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1.
Ear Hear ; 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996588

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Among low-birth-weight infants, exposure to stress or undernutrition in utero may adversely affect cochlear development. As cochlear reserve declines, the risk of hearing loss may increase with age. While low birth weight is associated with a higher risk of neonatal hearing loss, our objective was to examine whether birth weight was associated with adult-onset, self-reported hearing loss in the Nurses' Health Studies (NHS) I and II (n = 113,130). DESIGN: We used Cox proportional hazards regression to prospectively examine whether birth weight, as well as gestational age at birth, is associated with adult-onset hearing loss. Participants reported their birth weight in 1992 in NHS I and 1991 in NHS II. Mothers of NHS II participants reported gestational age at birth in a substudy (n = 28,590). The primary outcome was adult-onset, self-reported moderate or greater hearing loss, based on questionnaires administered in 2012/2016 in NHS I and 2009/2013 in NHS II. RESULTS: Our results suggested a higher risk of hearing loss among those with birth weight <5.5 lbs compared with birth weight 7 to <8.5 lbs (pooled multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio 1.14, 95% confidence interval = 1.04-1.23; p trend = 0.01). Additionally, participants with gestational age at birth ≥42 weeks had a higher risk of hearing loss, compared with gestational age 38 to <42 weeks (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio 1.33, 95% confidence interval = 1.06-1.65). CONCLUSIONS: Birth weight <5.5 lbs was independently associated with higher risk of self-reported, adult-onset hearing loss. In addition, gestational age at birth ≥42 weeks was also associated with higher risk.

2.
BMJ ; 368: l6669, 2020 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915124

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine how a healthy lifestyle is related to life expectancy that is free from major chronic diseases. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The Nurses' Health Study (1980-2014; n=73 196) and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2014; n=38 366). MAIN EXPOSURES: Five low risk lifestyle factors: never smoking, body mass index 18.5-24.9, moderate to vigorous physical activity (≥30 minutes/day), moderate alcohol intake (women: 5-15 g/day; men 5-30 g/day), and a higher diet quality score (upper 40%). MAIN OUTCOME: Life expectancy free of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. RESULTS: The life expectancy free of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer at age 50 was 23.7 years (95% confidence interval 22.6 to 24.7) for women who adopted no low risk lifestyle factors, in contrast to 34.4 years (33.1 to 35.5) for women who adopted four or five low risk factors. At age 50, the life expectancy free of any of these chronic diseases was 23.5 (22.3 to 24.7) years among men who adopted no low risk lifestyle factors and 31.1 (29.5 to 32.5) years in men who adopted four or five low risk lifestyle factors. For current male smokers who smoked heavily (≥15 cigarettes/day) or obese men and women (body mass index ≥30), their disease-free life expectancies accounted for the lowest proportion (≤75%) of total life expectancy at age 50. CONCLUSION: Adherence to a healthy lifestyle at mid-life is associated with a longer life expectancy free of major chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Estilo de Vida Saudável/fisiologia , Expectativa de Vida , Neoplasias , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Doenças Cardiovasculares/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias/psicologia , Pesquisa em Enfermagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Fumar
3.
Biostatistics ; 21(1): 102-121, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30084949

RESUMO

In stepped wedge designs (SWD), clusters are randomized to the time period during which new patients will receive the intervention under study in a sequential rollout over time. By the study's end, patients at all clusters receive the intervention, eliminating ethical concerns related to withholding potentially efficacious treatments. This is a practical option in many large-scale public health implementation settings. Little statistical theory for these designs exists for binary outcomes. To address this, we utilized a maximum likelihood approach and developed numerical methods to determine the asymptotic power of the SWD for binary outcomes. We studied how the power of a SWD for detecting risk differences varies as a function of the number of clusters, cluster size, the baseline risk, the intervention effect, the intra-cluster correlation coefficient, and the time effect. We studied the robustness of power to the assumed form of the distribution of the cluster random effects, as well as how power is affected by variable cluster size. % SWD power is sensitive to neither, in contrast to the parallel cluster randomized design which is highly sensitive to variable cluster size. We also found that the approximate weighted least square approach of Hussey and Hughes (2007, Design and analysis of stepped wedge cluster randomized trials. Contemporary Clinical Trials 28, 182-191) for binary outcomes under-estimates the power in some regions of the parameter spaces, and over-estimates it in others. The new method was applied to the design of a large-scale intervention program on post-partum intra-uterine device insertion services for preventing unintended pregnancy in the first 1.5 years following childbirth in Tanzania, where it was found that the previously available method under-estimated the power.

