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1.
Sci China Life Sci ; 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729699

RESUMO

The present study aims to investigate the effect of temporary cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) reduction on optic nerve head (ONH) and macular vessel density (VD) using optical coherence tomography angiography. Forty-four eyes of 44 adults with diagnostic lumbar puncture and CSFP reduction were recruited. Thirty-two eyes of 32 healthy volunteers were controls. ONH and macular VD images were evaluated differences between baseline and after CSFP reduction. The results showed that the mean CSFP decreased from (11.6±2.1) mmHg to (8.2±3.4) mmHg (P<0.001). VD in the macular regions decreased significantly after CSFP reduction in the study group (all P<0.05). The control group showed no significant changes in macular VD (all P>0.05). In the study group, decreased VD in the macular parainferior region was associated with CSFP reduction (R2=0.192, P=0.003), the reduction of macular VD in parafoveal (R2=0.098, P=0.018), parainferior (R2=0.104, P=0.021), parasuperior (R2=0.059, P=0.058), paranasal (R2=0.057, P=0.042), paratemporal (R2=0.079, P=0.026) was associated with mean ocular perfusion pressure decrease following CSFP reduction. ONH vessel density did not differ after CSFP reduction (all P>0.05). In conclusion, macular vessel density decreased in association with CSFP reduction. Retinal vessel density in the macular region is more sensitive than that in peripapillary region after CSFP reduction.

3.
Int J Ophthalmol ; 14(10): 1533-1538, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34667729

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the association of peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS) with intraocular pressure (IOP) and glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON) in primary angle closure (PAC) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG). METHODS: Totally 355 eyes (238 PAC and 117 PACG) of 181 patients were included in this retrospective analysis of baseline data from a randomized clinical trial. All patients had undergone a comprehensive ophthalmic examination. The extent of PAS in clock hours as determined on gonioscopy was documented. The independent effect of the extent of PAS on IOP and the prevalence of GON were determined using multivariable generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. RESULTS: The frequency of GON increased with the extent of PAS and a higher IOP. PAS were more extensive (8 vs 1 clock hour, P<0.001) and IOP higher (28.01 vs 18.00 mm Hg, P<0.001) in PACG compared to PAC. The prevalence of GON among the PAS quartiles were 10.2% (PAS<0.5 clock hours), 16.9% (PAS≥0.5 and PAS<3 clock hours), 29.6% (PAS≥3 and PAS<7 clock hours), and 74.4% (PAS≥7 clock hours), respectively. After adjusting for IOP, age, gender, spherical equivalent, average Shaffer score and number of medications, the odds ratio (OR) for GON was 4.4 (95%CI: 1.5-13.0; P=0.007) with PAS≥3 clock hours and 13.8 (95%CI: 4.3-43.6; P<0.001) with PAS≥7 clock hours as compared to eyes with PAS<0.5 clock hours. The frequency of GON increased linearly with the extent of PAS. Extent of PAS was also associated with higher IOP. Eyes with both PAS≥6 clock hours and IOP≥21 mm Hg had the highest risk of GON compared to eyes with both PAS<6 clock hours and IOP<21 mm Hg (OR=18.0, 95%CI: 7.5-43.4; P<0.001). CONCLUSION: The extent of PAS in PAC and PACG is an important predictor of higher IOP and is linearly associated with GON independent of IOP, suggesting other factors related to PAS formation may be involved in the development of GON in PACG.

4.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 15: 711713, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34594194

RESUMO

Purpose: To assess neural changes in perceptual effects induced by myopic defocus and hyperopic defocus stimuli in ametropic and emmetropic subjects using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods: This study included 41 subjects with a mean age of 26.0 ± 2.9 years. The mean spherical equivalence refraction was -0.54 ± 0.51D in the emmetropic group and -3.57 ± 2.27D in the ametropic group. The subjects were instructed to view through full refractive correction, with values of +2.00D to induce myopic defocus state and -2.00D to induce hyperopic defocus state. This was carried over in three random sessions. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion was measured using fMRI to obtain quantified regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Behavioral tests including distant visual acuity (VA) and contrast sensitivity (CS), were measured every 5 min for 30 min. Results: Myopic defocus induced significantly greater rCBF increase in four cerebral regions compared with full correction: right precentral gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, and left middle temporal gyrus (P < 0.001). The differences were less significant in low myopes than emmetropes. In the hyperopic defocus session, the increased responses of rCBF were only observed in the right and left precentral gyrus. Myopic defocused VA and CS improved significantly within 5 min and reached a plateau shortly after. Conclusion: This study revealed that myopic defocus stimuli can significantly increase blood perfusion in visual attention-related cerebral regions, which suggests a potential direction for future investigation on the relationship between retinal defocus and its neural consequences.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648460

