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1.
Mol Cell ; 77(3): 669-680.e4, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004470

RESUMO

Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and the three related peptides urocortins 1-3 (UCN1-UCN3) are endocrine hormones that control the stress responses by activating CRF1R and CRF2R, two members of class B G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Here, we present two cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of UCN1-bound CRF1R and CRF2R with the stimulatory G protein. In both structures, UCN1 adopts a single straight helix with its N terminus dipped into the receptor transmembrane bundle. Although the peptide-binding residues in CRF1R and CRF2R are different from other members of class B GPCRs, the residues involved in receptor activation and G protein coupling are conserved. In addition, both structures reveal bound cholesterol molecules to the receptor transmembrane helices. Our structures define the basis of ligand-binding specificity in the CRF receptor-hormone system, establish a common mechanism of class B GPCR activation and G protein coupling, and provide a paradigm for studying membrane protein-lipid interactions for class B GPCRs.

2.
Nucl Med Commun ; 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032193

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the predictive value of European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) criteria and PET Response Criteria in Solid Tumors (PERCIST), for the pathological response and prognosis of patients with breast cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). METHODS: Consecutive PET/computed tomography scans in 128 operable female patients at baseline and after two courses of NAC were performed. Patients were categorized by complete metabolic response (CMR) and non-CMR groups using 2 PET criteria. CMR and non-CMR were used to predict pathological complete response (pCR) by diagnostic test evaluation, and to predict progression-free survival (PFS) using Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Ninety-two patients were finally analyzed. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for pCR prediction were 69.7, 76.3, and 73.9% with EORTC criteria, and 69.7, 77.9, and 75.0% with PERCIST, respectively. Peak standardized uptake value normalized to lean body mass (SULpeak), maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and metabolic tumor volume (MTV) were pCR response with accuracy of 70.7, 60.0, 75.0, and 71.4%, respectively. CMR by the EORTC (P = 0.021) and PERCIST (P = 0.007) was significantly related to a longer PFS. The univariate and multivariate analysis suggested that CMR by PERCIST was an independent predictor of recurrence (P = 0.008). CONCLUSION: EORTC criteria and PERCIST had early predictive value to long-term outcome, but moderate value for pCR. Furthermore, PERCIST might show more potential than the EORTC criteria and conventional PET-based parameters to predict prognosis in breast cancer patients following two cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy.Video abstract: see http://links.lww.com/NMC/A162.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035227

RESUMO

Accurate identification of compound-protein interactions (CPIs) in silico may deepen our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of drug action and thus remarkably facilitate drug discovery and development. Conventional similarity- or docking-based computational methods for predicting CPIs rarely exploit latent features from currently available large-scale unlabeled compound and protein data and often limit their usage to relatively small-scale datasets. In the present study, we proposed DeepCPI, a novel general and scalable computational framework that combines effective feature embedding (a technique of representation learning) with powerful deep learning methods to accurately predict CPIs at a large scale. DeepCPI automatically learns the implicit yet expressive low-dimensional features of compounds and proteins from a massive amount of unlabeled data. Evaluations of the measured CPIs in large-scale databases, such as ChEMBL and BindingDB, as well as of the known drug-target interactions from DrugBank, demonstrated the superior predictive performance of DeepCPI. Furthermore, several interactions among small-molecule compounds and three G protein-coupled receptor targets (glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor, glucagon receptor, and vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor) predicted using DeepCPI were experimentally validated. The present study suggests that DeepCPI is a useful and powerful tool for drug discovery and repositioning. The source code of DeepCPI can be downloaded from https://github.com/FangpingWan/DeepCPI.

4.
Int J Gynecol Pathol ; 39(2): 136-140, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32039937

RESUMO

Muir-Torre syndrome is a rare subtype of Lynch syndrome characterized by coincidence of skin neoplasm and visceral malignancies. Here, we report a case of this rare disease, whose diagnosis of the syndrome was first suspected by the pathologist. This was a 60-yr-old woman who presented with an axillary skin nodule, which was diagnosed as basal cell carcinoma. Further inquiry revealed that she was hospitalized for evaluation of a recurrent vaginal stump endometrial carcinoma. Histologic workup and immunohistochemistry for mismatch repair proteins of both the skin and vaginal tumor suggested the possibility of Muir-Torre syndrome. NexGen sequencing identified a frame-shift mutation in the MSH2 gene. The patient was found to have a metachronous colorectal carcinoma, uterine endometrial carcinoma, and skin cancer from 1998 to 2016. Five family members had also suffered from colorectal cancer or glioma. This case report illustrates the importance of the multidisciplinary care approach, mismatch repair protein and gene testing, and detailed medical history taking into consideration the diagnosis of Muir-Torre syndrome.

