α-crustacyanin assembly.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/ultraestrutura , Animais , Cristalografia por Raios X/métodos , Microscopia Eletrônica , Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo , Ultracentrifugação
5.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 51(5): 2356-62, 2010 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20007835

RESUMO

PURPOSE: AMD has a complex etiology with environmental and genetic risk factors. Ten fibulin 5 sequence variants have been associated with AMD and two other fibulin 5 mutations cause autosomal-recessive cutis laxa. Fibulin 5 is a 52-kDa calcium-binding epidermal growth factor (cbEGF)-rich extracellular matrix protein that is essential for the formation of elastic tissues. Biophysical techniques were used to detect structural changes in the fibulin 5 mutants and to determine whether changes are predictive of pathogenicity. METHODS: Native PAGE, nonreduced SDS-PAGE, size-exclusion column multiangle laser light scattering, sedimentation velocity, and circular dichroism (CD) were used to investigate the mobility, hydrodynamic radii, folding, and oligomeric states of the fibulin 5 mutants in the absence and presence of Ca(2+). RESULTS: CD showed that all mutants are folded, although perturbations to secondary structure contents were detected. Both cutis laxa mutants increased dimerization. Most other mutants slightly increased self-association in the absence of Ca(2+) but this was also demonstrated by G202R, a polymorphism detected in a control individual. The AMD-associated mutant G412E showed lower-than-expected mobility during native-PAGE, the largest hydrodynamic radius for the monomer form and the highest levels of aggregation in both the absence and presence of Ca(2+). CONCLUSIONS: The results identified structural differences for the disease-causing cutis laxa mutants and for one AMD variant (G412E), suggesting that this may also be pathogenic. Although the other AMD-associated mutants showed no gross structural differences, they cannot be excluded as pathogenic by differences outside the scope of this study-for example, disruption of heterointeractions.


Assuntos
Cútis Laxa/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/química , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Degeneração Macular/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Cálcio/farmacologia , Cromatografia em Gel , Dicroísmo Circular , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Dobramento de Proteína
6.
J Biol Chem ; 284(36): 24553-67, 2009 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19570982

RESUMO

Fibulin-4 and -5 are extracellular glycoproteins with essential non-compensatory roles in elastic fiber assembly. We have determined how they interact with tropoelastin, lysyl oxidase, and fibrillin-1, thereby revealing how they differentially regulate assembly. Strong binding between fibulin-4 and lysyl oxidase enhanced the interaction of fibulin-4 with tropoelastin, forming ternary complexes that may direct elastin cross-linking. In contrast, fibulin-5 did not bind lysyl oxidase strongly but bound tropoelastin in terminal and central regions and could concurrently bind fibulin-4. Both fibulins differentially bound N-terminal fibrillin-1, which strongly inhibited their binding to lysyl oxidase and tropoelastin. Knockdown experiments revealed that fibulin-5 controlled elastin deposition on microfibrils, although fibulin-4 can also bind fibrillin-1. These experiments provide a molecular account of the distinct roles of fibulin-4 and -5 in elastic fiber assembly and how they act in concert to chaperone cross-linked elastin onto microfibrils.


Assuntos
Tecido Elástico/metabolismo , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/metabolismo , Tropoelastina/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Fibrilina-1 , Fibrilinas , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica/fisiologia , Estrutura Quaternária de Proteína/fisiologia , Proteína-Lisina 6-Oxidase/genética , Proteína-Lisina 6-Oxidase/metabolismo , Tropoelastina/genética
7.
J Biol Chem ; 284(38): 25938-43, 2009 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19617354

RESUMO

Fibulin 5 is a 52-kDa calcium-binding epidermal growth factor (cbEGF)-rich extracellular matrix protein that is essential for the formation of elastic tissues. Missense mutations in fibulin 5 cause the elastin disorder cutis laxa and have been associated with age-related macular degeneration, a leading cause of blindness. We investigated the structure, hydrodynamics, and oligomerization of fibulin 5 using small angle x-ray scattering, EM, light scattering, circular dichroism, and sedimentation. Compact structures for the monomer were determined by small angle x-ray scattering and EM, and are supported by close agreement between the theoretical sedimentation of the structures and the experimental sedimentation of the monomer in solution. EM showed that monomers associate around a central cavity to form a dimer. Light scattering and equilibrium sedimentation demonstrated that the equilibrium between the monomer and the dimer is dependent upon NaCl and Ca2+ concentrations and that the dimer is dominant under physiological conditions. The dimerization of fragments containing just the cbEGF domains suggests that intermolecular interactions between cbEGFs cause dimerization of fibulin 5. It is possible that fibulin 5 functions as a dimer during elastinogenesis or that dimerization may provide a method for limiting interactions with binding partners such as tropoelastin.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/química , Multimerização Proteica/fisiologia , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Cálcio/química , Cálcio/metabolismo , Dicroísmo Circular , Cútis Laxa/genética , Cútis Laxa/metabolismo , Tecido Elástico/metabolismo , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos , Degeneração Macular/genética , Degeneração Macular/metabolismo , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Ligação Proteica/fisiologia , Estrutura Quaternária de Proteína/fisiologia , Espalhamento de Radiação , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Tropoelastina/química , Tropoelastina/genética , Tropoelastina/metabolismo , Raios X
8.
J Mol Biol ; 388(1): 168-79, 2009 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19268673