RESUMO

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of permanent blindness among the working-age people. Automatic DR grading can help ophthalmologists make timely treatment for patients. However, the existing grading methods are usually trained with high resolution (HR) fundus images, such that the grading performance decreases a lot given low resolution (LR) images, which are common in clinic. In this paper, we mainly focus on DR grading with LR fundus images. According to our analysis on the DR task, we find that: 1) image super-resolution (ISR) can boost the performance of both DR grading and lesion segmentation; 2) the lesion segmentation regions of fundus images are highly consistent with pathological regions for DR grading. Based on our findings, we propose a convolutional neural network (CNN)-based method for joint learning of multi-level tasks for DR grading, called DeepMT-DR, which can simultaneously handle the low-level task of ISR, the mid-level task of lesion segmentation and the high-level task of disease severity classification on LR fundus images. Moreover, a novel task-aware loss is developed to encourage ISR to focus on the pathological regions for its subsequent tasks: lesion segmentation and DR grading. Extensive experimental results show that our DeepMT-DR method significantly outperforms other state-of-the-art methods for DR grading over three datasets. In addition, our method achieves comparable performance in two auxiliary tasks of ISR and lesion segmentation.

6.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34695398

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To identify risk factors for surgical failure after gonioscopy-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy (GATT) in juvenile open angle glaucoma (JOAG). DESIGN: Prospective, interventional case series. METHODS: Seventy eyes of 70 patients with JOAG underwent GATT as the initial surgery. Surgical success was defined as a post-operative intraocular pressure (IOP) of ≤21 mmHg with at least a 20% reduction from pre-operative IOP with or without the use of anti-glaucoma medication (qualified and complete success, respectively) at each post-operative visit. IOP spike was defined as IOP >30 mmHg and an increase of at least 10 mmHg from IOP prior to the spike, and then reduced to ≤21 mmHg. RESULTS: The median age at the time of surgery was 19.3 (range: 4.9-37.5) years with a visual field mean deviation (MD) -17.4±10.6 dB. Mean IOP decreased from 31.3±9.5 mmHg pre-operatively to 15.8±2.7 at 12 months post-operatively. The complete and qualified success rates were 74.3% and 91.4%, respectively. Fifty-two (74%) eyes had an IOP spike with a median spike duration of 3.5 days (range 1-21). Longer duration of IOP spike (P=0.009) and older age at the time of surgery (P=0.025) were both associated with worse surgical outcomes. Advanced disease was associated with prolonged IOP spike (P=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: GATT provided excellent outcomes in patients with severe JOAG. Older age and longer duration of post-operative IOP spike are risk factors for failure. Severe cases are more likely to have longer durations of IOP spike. Frequent IOP monitoring during the early post-operative period is needed to detect IOP spikes in these patients.

7.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 678829, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34513865

