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1.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 190: 845-852, 2021 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520781

RESUMO

The xyloglucanase gene (RmXEG12A) from Rhizomucor miehei CAU432 was successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris. The highest xyloglucanase activity of 25,700 U mL-1 was secreted using high cell density fermentation. RmXEG12A was optimally active at pH 7.0 and 65 °C, respectively. The xyloglucanase exhibited the highest specific activity towards xyloglucan (7915.5 U mg-1). RmXEG12A was subjected to hydrolyze tamarind powder to produce xyloglucan oligosaccharides with the degree of polymerization (DP) 7-9. The hydrolysis ratio of xyloglucan in tamarind powder was 89.8%. Moreover, xyloglucan oligosaccharides (2.0%, w/w) improved the water holding capacity (WHC) of yoghurt by 1.1-fold and promoted the growth of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophiles by 2.3 and 1.6-fold, respectively. Therefore, a suitable xyloglucanase for tamarind powder hydrolysis was expressed in P. pastoris at high level and xyloglucan oligosaccharides improved the quality of yoghurt.

2.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494050

RESUMO

A novel and air-stable organo(hydro)diborane featuring a five-membered aryl ring supported bridging B-C-B three-centre-two-electron (3c-2e) bond has been reported. Pyrido[1,2-a]isoindole was found to undergo a stepwise BH3 addition reaction, during which a mono-BH3 adduct was formed from a electrophilic addition at the Cγ in pyrido[1,2-a]isoindole. A molecule of hydrogen was eliminated throughout the second step of addition reaction. DFT calculations indicate that the H2 evolution is concerted to the second BH3 addition rather than forming BC before the second BH3 attack.

3.
PLoS Biol ; 19(9): e3001386, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499638

RESUMO

Plasmodium falciparum, the deadliest causal agent of malaria, caused more than half of the 229 million malaria cases worldwide in 2019. The emergence and spreading of frontline drug-resistant Plasmodium strains are challenging to overcome in the battle against malaria and raise urgent demands for novel antimalarial agents. The P. falciparum formate-nitrite transporter (PfFNT) is a potential drug target due to its housekeeping role in lactate efflux during the intraerythrocytic stage. Targeting PfFNT, MMV007839 was identified as a lead compound that kills parasites at submicromolar concentrations. Here, we present 2 cryogenic-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of PfFNT, one with the protein in its apo form and one with it in complex with MMV007839, both at 2.3 Å resolution. Benefiting from the high-resolution structures, our study provides the molecular basis for both the lactate transport of PfFNT and the inhibition mechanism of MMV007839, which facilitates further antimalarial drug design.

4.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol ; 19(1): 139, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Granulosa cells (GCs) in cumulus oophorus highly express follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), which is the most important mediator of both estradiol synthesis and oocyte maturation. Obese women have elevated free fatty acids (FFAs) levels in their follicular fluids and decreased FSHR expression in GCs, which is related to an altered protein kinase B/glycogen synthase kinase 3ß (Akt/GSK3ß) signaling pathway. Such FFA increases accompany 3-fold rises in pseudokinase 3 (TRIB3) expression and reduce the Akt phosphorylation status in both the human liver and in insulinoma cell lines. Therefore, in a high FFA environment, we determined if TRIB3 mediates regulation of FSHR via the Akt/GSK3ß signaling pathway in human GCs. METHODS: GCs from women undergoing in vitro fertilization were collected and designated as high and low FFAs cohorts based on their follicular fluid FFA content. GCs with low FFA levels and a human granulosa-like tumor (KGN) cell line were exposed to palmitic acid (PA), which is a dominate FFA follicular fluid constituent. The effects were assessed of this substitution on the Akt/GSK3ß signaling pathway activity as well as the expressions of TRIB3 and FSHR at both the gene and protein levels by qPCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence staining analyses. Meanwhile, the individual effects of TRIB3 knockdown in KGN cells and p-AKT inhibitors were compared to determine the mechanisms of FFA-induced FSHR downregulation. RESULTS: The average FSH dose consuming per oocyte (FSH dose/oocyte) was elevated and Top embryo quality ratio was decreased in women with high levels of FFAs in their follicular fluid. In these women, the GC TRIB3 and ATF4 protein expression levels were upregulated which was accompanied by FSHR downregulation. Such upregulation was confirmed based on corresponding increases in their gene expression levels. On the other hand, the levels of p-Akt decreased while p-GSK3ß increased in the GCs. Moreover, TRIB3 knockdown reversed declines in FSHR expression and estradiol (E2) production in KGN cells treated with PA, which also resulted in increased p-Akt levels and declines in the p-GSK3ß level. In contrast, treatment of TRIB3-knockdown cells with an inhibitor of p-Akt (Ser473) resulted in rises in the levels of both p-GSK3ß as well as FSHR expression whereas E2 synthesis fell. CONCLUSIONS: During exposure to a high FFA content, TRIB3 can reduce FSHR expression through stimulation of the Akt/GSK3ß pathway in human GCs. This response may contribute to inducing oocyte maturation.