RESUMO

Fibrillin microfibrils have essential roles in elastic fiber formation and elastic tissue homeostasis, as well as transforming growth factor-beta sequestration. A role for fibrillin microfibrils in tissue elasticity has been implied by their ability to increase periodicity from 56 to 150 nm. In this study, we found that microfibril periodicity and structure are dependent on the ionic strength of the buffer and Ca(2+) concentration; we then used these properties of the microfibril to trap conformation intermediates. Transmission electron microscopy imaging of microfibrils with a range of periodicities between 56 and 154 nm revealed a gross conformational change in the interbead region that accommodates the length change. At periodicities below 85 nm, four thin filaments are visualized in the interbead region, but at periodicities greater than 85 nm, two thick filaments are seen. The diameter of the bead remains almost constant at all periodicities, but there is a decrease in stain-exclusion above 85 nm periodicity, which is likely to correspond to a decrease in bead mass. Additionally, we identified eight molecules in cross-section through a microfibril, allowing us to understand microfibril organization in three dimensions. In conclusion, when microfibrils extend, there is a large molecular rearrangement within the interbead region, and this highlights a possible role for Ca(2+) in stabilizing the microfibril architecture and moderating extension in vivo.


Assuntos
Microfibrilas/química , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/química , Cálcio/metabolismo , Elasticidade , Fibrilinas , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Microfibrilas/ultraestrutura , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Conformação Proteica
9.
Mol Biol Cell ; 19(8): 3379-89, 2008 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18508917

RESUMO

The interactions underlying the cooperativity of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complexes during neurotransmission are not known. Here, we provide a molecular characterization of a dimer formed between the cytoplasmic portions of neuronal SNARE complexes. Dimerization generates a two-winged structure in which the C termini of cytosolic SNARE complexes are in apposition, and it involves residues from the vesicle-associated SNARE synaptobrevin 2 that lie close to the cytosol-membrane interface within the full-length protein. Mutation of these residues reduces stability of dimers formed between SNARE complexes, without affecting the stability of each individual SNARE complex. These mutations also cause a corresponding decrease in the ability of botulinum toxin-resistant synaptobrevin 2 to rescue regulated exocytosis in toxin-treated neuroendocrine cells. Moreover, such synaptobrevin 2 mutants give rise to a dominant-negative inhibition of exocytosis. These data are consistent with an important role for SNARE complex dimers in neurosecretion.


Assuntos
Proteínas SNARE/metabolismo , Proteínas SNARE/fisiologia , Animais , Toxinas Botulínicas/farmacologia , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Dicroísmo Circular , Dimerização , Exocitose , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Modelos Biológicos , Conformação Molecular , Neurônios/metabolismo , Células PC12 , Ratos , Proteínas SNARE/química , Proteína 2 Associada à Membrana da Vesícula/metabolismo
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 103(32): 11922-7, 2006 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16880403

RESUMO

Fibrillin-1 is a 330-kDa multidomain extracellular matrix protein that polymerizes to form 57-nm periodic microfibrils, which are essential for all tissue elasticity. Fibrillin-1 is a member of the calcium-binding EGF repeat family and has served as a prototype for structural analyses. Nevertheless, both the detailed structure of fibrillin-1 and its organization within microfibrils are poorly understood because of the complexity of the molecule and the resistance of EGF arrays to crystallization. Here, we have used small-angle x-ray scattering and light scattering to analyze the solution structure of human fibrillin-1 and to produce ab initio structures of overlapping fragments covering 90% of the molecule. Rather than exhibiting a uniform rod shape as current models predict, the scattering data revealed a nonlinear conformation of calcium-binding EGF arrays in solution. This finding has major implications for the structures of the many other EGF-containing extracellular matrix and membrane proteins. The scattering data also highlighted a very compact, globular region of the fibrillin-1 molecule, which contains the integrin and heparan sulfate-binding sites. This finding was confirmed by calculating a 3D reconstruction of this region using electron microscopy and single-particle image analysis. Together, these data have enabled the generation of an improved model for microfibril organization and a previously undescribed mechanism for microfibril extensibility.