4.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(1): 133-140, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that the risk of colorectal cancer in night-shift workers might be different according to insulin receptor substrate status. METHODS: Among 77,470 eligible women having night work assessed in the Nurses' Health Study, we documented a total of 1,397 colorectal cancer cases, of which 304 or 308 had available data on IRS1 and IRS2, respectively. We used duplication-method Cox proportional hazards regression analysis for competing risks to calculate HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each colorectal cancer subtype. We measured tumor IRS1 or IRS2 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC). RESULTS: Compared with women who never worked night shifts, those working ≥15 years night shifts had a marginal trend of increased overall risk of colorectal cancer (P trend = 0.06; multivariable HR = 1.20; 95% CI, 0.99-1.45). Longer duration of night-shift work was associated with a higher risk of IRS2-positive tumors (multivariable HR = 2.69; 95% CI, 1.48-4.89; P trend = 0.001, ≥15 years night shifts vs. never) but not with IRS2-negative tumors (multivariable HR = 0.90; 95% CI, 0.54-1.51; P trend = 0.72; P heterogeneity for IRS2 = 0.008). Similarly, the corresponding multivariable HRs were 1.81 for IRS1-positive tumors (95% CI, 0.94-3.48; P trend = 0.06) and 1.13 for IRS1-negative tumors (95% CI, 0.71-1.80; P trend = 0.56; P heterogeneity for IRS1 = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our molecular pathologic epidemiology data suggest a potential role of IRS in mediating carcinogenesis induced by night-shift work. IMPACT: Although these findings need validation, rotating night shift might increase colorectal cancer risk in women with abnormal insulin receptor pathways.

5.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2019 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excess body weight is an established cause of postmenopausal breast cancer, but it is unknown if weight loss reduces risk. METHODS: Associations between weight change and risk of breast cancer were examined among women aged ≥50 years in the Pooling Project of Prospective Studies of Diet and Cancer. In 10 cohorts, weight assessed on three surveys was used to examine weight change patterns over approximately 10 years (Interval 1 median= 5.2 years; Interval 2 median = 4.0 years). Sustained weight loss was defined as ≥ 2kg lost in Interval 1 that was not regained in Interval 2. Among 180,885 women, 6,930 invasive breast cancers were identified during follow-up. RESULTS: Compared with women with stable weight (± 2kg), women with sustained weight loss had a lower risk of breast cancer. This risk reduction was linear and specific to women not using postmenopausal hormones (>2-4.5kg lost: Hazard Ratio (HR)= 0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.70-0.96; >4.5-<9kg lost: HR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.63-0.90; ≥9kg lost: HR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.50-0.93). Women who lost ≥9kg and gained some (but not all) of it back were also at a lower risk of breast cancer. Other patterns of weight loss and gain over the two intervals had a similar risk of breast cancer to women with stable weight. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that sustained weight loss, even modest amounts, is associated with lower breast cancer risk for women aged ≥50 years. Breast cancer prevention may be a strong weight loss motivator for the two-thirds of American women who are overweight or obese.