5.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 595, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Qualitative research can reflect the actual thoughts and experience of research subjects and can be used to explore the experiences of women presenting with twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) to facilitate the provision of targeted psychological support. METHODS: A semi-structured interview method was used to assess the pregnancy and parenting experiences of women with TTTS. Colaizzi method was used for data analysis. RESULTS: Eighteen women participated in the study. We found that women with TTTS during pregnancy experienced persistent worry about their children's health from the disease diagnosis to the subsequent parenting processes, even in case of minor changes in their children's health. The lack of an efficient referral process and health information increased their uncertainty about their children's health. CONCLUSION: In addition to the children's health, other difficulties encountered during pregnancy and parenting may aggravate the pressure. Clinicians in the first-visit hospital and foetal medicine centre should improve the referral process and establish a follow-up system to provide women with health information and psychological support.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538570

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a common cause of cancer-related death, and most patients are with advanced disease when diagnosed. At present, despite a variety of treatments have been developed for PDAC, few effective treatment options are available; on the other hand, PDAC shows significant resistance to chemoradiotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy due to its heterogeneous genetic profile, molecular signaling pathways, and complex tumor immune microenvironment. Nevertheless, over the past decades, there have been many new advances in the key theory and understanding of the intrinsic mechanisms and complexity of molecular biology and molecular immunology in pancreatic cancer, based on which more and more diverse new means and reasonable combination strategies for PDAC treatment have been developed and preliminary breakthroughs have been made. With the continuous exploration, from surgical local treatment to comprehensive medical management, the research-diagnosis-management system of pancreatic cancer is improving. This review focused on the variety of treatments for advanced PDAC, including traditional chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, microenvironment matrix regulation as well as the treatment targeting epigenetics, metabolism and cancer stem cells. We pointed out the current research bottlenecks and future exploration directions.

7.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 5870-5882, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477474

RESUMO

Although osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common malignant tumor among juvenile bone tumors, its treatment plan and clinical outcome have not improved significantly in recent decades. Tetrandrine (TET), a Chinese medicine that is usually used in the therapy of silicosis, hypertension and arthritis, has been confirmed by many studies to possess potent antitumour growth properties, but there are different limitations when describing specific mechanisms. Here, we found that TET can obviously prevent the proliferation, migration and invasion of both 143B and MG63 cells and promote their apoptosis in vitro. Our results for luciferase reporter and Western blotting assays show that TET may exert its antitumour activity by regulating multiplex signaling pathways, including the MAPK/Erk, PTEN/Akt, Juk and Wnt signaling pathways. Furthermore, the regulatory effect of TET on OS cells and related signaling pathways was verified again in vivo. Our findings suggest that the anticancer function of TET on human OS may be mediated by its targeting of multiple signaling pathways and that TET may be used as a single drug or in combination with other drugs during the treatment of OS.