RESUMO

Objective: To determine whether systemic vascular dysregulation (SVD) evaluated by nailfold capillaroscope and Flammer Syndrome Questionnaire (FSQ) affects retinal peripapillary microcirculation in non-glaucomatous healthy eyes at steady status. Methods: 120 healthy eyes from 63 non-glaucomatous subjects underwent Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) after a rest of 30 minutes. Average retinal peripapillary capillary (RPC) vessel density (VD) and sectoral VD were automatically calculated, and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) was measured. Vasospastic diathesis was assessed using Flammer Syndrome Questionnaire (FSQ). Cold provocation test (CPT) was performed using nail-fold capillaroscope after OCTA. Positive CPT and a score of FSQ higher than 20% were necessary to determine a subject with SVD. Systemic and ocular parameters were compared between subjects with and without SVD. Results: In this study, heart rate (p = 0.042), ocular perfusion pressure (p = 0.014) and average RPC vessel density (p = 0.046) was significantly different between subjects with and without SVD determined by the combination of CPT and FSQ. Generalized estimation equation (GEE) showed lower VD was significantly associated with longer axial length (ß = -0.352, p = 0.001), thinner peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) (ß = 0.296, p < 0.001), SVD determined by CPT and FSQ (ß = 0.617, p = 0.003) and high blood pressure (ß = -0.879, p < 0.001). In the superotemporal sector, multivariate model showed only SVD was associated with RPC vessel density (ß = -0.811, p < 0.001). Conclusion: In subjects with SVD and non-glaucomatous healthy eyes, lower RPC vessel density in the superotemporal sector was observed. SVD determined by CPT and FSQ was significantly associated with attenuated retinal peripapillary microcirculation. Studies on ocular diseases relevant to vasospasms should consider the effects of SVD on the retinal peripapillary capillaries.

8.
Transl Pediatr ; 10(8): 2052-2062, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34584875

RESUMO

Background: This study used spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) imaging to describe the distribution of macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness and its association with ocular and systemic parameters in 7-year-old children in China. Methods: The study involved a school-based, cross-sectional analysis of the Anyang Childhood Eye Study (ACES) and included 2,505 first-grade students from urban areas in Anyang, Henan Province, Central China. All participants underwent systemic and ocular examinations. Both GCC and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness were measured using the iVue-100 OCT (Optovue, Fremont, CA, USA). Intraocular pressure (IOP) was recorded with noncontact tonometer (Huvitz, HNT-7000). Axial length (AL) was measured using optical biometry (Lenstar LS 900, Haag-Streit Diagnostics, Koniz, Switzerland). Results: The mean GCC thickness was 95.31±7.67 µm. GCC thickness had negative associations with AL (r=-0.124, P<0.001), cup-to-disc (C-D) area ratio (r=-0.068, P=0.0033), horizontal C-D (H C-D) ratio (r=-0.048, P=0.0384), and vertical C-D (V C-D) ratio (r=-0.074, P=0.0013). Positive correlations were found with spherical equivalent (SE) (r=0.080, P=0.0001), RNFL thickness (r=0.363, P<0.001), height (r=0.059, P=0.0036), fovea parameters, disc area (r=0.078, P=0.0007), rim area (r=0.115, P<0.001), rim volume (r=0.119, P<0.001), and optic nerve head volume (r=0.097, P<0.001). GCC thickness had no significant association with IOP, age, sex, or weight, waist, or head circumference. Conclusions: This study provides normative GCC data for 7-year-old healthy children in China. The findings support an association between GCC and AL, SE, RNFL, height, and C-D ratio in children.

9.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 679192, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490288

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate the relationship between myopic tractional maculopathy (MTM) and myopic atrophy maculopathy (MAM). Method: Two hundred and six eyes with definitive myopic retinoschisis were assessed in the retrospective observational case series study and the atrophic and tractional features were further evaluated. Atrophic changes were analyzed according to the atrophic component in the ATN classification and the occurrence of gamma zones and delta zones. Tractional changes were evaluated based on different retinoschisis layers, the location and range of outer retinoschisis, retinal detachment, inner lamellar macular hole (ILMH), outer lamellar MH (OLMH), full-thickness MH (FTMH), and paravascular abnormalities. Results: Of all the eyes, 29.6, 42.7, 19.4, and 8.3% presented MAM grades with A1, A2, A3, and A4, respectively. The three layers of retinoschisis and the entire macular retinoschisis had the highest incidences in A2 (38.6%; 54.5%). The numbers of retinoschisis layers and the grades of outer retinoschisis had a weak negative correlation with MAM (r = -0.138, P = 0.048; r = -0.139, P = 0.047). All the eyes had gamma zones, and 82.52% of eyes also had delta zones. The incidence of retinal detachment and OLMH reached the peak in A2 and then decreased gradually. With MAM aggravation, the prevalence of ILMH decreased. Eyes with A1 and A2 were more likely to have OLMH, and those with A3 and A4 were more likely to have FTMH (P = 0.028; OR, 3.423; 95% CI, 1.144-10.236; P = 0.004; OR, 7.752; 95% CI, 1.951-30.803). With the MAM grades growing, the types of paravascular abnormalities increased (r = 0.165, P = 0.018). Conclusion: Diffuse chorioretinal atrophy was the dominant MAM grade in eyes with MTM. In the study, 72.3% of eyes with MTM presented with diffuse chorioretinal atrophy and a tessellated fundus. Over 80% of eyes with MTM had both gamma zones and delta zones. Diffuse chorioretinal atrophy might be a complicated stage for MTM with the highest rate of three layers of retinoschisis, the entire macular retinoschisis, RD, and OLMH. Atrophic progression might involve the development of MH. When MTM combines with well-defined atrophy, the occurrence of FTMH should be noted.