6.
Biostatistics ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31750898

RESUMO

Pooling biomarker data across multiple studies allows for examination of a wider exposure range than generally possible in individual studies, evaluation of population subgroups and disease subtypes with more statistical power, and more precise estimation of biomarker-disease associations. However, circulating biomarker measurements often require calibration to a single reference assay prior to pooling due to assay and laboratory variability across studies. We propose several methods for calibrating and combining biomarker data from nested case-control studies when reference assay data are obtained from a subset of controls in each contributing study. Specifically, we describe a two-stage calibration method and two aggregated calibration methods, named the internalized and full calibration methods, to evaluate the main effect of the biomarker exposure on disease risk and whether that association is modified by a potential covariate. The internalized method uses the reference laboratory measurement in the analysis when available and otherwise uses the estimated value derived from calibration models. The full calibration method uses calibrated biomarker measurements for all subjects, including those with reference laboratory measurements. Under the two-stage method, investigators complete study-specific analyses in the first stage followed by meta-analysis in the second stage. Our results demonstrate that the full calibration method is the preferred aggregated approach to minimize bias in point estimates. We also observe that the two-stage and full calibration methods provide similar effect and variance estimates but that their variance estimates are slightly larger than those from the internalized approach. As an illustrative example, we apply the three methods in a pooling project of nested case-control studies to evaluate (i) the association between circulating vitamin D levels and risk of stroke and (ii) how body mass index modifies the association between circulating vitamin D levels and risk of cardiovascular disease.

7.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Flavonoids potentially exert anti-cancer effects, as suggested by their chemical structures and supported by animal studies. In observational studies, however, the association between flavonoids and breast cancer, and potential underlying mechanisms, remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between flavonoid intake and sex hormone levels using timed blood samples in follicular and luteal phases in the Nurses' Health Study II among premenopausal women. METHODS: Plasma concentrations of estrogens, androgens, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate (DHEAS), prolactin, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured in samples collected between 1996 and 1999. Average flavonoid were calculated from semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires collected in 1995 and 1999. We used generalized linear models to calculate geometric mean hormone concentrations across categories of the intake of flavonoids and the subclasses. RESULTS: Total flavonoid intake generally was not associated with the hormones of interest. The only significant association was with DHEAS (p-trend = 0.02), which was 11.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): -18.6%, -3.0%) lower comparing the highest vs. lowest quartile of flavonoid intake. In subclass analyses, the highest (vs. lowest) quartile of flavan-3-ol intake was associated with significantly lower DHEAS concentrations (-11.3% with 95% CI: -18.3%, -3.7%, p-trend = 0.01), and anthocyanin intake was associated with a significant inverse trend for DHEA (-18.0% with 95% CI: -27.9%, -6.7%, p-trend = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Flavonoid intake in this population had limited impact on most plasma sex hormones in premenopausal women. Anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols were associated with lower levels of DHEA and DHEAS.

8.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608356

RESUMO

Healthier dietary patterns were associated with lower risk of self-reported hearing loss, but associations with worsening audiometric hearing thresholds have not been prospectively studied. Therefore, we conducted a prospective study among 3135 women (mean age 59 years) in the Nurses' Health Study II (2012-2018). Diet adherence scores for the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and Alternate Mediterranean (AMED) diets and the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI-2010) were calculated using validated food-frequency questionnaires. Baseline and 3-year follow-up hearing sensitivities were assessed by pure-tone audiometry at 19 sites across the United States. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models examined independent associations between diet adherence scores and risk of low-frequency pure-tone average (PTA0.5,1,2 kHz), mid-frequency pure-tone average (PTA3,4 kHz), and high-frequency pure-tone average (PTA6,8 kHz) hearing threshold decline. Higher adherence scores were associated with lower risk of hearing loss. Compared with the lowest quintile of DASH score, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (MVORs) for mid-frequency and high-frequency decline in the highest quintile were 0.71 (95% CI:0.55,0.92; P-trend=0.003) and 0.75 (95% CI:0.59,0.96; P-trend=0.02). For AMED or AHEI scores, the MVORs for mid-frequency decline were 0.77 (95% CI:0.60,0.99; P-trend=0.02) and 0.72 (95% CI:0.57,0.92;P-trend=0.002); non-significant inverse associations were observed for high-frequency decline. There were no significant associations between adherence scores and low-frequency decline. Our findings indicate that eating a healthy diet may reduce the risk of acquired hearing loss.