8.
Phytother Res ; 2021 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486187

RESUMO

Licochalcone A (Lico A) is a natural flavonoid belonging to the class of substituted chalcone that has various biological effects. Mast cells (MCs) are innate immune cells that mediate hypersensitivity and pseudo-allergic reactions. MAS-related GPR family member X2 (MRGPRX2) on MCs has been recognized as the main receptor for pseudo-allergic reactions. In this study, we investigated the anti-pseudo-allergy effect of Lico A and its underlying mechanism. Substance P (SP), as an MC activator, was used to establish an in vitro and in vivo model of pseudo-allergy. The in vivo effect of Lico A was investigated using passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) and active systemic allergy, along with degranulation, Ca2+ influx in vitro. SP-induced laboratory of allergic disease 2 (LAD2) cell mRNA expression was explored using RNA-seq, and Lico A inhibited LAD2 cell activation by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blotting, and immunofluorescence staining. Lico A showed an inhibitory effect on SP-induced MC activation and pseudo-allergy both in vitro and in vivo. The nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway is involved in MRGPRX2 induced MC activation, which is inhibited by Lico A. In conclusion, Lico A inhibited the pseudo-allergic reaction mediated by MRGPRX2 by blocking NF-κB nuclear migration.

9.
Phytopathology ; 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34549972

RESUMO

Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is the causal agent of Colletotrichum crown rot of strawberry in the southern United States. Recent multi-gene studies defined C. gloeosporioides as a complex species comprised of 37 species. In our study, we phylogenetically characterized C. gloeosporioides isolates from strawberry and other non-cultivated plants around strawberry fields. One hundred and fifteen strawberry isolates and 38 isolates from non-cultivated hosts were sequenced for five genomic regions: internal transcribed spacer (ITS), actin (ACT), calmodulin (CAL), chitin synthase (CHS-1), and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Phylogenetic analysis using the maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods, based on partition-specific models, revealed that most of the isolates in Florida (86%) were closely related to C. siamense, whereas 14 isolates were closely related to C. theobromicola (syn. C. fragariae), four isolates were C. fructicola, and three were C. clidemiae. However, only the first three species were pathogenic to strawberry. Morphological characteristics evaluated show that mycelial growth of all species is about 5 mm/day but colony morphology varies by species and incubation conditions. In vitro mating of the isolates demonstrated that C. fructicola is homothallic whereas C. siamense and C. theobromicola isolates are heterothallic. The biological importance of these different Colletotrichum species is currently being investigated to determine whether different management strategies are needed in strawberry production fields.

10.
Analyst ; 146(17): 5280-5286, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342310

RESUMO

Herein, we designed a diversified sensing platform for d-penicillamine based on amino-functionalized Zr-based metal-organic frameworks (UiO-66-NH2 MOFs) and 3-aminophenylboronic acid (APBA)@Alizarin Red (ARS). The boronic acid group of 3-aminophenylboronic acid could react with Alizarin Red to form an APBA@ARS complex with a yellow fluorescence emission at 580 nm and ultraviolet absorption at 435 nm. APBA@ARS can greatly quench the fluorescence of UiO-66-NH2 MOFs at 450 nm via fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). When copper ions were present in the reaction system of APBA and Alizarin Red, the copper ions could complex with Alizarin Red to prevent the generation of APBA@ARS, and the absorption of Cu@ARS at 530 nm occurred. Thus, the absorbance of APBA@ARS at 435 nm declined, restoring the fluorescence of UiO-66-NH2 MOFs. Nevertheless, when d-penicillamine and copper ions coexist in the APBA and Alizarin Red reaction system, the copper ions would complex with the sulfhydryl group of d-penicillamine and no longer hinder the generation of APBA@ARS, and the fluorescence of UiO-66-NH2 MOFs is quenched again. Meanwhile, the absorbance of APBA@ARS at 435 nm enhanced and the absorbance at 530 nm decreased. Thus, a fluorescence and colorimetric dual-signal sensing platform was constructed for d-penicillamine detection, which could detect d-penicillamine in the 1-20 µM and 2-50 µM ranges with the limit of detection (LOD) values of 0.46 µM and 1.38 µM, respectively. Furthermore, this sensing platform could also realize the intelligent RGB detection via mobile phones due to the obvious color change of the reaction system.