10.
J Food Sci ; 86(10): 4457-4465, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519046

RESUMO

Oleuropein is the main active substance in foods or functional foods produced from olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves. In the present study, the combinative technology off line of HSCCC-PHPLC based on dual wavelength was used to separate highly purified oleuropein from oleuropein extract. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the conditions of HSCCC. Furthermore, a large amount of higher purified oleuropein was obtained through HSCCC at the wavelength of 254 nm, and oleuropein with the purity greater than 98.5% was obtained by PHPLC at the wavelength of 300 nm. Finally, the purity and structure identification of highly purified oleuropein were determined by various methods and its stability was investigated. As a result, oleuropein was stable in solution, and had good stability under the condition of dark storage at 4°C within a week or under the condition of dark storage at -20°C within one year. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: In this study, an efficient method for purification and refining of oleuropein by combinative technology off line of HSCCC-PHPLC based on dual wavelength was established. Oleuropein with the purity greater than 98.5% was macro-obtained via the technology. The highly purified oleuropein could be used to control the quality of olive products.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos , Glucosídeos Iridoides , Extratos Vegetais , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Glucosídeos Iridoides/isolamento & purificação , Olea/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química
11.
Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila) ; 10(5): 423-429, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516436

RESUMO

The Asia-Pacific region is home to a 4.3-billion population and one of the most rapidly aging regions. Addressing the eye care needs in the region would greatly boost the progress toward achieving universal eye health. Over 20 countries/regions have actively engaged in the "VISION 2020" initiative launched since 1999, and remarkable achievements have been witnessed as demonstrated by an increase in both the number and density of ophthalmologists in almost all countries. Nevertheless, formidable and emerging challenges are to be overcome in the coming century. From 1990 to 2015, the absolute number of blind people increased by 17.9%, largely due to population growth and aging. The Asia-Pacific region, the most populous continent with a rapidly aging population, would inevitably be left to tackle this challenge. Furthermore, a high prevalence of blinding eye diseases imposes great pressure on current eye care services, with South Asia having the highest age-standardized prevalence of moderate to severe visual impairment (17.5%) and mild vision impairment (12.2%) globally, and high-income countries having the highest overall prevalence of myopia, reaching 53.4% with East Asia having the second-highest overall prevalence (51.6%). Moreover, the availability of ophthalmic resources varies greatly in the region, with the density of ophthalmologists ranging from over 114 ophthalmologists per million population in Japan to 0 in Micronesia, and a highly disproportionate urban-rural distribution. This article aims to shed light on challenges faced by the Asia-Pacific ophthalmic community and propose corresponding strategies to tackle those challenges.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência Visual , Idoso , Ásia/epidemiologia , Cegueira/epidemiologia , Extremo Oriente , Humanos , Prevalência
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34357418