9.
Oncogene ; 38(30): 5860-5872, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235785

RESUMO

Cancer progression depends on a tumor-supportive microenvironment. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) represent key cellular components in tumor microenvironment and have been demonstrated to facilitate tumor progression by restricting host immune responses and by sustaining the malignancy of cancer cells. CUL4B, which assembles the CUL4B-RING E3 ligase complex (CRL4B), possesses a potent oncogenic property in cancer cells by epigenetically inactivating many tumor suppressors. However, CUL4B in hematopoietic cells exerts tumor-suppressive effect by restricting the accumulation and function of MDSCs. How CUL4B regulates the function of MDSCs is not fully characterized. In the present study, we demonstrate that the enhanced growth and metastasis of transplanted tumor cells in hematopoietic or myeloid cell-specific Cul4b knockout recipient mice is mediated by increased production of IL-6 in MDSCs. CUL4B complex epigenetically represses IL-6 transcription in myeloid cells. The IL-6 produced by MDSCs renders cancer cells stem cell-like properties by activating IL-6/STAT3 signaling. This crosstalk was effectively blocked either by blocking IL-6 in MDSCs or by inhibition of STAT3 activation in tumor cells. These findings provide a new mechanistic insight into the cancer-promoting property of MDSCs.

10.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(8): 799-811, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069578

RESUMO

An important premise of epidemiology is that individuals with the same disease share similar underlying etiologies and clinical outcomes. In the past few decades, our knowledge of disease pathogenesis has improved, and disease classification systems have evolved to the point where no complex disease processes are considered homogenous. As a result, pathology and epidemiology have been integrated into the single, unified field of molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE). Advancing integrative molecular and population-level health sciences and addressing the unique research challenges specific to the field of MPE necessitates assembling experts in diverse fields, including epidemiology, pathology, biostatistics, computational biology, bioinformatics, genomics, immunology, and nutritional and environmental sciences. Integrating these seemingly divergent fields can lead to a greater understanding of pathogenic processes. The International MPE Meeting Series fosters discussion that addresses the specific research questions and challenges in this emerging field. The purpose of the meeting series is to: discuss novel methods to integrate pathology and epidemiology; discuss studies that provide pathogenic insights into population impact; and educate next-generation scientists. Herein, we share the proceedings of the Fourth International MPE Meeting, held in Boston, MA, USA, on 30 May-1 June, 2018. Major themes of this meeting included 'integrated genetic and molecular pathologic epidemiology', 'immunology-MPE', and 'novel disease phenotyping'. The key priority areas for future research identified by meeting attendees included integration of tumor immunology and cancer disparities into epidemiologic studies, further collaboration between computational and population-level scientists to gain new insight on exposure-disease associations, and future pooling projects of studies with comparable data.


Assuntos
Epidemiologia , Patologia Molecular , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia
11.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(17): 1499-1511, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31026211

RESUMO

PURPOSE: It is unknown whether alcohol intake is associated with the risk of lethal (metastatic or fatal) prostate cancer. We examine (1) whether alcohol intake among men at risk of prostate cancer is associated with diagnosis of lethal prostate cancer and (2) whether intake among men with nonmetastatic prostate cancer is associated with metastasis or death. METHODS: This prospective cohort study uses the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986 to 2012). Our analysis of alcohol intake among men at risk of prostate cancer included 47,568 cancer-free men. Our analysis of alcohol intake among men with prostate cancer was restricted to 5,182 men diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer during follow-up. We examine the association of total alcohol, red and white wine, beer, and liquor with lethal prostate cancer and death. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. RESULTS: Alcohol drinkers had a lower risk of lethal prostate cancer (any v none: HR, 0.84 [95% CI, 0.71 to 0.99]) without a dose-response relationship. Total alcohol intake among patients with prostate cancer was not associated with progression to lethal prostate cancer (any v none: HR, 0.99 [95% CI, 0.57 to 1.72]), whereas moderate red wine intake was associated with a lower risk (any v none: HR, 0.50 [95% CI, 0.29 to 0.86]; P trend = .05). Compared with none, 15 to 30 g/d of total alcohol after prostate cancer diagnosis was associated with a lower risk of death (HR, 0.71 [95% CI, 0.50 to 1.00]), as was red wine (any v none: HR, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.57 to 0.97]; P trend = .007). CONCLUSION: Cancer-free men who consumed alcohol had a slightly lower risk of lethal prostate cancer compared with abstainers. Among men with prostate cancer, red wine was associated with a lower risk of progression to lethal disease. These observed associations merit additional study but provide assurance that moderate alcohol consumption is safe for patients with prostate cancer.