Assuntos
Ácidos Borônicos , Penicilamina , Antraquinonas
11.
Cell Signal ; 87: 110118, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391873

RESUMO

The impairment of autophagic flux has been widely recognized in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, but its underlying mechanism contributing to impaired autophagic flux is poorly understood. As celluar major degradation systems, autophagy and ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) participate in the multitudinous progression of disease by interactive relationship. Especially UBE2D3, one of the ubiquitin-binding enzyme E2 family, is closely related to the regulation impairment of autophagic flux under I/R in our study. Therefore, this study aims to further explore the regulatory mechanism of UBE2D3 in I/R induced autophagy. We determined interference with UBE2D3 alleviated injury of myocardial cells both in vivo and in vitro. Conversely, when inhibiting proteasome function by injecting MG-132, myocardial infarct size of rats became increasingly enhanced, along with the high expression levels of LDH and CK-MB in serum, compared with myocardial I/R injury without treatment of MG-132. This had been caused by UBE2D3 promoting p62/SQSTM1(p62) ubiquitination(Ub), which lead to worsen the impairment of autophagic flux induced by myocardial I/R injury. In addition, UBE2D3 could also participate in the regulation of autophagy by negatively regulating mTOR. But more surprisingly, this mechanism was independent of the known mTOR-beclin1 pathway. These results suggested that in myocardial I/R injury, UBE2D3 promoted p62 ubiquitination to aggravate the impairment of autophagic flux. Moreover, mTOR was also involved in its regulation of autophagic flux in a way escaped from beclin1.

12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15878, 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354181

RESUMO

Bacterial endophthalmitis is a rare intraocular infection, and prompt administration of intravitreal antibiotics is crucial for preventing severe vision loss. The retrospective study is to investigate the in vitro susceptibility to the antibiotics vancomycin, amikacin, and ceftazidime of bacterial endophthalmitis isolates in specimens at a tertiary referral center from January 1996 to April 2019 in Taiwan. Overall, 450 (49.9%) isolates were Gram positive, 447 (49.6%) were Gram negative, and 4 (0.4%) were Gram variable. In Gram-positive isolates, coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most commonly cultured bacteria (158, 35.1%), followed by Streptococci (100, 22.2%), Enterococci (75, 16.7%), and Staphylococcus aureus (70, 15.6%). In Gram-negative isolates, they were Klebsiella pneumoniae (166, 37.1%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (131, 29.3%). All Gram-positive organisms were susceptible to vancomycin, with the exception of one Enterococcus faecium isolate (1/450, 0.2%). Of the Gram-negative isolates, 96.9% and 93.7% were susceptible to ceftazidime and amikacin, respectively. Nine isolates (9/447, 2.0%) were multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, comprising K. pneumoniae (4/164, 2.4%), Acinetobacter baumannii (2/3, 67%), and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (3/18, 17%). In conclusion, in vitro susceptibility testing revealed that vancomycin remains the suitable antibiotic treatment for Gram-positive endophthalmitis. Ceftazidime and amikacin provide approximately the same degree of Gram-negative coverage. Multidrug-resistant bacterial endophthalmitis was uncommon.

13.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 29(4): 1351-1354, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362529

RESUMO

Thrombopoietin (TPO) can activate hematopoietic cell proliferation by its receptor c-MPL mediated downstream pathways and induce the generation of megakaryocyte. In recent years, domestic and foreign researches have confirmed that TPO/ c-MPL pathway also plays an important role in the self-renewal and quiescence of leukemia stem cell, and its expression in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) also indicates the chemotherapy resistance and poor prognosis. In this article, the research progress of the roles of TPO/c-MPL pathway in chemotherapy resistance, prognosis of AML patients, and the application of TPO/ c-MPL receptor agonists in AML were summarized briefly.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Receptores de Trombopoetina , Humanos , Proteínas de Neoplasias , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Receptores de Citocinas , Transdução de Sinais , Trombopoetina
14.
Hum Exp Toxicol ; : 9603271211036037, 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372727