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To study the association of myopia progression with the morphological changes of optic disc and ß-peripapillary atrophy (ß-PPA) in 8-11 years old primary school students. METHODS: This study was a prospective, school-based investigation. This study included 610 children (1008 eyes) who were continuously observed and had data available from 2016 to 2017 in the Sanhe Cohort Study of the Risk Factors for Myopia (SCSRFM). The children underwent a comprehensive eye examination including measurement of visual acuity, autorefractometry, and posterior segment of the eye. ß-PPA regions and optic disc ovality index were identified and measured on the fundus photographs. RESULTS: The prevalence of myopia was 72.62% (732/1008) in 2016. In myopic children, the prevalence of the vertical ß-PPA, the horizontal ß-PPA, and the oval optic disc were 75.68% (554/732), 75.96% (556/732) and, 11.61% (85/732) respectively. From 2016 to 2017, with the progression of vertical ß-PPA, horizontal ß-PPA, area of ß-PPA, and optic disc ovality index, the myopic diopter and the axial length (AL) were increased. The progression of horizontal ß-PPA was significantly correlated with the progression of myopic diopter and AL (all p < 0.05). The analysis on the distribution of progression rate of parameters in different groups found that the progression rate of horizontal ß-PPA, area of ß-PPA, and optic disc ovality index increased with the increase of the progression of diopter and AL. The progression of horizontal ß-PPA, area of ß-PPA, optic disc ovality index, and diopter in girls were greater than that in boys, and the progression of optic disc ovality index and diopter had a statistical significance (all p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The 1-year follow-up study of the third-grade primary school students showed that with the progression of myopia and the growth of AL, ß-PPA and optic disc ovality index also changed. There was a positive correlation between the change of ß-PPA and optic disc ovality index and the progression of myopia diopter and AL.

13.
Int J Ophthalmol ; 14(8): 1179-1184, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414081

RESUMO

AIM: To report the progression rate (PR) to primary angle closure (PAC) following laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) in PAC suspects (PACS). METHODS: Prospective, randomized controlled interventional clinical trial conducted at the Handan Eye Hospital, China. Totally 134 bilateral PACS, defined as non-visibility of the posterior trabecular meshwork for ≥180 degrees on gonioscopy were randomly assigned to undergo LPI in one eye. Gonioscopy and Goldmann applanation tonometry were performed prior to, on day 7 and 12mo post LPI. RESULTS: Eighty of 134 patients (59.7%) could be followed up at one year. The mean intraocular pressure (IOP) in treated eyes was 15.9±2.6 mm Hg at baseline, 15.4±3.0 mm Hg on day 7; 16.5±2.9 mm Hg at one month, and 15.5±2.9 mm Hg at 12mo; the IOP in untreated eyes was similar (P=0.834). One or more quadrants of the angle opened in 93.7% of the LPI treated eyes, but 67.0% (53/79) remained closed in two or more quadrants. The PR to PAC in untreated eyes was 3.75% and one developed acute angle-closure glaucoma (AACG); the PR to PAC in treated eyes was 2.5% and none had developed peripheral anterior synechia (PAS) or AACG. CONCLUSION: LPI can open some of the occludable angle in the majority of eyes with PACS, but 67% continue to have non-visibility of the trabecular meshwork for over 180 degrees.

14.
Biomolecules ; 11(7)2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356611

RESUMO

Glaucoma is a group of irreversible blinding eye diseases characterized by the progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons. Currently, there is no effective method to fundamentally resolve the issue of RGC degeneration. Recent advances have revealed that visual function recovery could be achieved with stem cell-based therapy by replacing damaged RGCs with cell transplantation, providing nutritional factors for damaged RGCs, and supplying healthy mitochondria and other cellular components to exert neuroprotective effects and mediate transdifferentiation of autologous retinal stem cells to accomplish endogenous regeneration of RGC. This article reviews the recent research progress in the above-mentioned fields, including the breakthroughs in the fields of in vivo transdifferentiation of retinal endogenous stem cells and reversal of the RGC aging phenotype, and discusses the obstacles in the clinical translation of the stem cell therapy.


Assuntos
Glaucoma , Regeneração , Células Ganglionares da Retina/fisiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Animais , Glaucoma/metabolismo , Glaucoma/patologia , Glaucoma/terapia , Humanos , Células-Tronco/patologia
15.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 62(10): 28, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427623