12.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(6): 637-649, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A preventive potential of high calcium intake against colorectal cancer has been indicated for distal colon cancer, which is inversely associated with high-level CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), high-level microsatellite instability (MSI), and BRAF and PIK3CA mutations. In addition, BRAF mutation is strongly inversely correlated with KRAS mutation. We hypothesized that the association between calcium intake and colon cancer risk might vary by these molecular features. METHODS: We prospectively followed 88,506 women from the Nurses' Health Study and 47,733 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study for up to 30 years. Duplication-method Cox proportional cause-specific hazards regression was used to estimate multivariable hazard ratios (HRs), and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the associations between calcium intake and the risk of colon cancer subtypes. By Bonferroni correction, the α-level was adjusted to 0.01. RESULTS: Based on 853 colon cancer cases, the inverse association between dietary calcium intake and colon cancer risk differed by CIMP status (pheterogeneity = 0.01). Per each 300 mg/day increase in intake, multivariable HRs were 0.84 (95% CI 0.76-0.94) for CIMP-negative/low and 1.12 (95% CI 0.93-1.34) for CIMP-high. Similar differential associations were suggested for MSI subtypes (pheterogeneity = 0.02), with the corresponding HR being 0.86 (95% CI 0.77-0.95) for non-MSI-high and 1.10 (95% CI 0.92-1.32) for MSI-high. No differential associations were observed by BRAF, KRAS, or PIK3CA mutations. CONCLUSION: The inverse association between dietary calcium intake and colon cancer risk may be specific to CIMP-negative/low and possibly non-MSI-high subtypes.


Assuntos
Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Idoso , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Fenótipo , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Risco
13.
Stat Methods Med Res ; : 962280219833415, 2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30834815

RESUMO

In many public health and medical research settings, information on key covariates may not be readily available or too expensive to gather for all individuals in the study. In such settings, the two-phase design provides a way forward by first stratifying an initial (large) phase I sample on the basis of covariates readily available (including, possibly, the outcome), and sub-sampling participants at phase II to collect the expensive measure(s). When the outcome of interest is binary, several methods have been proposed for estimation and inference for the parameters of a logistic regression model, including weighted likelihood, pseudo-likelihood and maximum likelihood. Although these methods yield consistent estimation and valid inference, they do so solely on the basis of the phase I stratification and the detailed covariate information obtained at phase II. Moreover, they ignore any additional information that is readily available at phase I but was not used as part of the stratified sampling design. Motivated by the potential for efficiency gains, especially concerning parameters corresponding to the additional phase I covariates, we propose a novel augmented pseudo-likelihood estimator for two-phase studies that makes use of all available information. In contrast to recently-proposed weighted likelihood-based methods that calibrate to the influence function of the model of interest, the methods we propose do not require the development of additional models and, therefore, enjoy a degree of robustness. In addition, we expand the broader framework for pseudo-likelihood based estimation and inference to permit link functions for binary regression other than the logit link. Comprehensive simulations, based on a one-time cross sectional survey of 82,887 patients undergoing anti-retroviral therapy in Malawi between 2005 and 2007, illustrate finite sample properties of the proposed methods and compare their performance competing approaches. The proposed method yields the lowest standard errors when the model is correctly specified. Finally, the methods are applied to a large implementation science project examining the effect of an enhanced community health worker program to improve adherence to WHO guidelines for at least four antenatal visits, in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