Assuntos
Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/química , Nanoestruturas , Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico/química , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Fibrilina-1 , Fibrilinas , Heparitina Sulfato/química , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Cinética , Microscopia Eletrônica , Modelos Químicos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína
11.
J Struct Biol ; 155(2): 285-93, 2006 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16697222

RESUMO

Fibrillin microfibrils endow mammalian connective tissues with elasticity and play a fundamental role in the deposition of elastin. The microfibrils are 57 nm periodic supramolecular protein polymers with a mass of 2.5 MDa per repeat. The organisation of molecules within a microfibril is still open to debate and structural studies are only just starting to unravel this issue. The contribution of microfibril associated proteins to microfibril ultrastructure and whether there are any tissue specific differences in microfibril structure is still unknown. Therefore, we have used low dose electron microscopy, single particle image analysis and atomic force microscopy to study the structure of fibrillin microfibrils from different tissues. EM images of microfibrils from aorta, ciliary zonules and vitreous humor were collected and more than 500 microfibril repeats from each sample were subjected to averaging. Averages from each sample were analysed using axial stain exclusion patterns and difference images to detect any variations between them. The overall morphology of fibrillin microfibrils was conserved between tissues and there were only very minor differences in the bead and shoulder region of microfibrils. These data suggest that the structure of isolated microfibrils represents the fibrillin scaffold, and either microfibril associated molecules are lost on purification or play only a minor role in microfibril structure.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Microfibrilas/química , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/química , Animais , Aorta/metabolismo , Bovinos , Fibrilinas , Microfibrilas/metabolismo , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/metabolismo , Microscopia de Força Atômica/métodos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão/métodos
12.
FEBS Lett ; 564(3): 245-50, 2004 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15111104

RESUMO

L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are multisubunit membrane proteins that regulate calcium influx into excitable cells. Within the last two years there have been four separate reports describing the structure of the skeletal muscle VGCC determined by electron microscopy and single particle analysis methods. There are some discrepancies between the structures, as well as reports for both monomeric and dimeric forms of the channel. This article considers each of the VGCC structures in terms of similarities and differences with an emphasis upon translation of data into a biological context.


Assuntos
Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/química , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica , Canal de Liberação de Cálcio do Receptor de Rianodina/química , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Canal de Liberação de Cálcio do Receptor de Rianodina/metabolismo
13.
J Biol Chem ; 279(8): 7159-68, 2004 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14634003

RESUMO

We describe here the first three-dimensional structure of the cardiac L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) purified from bovine heart. The structure was determined by electron microscopy and single particle analysis of negatively stained complexes, using the angular reconstitution method. The cardiac VGCC can be isolated as a stable dimer, as reported previously for the skeletal muscle VGCC, with a central aqueous chamber formed by the two halves of the complex. Moreover, we demonstrate that the dimeric cardiac VGCC binds the dihydropyridine [3H]azidopine with a Kd approximately 310 pM. We have compared the cardiac VGCC structure with the skeletal muscle form, determined using the same reconstructive methodology, allowing us to identify common and distinct features of the complexes. By using antibody and lectin-gold labeling, we have localized the intracellular beta polypeptides and the extracellular glycosylation sites of the skeletal muscle VGCC, which can be correlated to the cardiac three-dimensional structure. From the data presented here the assignment of the orientation of the VGCC complexes with respect to the lipid bilayer is now possible. A difference between the cardiac and skeletal muscle ion channels is apparent in the putative transmembrane region, which would be consistent with the absence of the gamma subunit in the cardiac VGCC assembly.


Assuntos
Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/química , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Animais , Bovinos , Cromatografia , Dimerização , Glicosilação , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Immunoblotting , Cinética , Lectinas/química , Microscopia Eletrônica , Modelos Biológicos , Molibdênio/química , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/ultraestrutura , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Trealose/química
14.
J Mol Biol ; 323(1): 85-98, 2002 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12368101

RESUMO

The dihydropyridine receptors (DHPR) are L-type voltage-gated calcium channels that regulate the flux of calcium ions across the cell membrane. Here we present the three-dimensional (3D) structure at approximately 27A resolution of purified skeletal muscle DHPR, as determined by electron microscopy and single particle analysis. Here both biochemical and 3D structural data indicate that DHPR is dimeric. DHPR dimers are composed of two arch-shaped monomers approximately 210A across and approximately 75A thick, that interact very tightly at each end of the arch. The roughly toroidal structure of the two monomers encloses a cylindrical space of approximately 80A diameter, which is then closed on each side by two dome-shaped protein densities reaching over from each monomer arch. The dome-shaped domains have a length of approximately 80-90A and a maximum height of approximately 45A. Small orifices punctuate their exterior surface. The 3D structure disclosed here may have important implications for the understanding of DHPR Ca(2+) channel function. We also propose a model for its in vivo interactions with the calcium release channel at the junctional sarcoplasmic recticulum.


Assuntos
Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/química , Músculo Esquelético/química , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/isolamento & purificação , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/ultraestrutura , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Microscopia Eletrônica , Conformação Proteica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
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