5.
Nature ; 577(7790): 432-436, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915381

RESUMO

Class B G-protein-coupled receptors are major targets for the treatment of chronic diseases, including diabetes and obesity1. Structures of active receptors reveal peptide agonists engage deep within the receptor core, leading to an outward movement of extracellular loop 3 and the tops of transmembrane helices 6 and 7, an inward movement of transmembrane helix 1, reorganization of extracellular loop 2 and outward movement of the intracellular side of transmembrane helix 6, resulting in G-protein interaction and activation2-6. Here we solved the structure of a non-peptide agonist, TT-OAD2, bound to the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor. Our structure identified an unpredicted non-peptide agonist-binding pocket in which reorganization of extracellular loop 3 and transmembrane helices 6 and 7 manifests independently of direct ligand interaction within the deep transmembrane domain pocket. TT-OAD2 exhibits biased agonism, and kinetics of G-protein activation and signalling that are distinct from peptide agonists. Within the structure, TT-OAD2 protrudes beyond the receptor core to interact with the lipid or detergent, providing an explanation for the distinct activation kinetics that may contribute to the clinical efficacy of this compound series. This work alters our understanding of the events that drive the activation of class B receptors.

6.
Bioresour Technol ; 302: 122796, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982845

RESUMO

In this study, a Fe2O3 supported on conductive carbon cloth (FC) was prepared and supplemented into anaerobic digestion reactors to improve propionate degradation. In the FC-supplemented reactors, the cumulative methane production and propionate degradation increased by 15.4% and 19.67% compared with those of the control, respectively. Less methane production with H2/CO2 as the sole substrate in the culture taken from the FC reactors suggested that interspecies hydrogen transfer in the FC reactors was weaker. These results suggested that direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) was established in the FC reactors to improve the performance. Fe2O3 increased the secretion of electron shuttle components of extracellular polymeric substances to increase electron exchange capacity of biomass of the FC reactors, which further facilitated the DIET. Analysis on microbial communities confirmed that the abundance of microorganisms-related DIET in the FC reactors was higher than that in the control.

7.
Mol Med Rep ; 21(1): 173-180, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746423

RESUMO

Epithelial­to­mesenchymal transition (EMT) of human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) serve an important role in cataract formation. The endoplasmic reticulum stress response (ER stress) has been demonstrated to regulate EMT in a number of tissues. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the role of ER stress on EMT in HLECs. HLECs were treated with tunicamycin (TM) or thapsigargin (TG) to disturb ER homeostasis, and 4­phenylbutyric acid (PBA) or sodium tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDCA) to restore ER homeostasis. Cell morphology was evaluated after 24 h. The long axis and aspect ratio of the cells were analyzed using ImageJ software. The results demonstrated that HLECs adopted an elongated morphology following treatment with TG, and the cellular aspect ratio increased. However, this morphological change was not observed following combination treatment with TG and PBA. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining were used to measure the protein expression levels. A wound­healing assay was performed to evaluate cell migration. Treatment with TM or TG increased the expression of the ER stress markers glucose­regulated protein 78, phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 2α, activating transcription factor (ATF)6, ATF4 and inositol­requiring protein 1α and the EMT markers fibronectin, vimentin, α­smooth muscle actin and neural cadherin. Furthermore, treatment with TM or TG decreased the expression of the epithelial cell marker epithelial cadherin and enhanced cell migration, which effects were inhibited following treatment with PBA or TUDCA. These results indicates that enhanced ER stress induced EMT and subsequently increased cell migration in HLECs in vitro.

9.
Front Biosci (Schol Ed) ; 12: 70-91, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585866

RESUMO

Green tea (Camellia sinensis, Theaceace), has been extensively studied for its putative effects in prevention of age related diseases. Here, we discuss the increasing evidence that consumption of green tea has preventative effects in obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance, type II diabetes, atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease and Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). The catechins in green tea has been found to be beneficial in obesity induced by a high-fat diet. These effects are mainly attributable to the gallate esters of catechins, (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) and (-)-epigallocatechin-3- gallate (EGCG).