RESUMO

Background: Several recent studies have suggested that the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) DSCAM-AS1 (Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule - anti-sense 1) is aberrantly expressed in many malignancies. Purpose: In this study, we aimed to explore the the role of DSCAM-AS1 in gastric carcinoma. Research Design: Expression of DSCAM-AS1 mRNA, miR-204, and TPT1 (Tumor Protein, Translationally-Controlled 1) were detected using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Proliferation and apoptosis of GC cells were determined using the CCK-8 cell counting assay and flow cytometry. The rate of cell migration and invasion was determined using a transwell assay. The relationships between DSCAM-AS1, miR-204, and TPT1 were predicted and confirmed using a dual-luciferase reporter assay. Expression of TPT1 protein was quantified by Western blot. Results: In this study, we found that DSCAM-AS1 was significantly overexpressed in GC tissues and cell lines. Functional experiments indicated that GC cells with DSCAM-AS1 silencing exhibited a dynamic reduction in proliferation and migration. We identified miR-204 as a target of DSCAM-AS1 and found that it targeted TPT1 in GC cells, which further led to decreased expression of miR-204 in GC tissues and cell lines. A rescue assay revealed that knocked-down DSCAM-AS1 hindered GC progression, which was reversed upon miR-204 downregulation or TPT1 overexpression. Conclusion: We conclude that DSCAM-AS1 is expressed as a tumor oncogene in GC progression, modulated via the miR-204/TPT1 axis. These findings indicate the potential of DSCAM-AS1 as a therapeutic target for GC prevention.

15.
Mol Plant Pathol ; 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382319

RESUMO

Carbohydrate-binding module family 1 (CBM1) is a cellulose-binding domain that is almost exclusively found in fungi and oomycetes. CBM1-containing proteins (CBPs) have diverse domain architectures and play pivotal roles in the plant-microbe interaction. However, only a few CBPs have been functionally investigated. In this study, we identified PcCBP3 in an oomycete pathogen, Phytophthora capsici. PcCBP3 contains two tandem CBM1 domains and its orthologs from other Phytophthora species exhibit diversity including gene loss, pseudogenization, variations in sequences, and domain structures. PcCBP3 is upregulated during infection and knockout of PcCBP3 results in significantly decreased virulence. Moreover, PcCBP3 requires signal peptide to induce BAK1-dependent cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana. Further studies indicate that PcCBP3-triggered cell death and plant immunity require its N-terminal region, which is conserved in CBM1-containing proteins and other small, secreted, cysteine-rich protein from oomycetes. These results suggest that PcCBP3 is an apoplastic effector and could be perceived by the plant immune system.

16.
AMB Express ; 11(1): 114, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383171

RESUMO

African classical swine fever virus (ASFV) has spread seriously around the world and has dealt with a heavy blow to the pig breeding industry due to the lack of vaccines. In this study, we produced recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) expressing an ASFV p54 and porcine IL-21 (pIL-21) fusion protein and evaluated the immune effect of NC8-pSIP409-pgsA'-p54-pIL-21 in a mouse model. First, we verified that the ASFV p54 protein and p54-pIL-21 fusion protein were anchored on the surface of L. plantarum NC8 by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and Western blotting. Then, the results were verified by flow cytometry, ELISA and MTT assays. Mouse-specific humoral immunity and mucosal and T cell-mediated immune responses were induced by recombinant L. plantarum. The results of feeding mice recombinant L. plantarum showed that the levels of serum IgG and mucosal secreted IgA (SIgA), the number of CD4 and CD8 T cells, and the expression of IFN-γ in CD4 and CD8 T cells increased significantly, and lymphocyte proliferation occurred under stimulation with the ASFV p54 protein. Our data lay a foundation for the development of oral vaccines against ASFV in the future.