14.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 12(5): 283-294, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30760501

RESUMO

Calcium intake has been associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer. Calcium signaling may enhance T-cell proliferation and differentiation, and contribute to T-cell-mediated antitumor immunity. In this prospective cohort study, we investigated the association between calcium intake and colorectal cancer risk according to tumor immunity status to provide additional insights into the role of calcium in colorectal carcinogenesis. The densities of tumor-infiltrating T-cell subsets [CD3+, CD8+ , CD45RO (PTPRC) + , or FOXP3+ cell] were assessed using IHC and computer-assisted image analysis in 736 cancer cases that developed among 136,249 individuals in two cohorts. HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression. Total calcium intake was associated with a multivariable HR of 0.55 (comparing ≥1,200 vs. <600 mg/day; 95% CI, 0.36-0.84; P trend = 0.002) for CD8+ T-cell-low but not for CD8+ T-cell-high tumors (HR = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.67-1.55; P trend = 0.47). Similarly, the corresponding HRs (95% CIs) for calcium for low versus high T-cell-infiltrated tumors were 0.63 (0.42-0.94; P trend = 0.01) and 0.89 (0.58-1.35; P trend = 0.20) for CD3+ ; 0.58 (0.39-0.87; P trend = 0.006) and 1.04 (0.69-1.58; P trend = 0.54) for CD45RO+ ; and 0.56 (0.36-0.85; P trend = 0.006) and 1.10 (0.72-1.67; P trend = 0.47) for FOXP3+ , although the differences by subtypes defined by T-cell density were not statistically significant. These potential differential associations generally appeared consistent regardless of sex, source of calcium intake, tumor location, and tumor microsatellite instability status. Our findings suggest a possible role of calcium in cancer immunoprevention via modulation of T-cell function.

15.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(6): 1980-1988, 2019 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30545821

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although evidence suggests an inverse association between calcium intake and colorectal cancer incidence, the influence of calcium on survival after colorectal cancer diagnosis remains unclear.Experimental Design: We prospectively assessed the association of postdiagnostic calcium intake with colorectal cancer-specific and overall mortality among 1,660 nonmetastatic colorectal cancer patients within the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Patients completed a validated food frequency questionnaire between 6 months and 4 years after diagnosis and were followed up for death. Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Comparing the highest with the lowest quartile intake of postdiagnostic total calcium, the multivariable HRs were 0.56 (95% CI, 0.32-0.96; P trend = 0.04) for colorectal cancer-specific mortality and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.59-1.09; P trend = 0.11) for all-cause mortality. Postdiagnostic supplemental calcium intake was also inversely associated with colorectal cancer-specific mortality (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.42-1.06; P trend = 0.047) and all-cause mortality (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.54-0.94; P trend = 0.008), although these inverse associations were primarily observed in women. In addition, calcium from diet or dairy sources was associated with lower risk in men. CONCLUSIONS: Higher calcium intake after the diagnosis may be associated with a lower risk of death among patients with colorectal cancer. If confirmed, these findings may provide support for the nutritional recommendations of maintaining sufficient calcium intake among colorectal cancer survivors.