10.
Oncol Lett ; 18(6): 6725-6731, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31807181

RESUMO

Translocation (9;11)(p21.3;q23.3) is one of the most common lysine methyltransferase 2A (KMT2A)-rearrangements in de novo and therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that the KMT2A/MLLT3 super elongation complex subunit (MLLT3) fusion gene on the derivative chromosome 11 serves a crucial role in leukemogenesis. Trisomy 9 as a secondary chromosome change in patients with t(9;11) is relatively rare. The present study reported a unique case of AML with a chromosome 9 trisomy secondary to t(9;11)(p21.3;q23.3) through the cytogenetic analysis of leukemic blood and bone marrow. Further characterization with fluorescence in situ hybridization and array comparative genomic hybridization analysis revealed that this extra chromosome 9 was either a copy of normal chromosome 9 or a derivative chromosome 9. Conversely with the previously reported favorable outcome of AML patients with t(9;11)(p21.3;q23.3), in the present study, the cells with only translocation persisted, whereas the cells with an extra chromosome 9 disappeared following initial chemotherapy. With this unique case, the present study hypothesized that the extra chromosome 9 could serve a crucial role in AML disease progression and contribute to cellular sensitivity to chemotherapy.

11.
Elife ; 82019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855179

RESUMO

Class A G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) influence virtually every aspect of human physiology. Understanding receptor activation mechanism is critical for discovering novel therapeutics since about one-third of all marketed drugs target members of this family. GPCR activation is an allosteric process that couples agonist binding to G-protein recruitment, with the hallmark outward movement of transmembrane helix 6 (TM6). However, what leads to TM6 movement and the key residue level changes of this movement remain less well understood. Here, we report a framework to quantify conformational changes. By analyzing the conformational changes in 234 structures from 45 class A GPCRs, we discovered a common GPCR activation pathway comprising of 34 residue pairs and 35 residues. The pathway unifies previous findings into a common activation mechanism and strings together the scattered key motifs such as CWxP, DRY, Na+ pocket, NPxxY and PIF, thereby directly linking the bottom of ligand-binding pocket with G-protein coupling region. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments support this proposition and reveal that rational mutations of residues in this pathway can be used to obtain receptors that are constitutively active or inactive. The common activation pathway provides the mechanistic interpretation of constitutively activating, inactivating and disease mutations. As a module responsible for activation, the common pathway allows for decoupling of the evolution of the ligand binding site and G-protein-binding region. Such an architecture might have facilitated GPCRs to emerge as a highly successful family of proteins for signal transduction in nature.

12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(50): e18173, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852073

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Coronary artery aneurysms (CAAs) are uncommon in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We describe the clinical features and outcomes of stent-assisted coil embolization of a CAA in the trigeminal position. PATIENT CONCERNS: We present a 73-year-old woman with a history of paroxysmal episodes of precordial pain since 1 year. Coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) revealed an aneurysm (diameter: 9 mm) at the junction of the distal left main coronary artery and the anterior descending branch. Troponin I, CK-MB, creatinine and routine blood investigations were within the normal range. DIAGNOSIS: Coronary artery aneurysm in the left main trigeminal position. INTERVENTIONS: The patient was treated with stent-assisted coil embolization. OUTCOMES: After complete filling of the aneurysm with coil, the microcatheter was withdrawn and the stent released in the descending branch. Two stents were successfully implanted. LESSONS: There is no clear consensus on the optimal therapy for patients with CAAs. Clinicians should be aware of the possible complications of stent-assisted coil embolization of CAA in the main trunk of the coronary artery.


Assuntos
Implante de Prótese Vascular/métodos , Aneurisma Coronário/terapia , Estenose Coronária/cirurgia , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolização Terapêutica/métodos , Stents , Idoso , Angiografia Digital , Aneurisma Coronário/complicações , Aneurisma Coronário/diagnóstico , Angiografia Coronária , Estenose Coronária/complicações , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico , Vasos Coronários/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças Raras
13.
Molecules ; 24(23)2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757115

RESUMO

The pentafluorosulfane (SF5) group, as a more electronegative bioisostere than the trifluoromethyl (CF3) group, has been gaining greater attention and increasingly reported usage in medicinal chemistry. Ostarine is the selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) containing a CF3 group in clinical trial III. In this study, 21 ostarine derivatives for replacing the CF3 group with SF5 substituents were synthesized. Some SF5-derivatives showed androgen receptor (AR) agonistic activities in vitro. The results pointed to the potential of using this scaffold to develop new AR agonists.