17.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(8): 777, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362881

RESUMO

Poor response of tumors to radiotherapy is a major clinical obstacle. Because of the dynamic characteristics of the epigenome, identification of possible epigenetic modifiers may be beneficial to confer radio-sensitivity. This research was set to examine the modulation of ectodermal-neural cortex 1 (ENC1) in radio-resistance in breast carcinoma (BC). In silico identification and immunohistochemical staining revealed that overexpression of ENC1 promoted BC metastasis to the bone and brain. Moreover, its overexpression promoted the translocation of YAP1/TAZ into the nucleus and enhanced expression of GLI1, CTGF, and FGF1 through the Hippo pathway. ENC1 expression was controlled by a ~10-kb long SE. ENC1-SEdistal deletion reduced ENC1 expression and inhibited the malignant behavior of BC cells and their resistance to radiotherapy. The binding sites on the ENC1-SE region enriched the shared sequence between TCF4 and ENC1 promoter. Knocking-down TCF4 inhibited luciferase activity and H3K27ac-enriched binding of the ENC1-SE region. Additionally, SE-driven ENC1 overexpression mediated by TCF4 may have clinical implications in radio-resistance in BC patients. Our findings indicated that ENC1 overexpression is mediated by SE and the downstream TCF4 to potentiate the Hippo/YAP1/TAZ pathway. Targeting this axis might be a therapeutic strategy for overcoming BC radio-resistance.

18.
Small ; : e2102903, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418304

RESUMO

Surface/interfacial engineering is an essential technique to explore the fiber materials properties and fulfil new functionalities. An extensive scope of current physical and chemical treating methods is reviewed here together with a variety of real-world applications. Moreover, a new surface/interface engineering approach is also introduced: self-assembly via π-π stacking, which has great potential for the surface modification of fiber materials due to its nondestructive working principle. A new fiber family member, metal-oxide framework (MOF) fiber shows promising candidacy for fiber based wearable electronics. The understanding of surface/interfacial engineering techniques on fiber materials is advanced here and it is expected to guide the rational design of future fiber based wearable electronics.

19.
Nat Genet ; 53(9): 1385-1391, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373642

RESUMO

Cotton produces natural fiber for the textile industry. The genetic effects of genomic structural variations underlying agronomic traits remain unclear. Here, we generate two high-quality genomes of Gossypium hirsutum cv. NDM8 and Gossypium barbadense acc. Pima90, and identify large-scale structural variations in the two species and 1,081 G. hirsutum accessions. The density of structural variations is higher in the D-subgenome than in the A-subgenome, indicating that the D-subgenome undergoes stronger selection during species formation and variety development. Many structural variations in genes and/or regulatory regions potentially influencing agronomic traits were discovered. Of 446 significantly associated structural variations, those for fiber quality and Verticillium wilt resistance are located mainly in the D-subgenome and those for yield mainly in the A-subgenome. Our research provides insight into the role of structural variations in genotype-to-phenotype relationships and their potential utility in crop improvement.

20.
J Food Sci ; 86(9): 4209-4222, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392532

RESUMO

Red-fleshedapples are preferredbecause of their high content of phenolics and antioxidants in peel and pulp. Herein, we evaluated the mechanisms of apple peel polyphenolic extracts (APP) and apple flesh polyphenolic extracts (AFP) from the new red-fleshed apple in inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis on human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. The antiproliferative activities were determined by the CCK8 assay. The expression of proteins was determined using Western blot. We found that the content of polyphenols and flavonoids in APP was significantly higher than that in AFP, and 14 main phenolic compounds in APP and AFP were quantified using UPLC-MS/MS techniques. Besides, the significant inhibition effects of APP and AFP were achieved through Akt pathway by inducing apoptosis (significantly upregulating reactive oxygen species [ROS] levels, and downregulating expression of pAkt, pBad, Bcl-2, promoting Cytochrome c release, activating Cle-Caspase 9, and inducing expressions of Cle-Caspase 3 and Cle-PARP), and inducing G0/G1 cell cycle arrest (increased expressions of p-p53 and p21 and decreased expressions of PCNA and Cyclin D1). And the inhibition effect of APP was stronger than that of AFP. These results suggest that AFP and APP may be excellent sources of natural chemicals for treating triple-negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The effects of antiproliferation of phenolic extracts from red-fleshed apple peels and flesh on human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells were evaluated. The data may clarify the functional parts of red-fleshed apple and provide some basis for scientific researchers and consumers to recognize and exploit red-fleshed apple.

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