16.
Stat Med ; 38(8): 1303-1320, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30569596

RESUMO

Pooling data from multiple studies improves estimation of exposure-disease associations through increased sample size. However, biomarker exposure measurements can vary substantially across laboratories and often require calibration to a reference assay prior to pooling. We develop two statistical methods for aggregating biomarker data from multiple studies: the full calibration method and the internalized method. The full calibration method calibrates all biomarker measurements regardless of the availability of reference laboratory measurements while the internalized method calibrates only non-reference laboratory measurements. We compare the performance of these two aggregation methods to two-stage methods. Furthermore, we compare the aggregated and two-stage methods when estimating the calibration curve from controls only or from a random sample of individuals from the study cohort. Our findings include the following: (1) Under random sampling for calibration, exposure effect estimates from the internalized method have a smaller mean squared error than those from the full calibration method. (2) Under the controls-only calibration design, the full calibration method yields effect estimates with the least bias. (3) The two-stage approaches produce average effect estimates that are similar to the full calibration method under a controls only calibration design and the internalized method under a random sample calibration design. We illustrate the methods in an application evaluating the relationship between circulating vitamin D levels and stroke risk in a pooling project of cohort studies.

17.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 111(1): 42-51, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30312431

RESUMO

Background: Evidence indicates not only carcinogenic effect of cigarette smoking but also its immunosuppressive effect. We hypothesized that the association of smoking with colorectal cancer risk might be stronger for tumors with lower anti-tumor adaptive immune response. Methods: During follow-up of 134 981 participants (3 490 851 person-years) in the Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study, we documented 729 rectal and colon cancer cases with available data on T-cell densities in tumor microenvironment. Using the duplication-method Cox regression model, we examined a differential association of smoking status with risk of colorectal carcinoma subclassified by densities of CD3+ cells, CD8+ cells, CD45RO (PTPRC)+ cells, or FOXP3+ cells. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: The association of smoking status with colorectal cancer risk differed by CD3+ cell density (Pheterogeneity = .007). Compared with never smokers, multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for CD3+ cell-low colorectal cancer were 1.38 (95% confidence interval = 1.09 to 1.75) in former smokers and 1.59 (95% confidence interval = 1.14 to 2.23) in current smokers (Ptrend = .002, across smoking status categories). In contrast, smoking status was not associated with CD3+ cell-high cancer risk (Ptrend = .52). This differential association appeared consistent in strata of microsatellite instability, CpG island methylator phenotype, or BRAF mutation status. There was no statistically significant differential association according to densities of CD8+ cells, CD45RO+ cells, or FOXP3+ cells (Pheterogeneity > .04, with adjusted α of 0.01). Conclusions: Colorectal cancer risk increased by smoking was stronger for tumors with lower T-lymphocyte response, suggesting an interplay of smoking and immunity in colorectal carcinogenesis.