14.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(96): 14442-14445, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724668

RESUMO

We firstly perpared liposome coated [Ir(pq)2(bpy)]Cl (Ir@liposome) as a transducer for radiopharmaceutical (18F-FDG) excited phosphorescence imaging (REPI). Ir@liposome-based REPI exhibited deep tissue penetration and high signal-to-noise ratio in the tumor.


Assuntos
Complexos de Coordenação/química , Irídio/química , Nanopartículas/química , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/química , Humanos , Lipossomos/química , Camundongos , Razão Sinal-Ruído
15.
Acta Pharm Sin B ; 9(5): 997-1007, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649849

RESUMO

We have previously shown that high expression of the nucleic acid binding factor YB-1 is strongly associated with poor prognosis in a variety of cancer types. The 3-dimensional protein structure of YB-1 has yet to be determined and its role in transcriptional regulation remains elusive. Drug targeting of transcription factors is often thought to be difficult and there are very few published high-throughput screening approaches. YB-1 predominantly binds to single-stranded nucleic acids, adding further difficulty to drug discovery. Therefore, we have developed two novel screening assays to detect compounds that interfere with the transcriptional activation properties of YB-1, both of which may be generalizable to screen for inhibitors of other nucleic acid binding molecules. The first approach is a cell-based luciferase reporter gene assay that measures the level of activation of a fragment of the E2F1 promoter by YB-1. The second approach is a novel application of the AlphaScreen system, to detect interference of YB-1 interaction with a single-stranded DNA binding site. These complementary assays examine YB-1 binding to two discrete nucleic acid sequences using two different luminescent signal outputs and were employed sequentially to screen 7360 small molecule compounds leading to the identification of three putative YB-1 inhibitors.

16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(46): 12696-12708, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657554

RESUMO

In this study, a type of thiazolium-labeled 1,3,4-oxadiazole thioether bridged by diverse alkyl chain lengths was constructed. The antimicrobial activity of the fabricated thioether toward plant pathogenic bacteria and fungi was then screened. Antibacterial evaluation indicated that title compounds possess specific characteristics that enable them to severely attack three phytopathogens, namely, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Ralstonia solanacearum, and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri with minimal EC50 values of 0.10, 3.27, and 3.50 µg/mL, respectively. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship models were established to direct the following excogitation for exploring higher active drugs. The in vivo study against plant bacterial diseases further identified the prospective application of title compounds as alternative antibacterial agents. The proteomic technique, scanning electron microscopy patterns, and fluorescence spectrometry were exploited to investigate the antibacterial mechanism. Additionally, some target compounds performed superior inhibitory actions against three tested fungal strains. In view of their simple molecular architecture and highly efficient bioactivity, these substrates could be further explored as promising surrogates for fighting against plant microbial infections.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Oxidiazóis/farmacologia , Sulfetos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Oxidiazóis/síntese química , Oxidiazóis/química , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Ralstonia/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfetos/síntese química , Sulfetos/química , Xanthomonas/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 11: 235, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619982

RESUMO

Normal aging is accompanied by hippocampus-dependent cognitive impairment, which is a risk factor of Alzheimer's disease. This study aims to investigate the effect of high frequency-repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (HF-rTMS) on hippocampus-dependent learning and memory in aged mice and explore its underlying mechanisms. Forty-five male Kunming mice (15 months old) were randomly divided into three groups: aged sham, 5 Hz rTMS, and 25 Hz rTMS. Two sessions of 5 Hz or 25 Hz rTMS comprising 1,000 pulses in 10 trains were delivered once a day for 14 consecutive days. The aged sham group was treated by the reverse side of the coil. In the adult sham group, 15 male Kunming mice (3 months old) were treated the same way as the aged sham group. A Morris water maze (MWM) was conducted following the stimulation, and synaptic ultrastructure was observed through a transmission electron microscope. HF-rTMS improved spatial learning and memory impairment in the aged mice, and 5 Hz was more significant than 25 Hz. Synaptic plasticity-associated gene profiles were modified by HF-rTMS, especially neurotrophin signaling pathways and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB) cofactors. Compared to the aged sham group, synaptic plasticity-associated proteins, i.e., synaptophysin (SYN) and postsynaptic density (PSD)-95 were increased; brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and phosphorylated CREB (pCREB) significantly increased after the 5 Hz HF-rTMS treatment. Collectively, our results suggest that HF-rTMS ameliorated cognitive deficits in naturally aged mice. The 5 Hz rTMS treatment significantly enhanced synaptic structural plasticity and activated the BDNF/CREB pathway in the hippocampus.