RESUMO

Purpose: Decreased trabecular meshwork (TM) cellularity has been implicated as a major reason for TM dysfunction and aqueous humor (AH) outflow abnormalities in primary open angle glaucoma. We previously found that transplantation of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived TM cells can restore TM function and stimulate endogenous TM cell division. The goal of the present study is to investigate whether signaling via gap junctions is involved in this process. Methods: Differentiated iPSCs were characterized morphologically, transcriptionally, and immunohistochemically. After purification, iPSC-TM were co-cultured with mouse TM (MTM) cells to mimic the transplantation procedure. Through the pharmacological antagonists and short hairpin RNA (shRNA) technique, the gap junction function in iPSC-based therapy was determined. Results: In the co-culture system, iPSC-TM increase MTM cell division as well as transfer of Ca2+ to MTM. This effect was blocked by treatment with the gap junction inhibitors carbenoxolone (CBX) or flufenamic acid (FFA). The shRNA mediated knock down of connexin 43 (Cx43) expression in iPSC-TM also results in decreased Ca2+ transfer and lower MTM proliferation rates. In vivo, Cx43 downregulation in transplanted iPSC-TM weakened their regenerative role in an Ad5.myocilinY437H mouse model of glaucoma. Mice receiving these cells exhibited lower TM cellularity and higher intraocular pressure (IOP) than those receiving unmodified iPSC-TM. Conclusions: Our findings reveal a crucial role of gap junction, especially Cx43, in iPSC-based TM regeneration, and provides insights to enhance the regenerative effect of iPSCs in glaucoma therapy.


Assuntos
Humor Aquoso/metabolismo , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/patologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Malha Trabecular/patologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Divisão Celular , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/metabolismo , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/terapia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Malha Trabecular/metabolismo
16.
Eye (Lond) ; 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385698

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between serum retinol concentration and normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). METHODS: A total of 345 study subjects were recruited in a prospective cross-sectional study: 101 patients with NTG, 106 patients with high-pressure primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and 138 healthy control subjects. Serum retinol concentration in fasting blood samples was determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). All study subjects were given complete ophthalmic examinations and diagnosed by two glaucoma sub-specialists. RESULTS: Serum retinol concentrations in NTG, POAG, and controls were 338.90 ± 103.23 ng/mL, 405.22 ± 114.12 ng/mL, and 408.84 ± 122.36 ng/mL respectively. NTG patients had lower serum retinol concentrations than POAG (p < 0.001) or healthy controls (p < 0.001). There was no statistical difference between the POAG and healthy controls (p = 0.780). Higher proportion of NTG patients (37.6%) than POAG (17.9%) or controls (21.7%) had serum retinol concentrations lower than 300 ng/mL. Serum retinol was positively correlated with optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) (r = 0.349, p = 0.001) in glaucoma patients and not associated with any other demographic features or ophthalmic biometric parameters in the NTG patients. Multivariate logistic regression showed that serum retinol (OR = 0.898, 95CI%: 0.851-0.947) was associated with incident NTG. CONCLUSIONS: NTG patients had lower serum retinol concentrations. Serum retinol uniquely associated with NTG makes it a new potential option for the diagnosis and treatment of the disease.

17.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To explore the outcomes and mechanisms of intraocular pressure (IOP) control using low-dose transscleral cyclophotocoagulation (LDTSCP) followed by phacoemulsification in patients with prolonged acute primary angle closure (APAC). METHODS: Patients with prolonged APAC refractory to all other treatment modalities were prospectively recruited, and underwent LDTSCP (10 shots, 2 s duration, 120° treatment with the energy starting at 1500 mW and titrated to the level with audible burst but not exceeding 2000 mW) and anterior chamber paracentesis 1 week prior to phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation and viscogoniosynechiolysis. Postoperative IOP, vision, anatomic changes on anterior segment optical coherence tomography and complications were recorded. RESULTS: Twenty eyes with prolonged APAC were recruited. Median follow-up was 12 months (range 9-18), at which point the vision in all eyes had improved and IOP was ≤17 mm Hg on no antiglaucoma medications. Following LDTSCP at postoperative day (POD) 1, IOP decreased in all eyes to a median 15 mm Hg (range: 6-28 mm Hg). Post-LDTSCP supraciliary effusion (SCE) occurred in 90% of eyes on POD1 or POD7 and ciliary body defect (CBD) was detected in 30% of eyes and resolved in all cases by postoperative month 1. Lower post-LDTSCP IOP was associated with more number of bursts (r=-0.558, p=0.011) and higher grade of SCE (r=-0.877, p<0.001), but not with total energy (p=0.240). Eyes with CBD (p=0.018) and a higher number of bursts (r=0.657, p=0.002) had higher grade SCE. CONCLUSIONS: LDTSCP-induced SCE may explain the post-LDTSCP IOP reduction seen in eyes with prolonged APAC. LDTSCP instead of traditional more extensive treatment, was sufficient to provide a relatively safe and effective bridge therapy prior to phacoemulsification. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Chinese Clinical Trials Registry (ChiCTR1900023567).