18.
Diabetologia ; 62(2): 281-285, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30402776

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Type 2 diabetes mellitus has been implicated as a risk factor for hearing loss, with possible mechanisms including microvascular disease, acoustic neuropathy or oxidative stress. A few small studies have examined the longitudinal association between type 2 diabetes and hearing loss, but larger studies are needed. Our objective was to examine whether type 2 diabetes (including diabetes duration) is associated with incident hearing loss in two prospective cohorts: Nurses' Health Studies (NHS) I and II. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal study of 139,909 women to examine the relationship between type 2 diabetes and the risk of self-reported incident hearing loss. A physician-diagnosis of diabetes was ascertained from biennial questionnaires. The primary outcome was hearing loss reported as moderate or worse in severity (categorised as a 'moderate or severe' hearing problem, or 'moderate hearing trouble or deaf') on questionnaires administered in 2012 in NHS I and 2009 or 2013 in NHS II. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to adjust for potential confounders. RESULTS: During >2.4 million person-years of follow-up, 664 cases of moderate or worse hearing loss were reported among those with type 2 diabetes and 10,022 cases among those without type 2 diabetes. Compared with women who did not have type 2 diabetes, those with type 2 diabetes were at higher risk for incident moderate or worse hearing loss (pooled multivariable-adjusted HR 1.16 [95% CI 1.07, 1.27]). Participants who had type 2 diabetes for ≥8 years had a higher risk of moderate or worse hearing loss compared with those without type 2 diabetes (pooled multivariable-adjusted HR 1.24 [95% CI 1.10, 1.40]). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: In this large longitudinal study, type 2 diabetes was associated with a modestly higher risk of moderate or worse hearing loss. Furthermore, longer duration diabetes was associated with a higher risk of moderate or worse hearing loss.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Perda Auditiva/epidemiologia , Adulto , Comorbidade , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Perda Auditiva/diagnóstico , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
19.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 111(2): 158-169, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29912394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Experimental and epidemiological studies suggest a protective role for vitamin D in colorectal carcinogenesis, but evidence is inconclusive. Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations that minimize risk are unknown. Current Institute of Medicine (IOM) vitamin D guidance is based solely on bone health. METHODS: We pooled participant-level data from 17 cohorts, comprising 5706 colorectal cancer case participants and 7107 control participants with a wide range of circulating 25(OH)D concentrations. For 30.1% of participants, 25(OH)D was newly measured. Previously measured 25(OH)D was calibrated to the same assay to permit estimating risk by absolute concentrations. Study-specific relative risks (RRs) for prediagnostic season-standardized 25(OH)D concentrations were calculated using conditional logistic regression and pooled using random effects models. RESULTS: Compared with the lower range of sufficiency for bone health (50-<62.5 nmol/L), deficient 25(OH)D (<30 nmol/L) was associated with 31% higher colorectal cancer risk (RR = 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05 to 1.62); 25(OH)D above sufficiency (75-<87.5 and 87.5-<100 nmol/L) was associated with 19% (RR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.67 to 0.99) and 27% (RR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.59 to 0.91) lower risk, respectively. At 25(OH)D of 100 nmol/L or greater, risk did not continue to decline and was not statistically significantly reduced (RR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.67 to 1.24, 3.5% of control participants). Associations were minimally affected when adjusting for body mass index, physical activity, or other risk factors. For each 25 nmol/L increment in circulating 25(OH)D, colorectal cancer risk was 19% lower in women (RR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.75 to 0.87) and 7% lower in men (RR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.86 to 1.00) (two-sided Pheterogeneity by sex = .008). Associations were inverse in all subgroups, including colorectal subsite, geographic region, and season of blood collection. CONCLUSIONS: Higher circulating 25(OH)D was related to a statistically significant, substantially lower colorectal cancer risk in women and non-statistically significant lower risk in men. Optimal 25(OH)D concentrations for colorectal cancer risk reduction, 75-100 nmol/L, appear higher than current IOM recommendations.

20.
Int J Cardiol ; 280: 142-151, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30581101

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Sustained hypertension is a major cause of heart failure in aging hypertensive patients. Salusin ß, a novel bioactive peptide of 20 amino acids, has been reported to participate in various cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension. We therefore hypothesized that central knockdown of salusin ß might be effective for hypertension-induced heart failure treatment. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eighteen-month-old male aged spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with heart failure and WKY rats were microinjected with either a specific adenoviral vector encoding salusin ß shRNA (Ad-Sal-shRNA) or a scramble shRNA (Ad-Scr-shRNA) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) for 4 weeks. Radiotelemetry and echocardiography were used for measuring blood pressure and cardiac function, respectively. Blood samples and heart were harvested for evaluating plasma norepinephrine, tyrosine hydroxylase, and cardiac morphology, respectively. The mesenteric arteries were separated for measurement of vascular responses. The PVN was analyzed for salusin ß, proinflammatory cytokines (PICs), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), NF-κB, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Compared with normotensive rats, aging SHR with heart failure had dramatically increased salusin ß expression. Silencing salusin ß with Ad-Sal-shRNA attenuated arterial pressure and improved autonomic function, cardiac and vascular dysfunction in aging SHR with heart failure, but not in aging WKY rats. Knockdown of salusin ß significantly reduced paraventricular nucleus PICs levels, MAPK and NF-κB activity, and ROS levels in aging SHR with heart failure. CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate that in aging SHR, the heart failure that was developed during the end stage of hypertension could be ameliorated by silencing salusin ß.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/deficiência , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/genética , Envelhecimento/patologia , Animais , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes/métodos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/genética , Insuficiência Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Masculino , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY
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