18.
Soft Matter ; 15(41): 8210-8218, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418000

RESUMO

The stability of polyion complex (PIC) nanoparticles, like PIC micelles or PICsomes, in water is typically affected by added salt because salt screens the electrostatic driving force. This lack of salt stability seriously hampers numerous potential applications and a remedy is needed. Extending an earlier idea, we develop here a general strategy for preparing PIC micelles, with not only tuneable salt stability but also built-in functions. Using two different dipicolinic (DPA)-based ligands (a linear bis-ligand and a branched tris-ligand), as well as various metal ions we obtain anionic coordination polymers that subsequently co-assemble with a polycationic-neutral diblock copolymer to form PIC micelles. By a judicious choice of the metal ions and/or an appropriate mixture of the ligands we can create micellar cores with two types of reversible cross-links. In this way, we construct PIC micelles with not only tuneable and enhanced salt stability, but also tuned metal-derived properties, such as luminescence or magnetic relaxation. This non-covalent cross-link strategy, exclusively based on building block composition, is generally applicable with different metal ions and ligand combinations, and is therefore a robust approach for preparing stable and functional PIC micelles. Extension to other types of assemblies such as 'PICsomes' is possible, and therefore a range of applications becomes feasible.

19.
Parasitol Int ; 73: 101974, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421266

RESUMO

Hookworms are blood-sucking nematodes that infect dogs, cats, and humans, causing iron-deficiency anemia, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and skin inflammation. Amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) is a modified technology based on allele-specific PCR, which is widely used in mutation detection and genotyping. However, no data about ARMS application in hookworm detection. This study aims to establish a multi-ARMS-qPCR method for the detection of three hookworm species from dogs and cats. A universal forward primer and three specific primers (ARMS-Cey, ARMS-Can, and ARMS-Tub) were designed based on the three ITS SNPs (ITS250, ITS78 and ITS153) of Ancylostoma ceylanicum, A. caninum, and A. tubaeforme, respectively. The results showed that the three designed ARMS primers generated specific melting curves for the three hookworms' standard plasmids. The melting temperature (Tm) values were 88.40 °C (A. ceylanicum), 83.15 °C (A. caninum), and 85.65 °C (A. tubaeforme), with good reproducibility of intra- and inter-assay. No amplification was observed with other intestinal parasites. The limit of detection using the established technique was 1, 2, and 104 egg per gram feces (EPG) for A. caninum, A. tubaeforme and A. ceylanicum, respectively. Using multi-ARMS-qPCR assay, 17 out of 50 fecal samples were positive for hookworms, including ten single and seven mixed infections, and single infections were quantified. In conclusion, the used multi-ARMS-qPCR method has the advantages of high efficiency, sensitivity, specificity, and quantitative analysis and can be used for the clinical detection, epidemiological investigation, and zoonotic risk assessment of canine and feline hookworms.


Assuntos
Ancylostoma/isolamento & purificação , Ancilostomíase/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Mutação , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Ancilostomíase/diagnóstico , Ancilostomíase/parasitologia , Animais , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(14)2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331086

RESUMO

Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) produces 3D point clouds that describe ground objects, and has been used to make object interpretation in many cases. However, traditional LiDAR only records discrete echo signals and provides limited feature parameters of point clouds, while full-waveform LiDAR (FWL) records the backscattered echo in the form of a waveform, which provides more echo information. With the development of machine learning, support vector machine (SVM) is one of the commonly used classifiers to deal with high dimensional data via small amount of samples. Ensemble learning, which combines a set of base classifiers to determine the output result, is presented and SVM ensemble is used to improve the discrimination ability, owing to small differences in features between different types of data. In addition, previous kernel functions of SVM usually cause under-fitting or over-fitting that decreases the generalization performance. Hence, a series of kernel functions based on wavelet analysis are used to construct different wavelet SVMs (WSVMs) that improve the heterogeneity of ensemble system. Meanwhile, the parameters of SVM have a significant influence on the classification result. Therefore, in this paper, FWL point clouds are classified by WSVM ensemble and particle swarm optimization is used to find the optimal parameters of WSVM. Experimental results illustrate that the proposed method is robust and effective, and it is applicable to some practical work.

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