18.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 259(9): 2813-2820, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287693

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine myopia progression in children during the COVID-19 and the related factors associated with myopia. METHODS: All subjects underwent three-timepoint ocular examinations that were measured in July 2019, January, and August 2020. We compared the changes in uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), mydriatic spherical equivalent (SE), and axial length (AL) between two periods (before and during COVID-19). A questionnaire was performed to investigate risk factors for myopia. RESULTS: Compared with before the COVID-19, the mean (S.D.) myopia progression during the COVID-19 was significantly higher in right eyes (- 0.93 (0.65) vs. - 0.33 (0.47) D; p < 0.001). However, the differences in UCVA changes and the axial elongation between two periods were clinically insignificant. Through logistic regressive analysis, we found the difference of the SE changes was associated with the baseline AL (P = 0.028; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.058, 2.632), online education (P = 0.02; 95% CI, 1.587, 8.665), and time of digital screen (p < 0.005; 95% CI, 1.587, 4.450). CONCLUSIONS: Children were at higher risk of myopia progression during COVID-19, which was associated with the baseline AL, the longtime online learning, and digital screen reading.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Miopia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Miopia/diagnóstico , Miopia/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Refração Ocular , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Mol Vis ; 27: 354-364, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34220183

RESUMO

Purpose: Proper aqueous humor (AH) dynamics is crucial for maintaining the intraocular pressure (IOP) in the eye. This study aims to investigate the function of Piezo2, a newly discovered mechanosensitive ion channel, in regulating AH dynamics. Methods: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis and western blotting were performed to detect Piezo2 expression. The Cre-lox system was applied to create a conditional knockout model of Piezo2. IOP and aqueous humor outflow facility in live animals were recorded with a Tonometer and a syringe-pump system for up to 2 weeks. Results: We first detected Piezo2 with robust expression in the human trabecular meshwork (TM), Schlemm's canal (SC), the ciliary body's epithelium, and ciliary muscle. In addition, we found Piezo2 in human retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and astrocytes in the optic nerve head (ONH). Through the Cre-lox system, Piezo2 can be successfully downregulated in mouse iridocorneal angle tissues. However, Piezo2 downregulation cannot significantly influence the IOP and outflow facility through the conventional pathway. Instead, we observed an effect of downregulated Piezo2 on decreasing the intercept in the flow rate versus pressure plot. According to the Goldmann equation, Piezo2 may function in regulating unconventional outflow, AH production, and episcleral venous pressure. Conclusions: These findings, for the first time, demonstrate that Piezo2 acts as an essential mechanosensor in maintaining the proper aqueous humor dynamics in the eye.

20.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(10): e1460-e1464, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237266

RESUMO

The eye care sector is well positioned to contribute to the advancement of universal health coverage within countries. Given the large unmet need for care associated with cataract and refractive error, coupled with the fact that highly cost-effective interventions exist, we propose that effective cataract surgery coverage (eCSC) and effective refractive error coverage (eREC) serve as ideal indicators to track progress in the uptake and quality of eye care services at the global level, and to monitor progress towards universal health coverage in general. Global targets for 2030 for these two indicators were endorsed by WHO Member States at the 74th World Health Assembly in May, 2021. To develop consensus on the data requirements and methods of calculating eCSC and eREC, WHO convened a series of expert consultations to make recommendations for standardising the definitions and measurement approaches for eCSC and eREC and to identify areas in which future work is required.


Assuntos
Extração de Catarata/estatística & dados numéricos , Extração de Catarata/normas , Saúde Global/normas , Guias como Assunto , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Refrativos/normas , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/normas , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Refrativos/estatística & dados numéricos
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